Mongoose is a MongoDB object modeling tool designed to work in an asynchronous environment.
// Using Node.js `require()`const mongoose = ;// Using ES6 imports;
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$ npm install mongoose
Connecting to MongoDB
First, we need to define a connection. If your app uses only one database, you should use
mongoose.connect. If you need to create additional connections, use
createConnection take a
mongodb:// URI, or the parameters
host, database, port, options.
const mongoose = ;mongoose;
Once connected, the
open event is fired on the
Connection instance. If you're using
mongoose.createConnection return value is a
Note: If the local connection fails then try using 127.0.0.1 instead of localhost. Sometimes issues may arise when the local hostname has been changed.
Important! Mongoose buffers all the commands until it's connected to the database. This means that you don't have to wait until it connects to MongoDB in order to define models, run queries, etc.
Defining a Model
Models are defined through the
const Schema = mongooseSchema;const ObjectId = SchemaObjectId;const BlogPost =author: ObjectIdtitle: Stringbody: Stringdate: Date;
Aside from defining the structure of your documents and the types of data you're storing, a Schema handles the definition of:
- Validators (async and sync)
- Methods definition
- Statics definition
The following example shows some of these features:
const Comment =name: type: String default: 'hahaha'age: type: Number min: 18 index: truebio: type: String match: /[a-z]/date: type: Date default: Datenowbuff: Buffer;// a setterComment;// middlewareComment;
Take a look at the example in
examples/schema.js for an end-to-end example of a typical setup.
Accessing a Model
Once we define a model through
mongoose.model('ModelName', mySchema), we can access it through the same function
const myModel = mongoose;
Or just do it all at once
const MyModel = mongoose;
The first argument is the singular name of the collection your model is for. Mongoose automatically looks for the plural version of your model name. For example, if you use
const MyModel = mongoose;
Then Mongoose will create the model for your tickets collection, not your ticket collection.
Once we have our model, we can then instantiate it, and save it:
const instance = ;instancemykey = 'hello';instance;
Or we can find documents from the same collection
You can also
update, etc. For more details check out the docs.
Important! If you opened a separate connection using
mongoose.createConnection() but attempt to access the model through
mongoose.model('ModelName') it will not work as expected since it is not hooked up to an active db connection. In this case access your model through the connection you created:
const conn = mongoose;const MyModel = conn;const m = ;m; // works
const conn = mongoose;const MyModel = mongoose;const m = ;m; // does not work b/c the default connection object was never connected
In the first example snippet, we defined a key in the Schema that looks like:
Comment is a
Schema we created. This means that creating embedded documents is as simple as:
// retrieve my modelvar BlogPost = mongoose;// create a blog postvar post = ;// create a commentpostcomments;post;
The same goes for removing them:
Embedded documents enjoy all the same features as your models. Defaults, validators, middleware. Whenever an error occurs, it's bubbled to the
save() error callback, so error handling is a snap!
See the docs page.
Intercepting and mutating method arguments
You can intercept method arguments via middleware.
For example, this would allow you to broadcast changes about your Documents every time someone
sets a path in your Document to a new value:
Moreover, you can mutate the incoming
method arguments so that subsequent middleware see different values for those arguments. To do so, just pass the new values to
;// pre declaration is chainable;
type, when used in a schema has special meaning within Mongoose. If your schema requires using
type as a nested property you must use object notation:
broken: type: Booleanasset:name: Stringtype: String // uh oh, it broke. asset will be interpreted as String;works: type: Booleanasset:name: Stringtype: type: String // works. asset is an object with a type property;
Mongoose is built on top of the official MongoDB Node.js driver. Each mongoose model keeps a reference to a native MongoDB driver collection. The collection object can be accessed using
YourModel.collection. However, using the collection object directly bypasses all mongoose features, including hooks, validation, etc. The one
notable exception that
YourModel.collection still buffers
commands. As such,
YourModel.collection.find() will not
return a cursor.
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