typed-inject
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    Typed Inject

    Typesafe dependency injection for TypeScript

    A tiny, 100% typesafe dependency injection framework for TypeScript. You can inject classes, interfaces, or primitives. If your project compiles, you know your dependencies are resolved at runtime and have their declared types.

    If you are new to 'Dependency Injection'/'Inversion of control', please read up on it in this blog article about it

    If you want to know more about how typed-inject works, please read my blog article about it

    🗺️ Installation

    Install typed-inject locally within your project folder, like so:

    npm i typed-inject

    Or with yarn:

    yarn add typed-inject

    Note: this package uses advanced TypeScript features. Only TS 3.0 and above is supported!

    Note: due to a bug since TypeScript 3.8 there is a small chance that the compiler doesn't catch all errors (as well as you might experience some performance issues).

    Note: projects must enable --strictFunctionTypes (or --strict) in their Typescript config or some type errors may not be caught.

    🎁 Usage

    An example:

    import { createInjector } from 'typed-inject';
    
    interface Logger {
      info(message: string): void;
    }
    
    const logger: Logger = {
      info(message: string) {
        console.log(message);
      }
    };
    
    class HttpClient {
      constructor(private log: Logger) {}
      public static inject = ['logger'] as const;
    }
    
    class MyService {
      constructor(private http: HttpClient, private log: Logger) {}
      public static inject = ['httpClient', 'logger'] as const;
    }
    
    const appInjector = createInjector().provideValue('logger', logger).provideClass('httpClient', HttpClient);
    
    const myService = appInjector.injectClass(MyService);
    // Dependencies for MyService validated and injected

    In this example:

    • The logger is injected into a new instance of HttpClient by value.
    • The instance of HttpClient and the logger are injected into a new instance of MyService.

    Dependencies are resolved using the static inject property in their classes. They must match the names given to the dependencies when configuring the injector with provideXXX methods.

    Expect compiler errors when you mess up the order of tokens or forget it completely.

    import { createInjector } from 'typed-inject';
    
    // Same logger as before
    
    class HttpClient {
      constructor(private log: Logger) {}
      // ERROR! Property 'inject' is missing in type 'typeof HttpClient' but required
    }
    
    class MyService {
      constructor(private http: HttpClient, private log: Logger) {}
      public static inject = ['logger', 'httpClient'] as const;
      // ERROR! Types of parameters 'http' and 'args_0' are incompatible
    }
    
    const appInjector = createInjector().provideValue('logger', logger).provideClass('httpClient', HttpClient);
    
    const myService = appInjector.injectClass(MyService);

    The error messages are a bit cryptic at times, but it sure is better than running into them at runtime.

    💭 Motivation

    JavaScript and TypeScript development already has a great dependency injection solution with InversifyJS. However, InversifyJS comes with 2 caveats.

    InversifyJS uses Reflect-metadata

    InversifyJS works with a nice API using decorators. Decorators are in Stage 2 of ecma script proposal at the moment of writing this, so they will most likely land in ESNext. However, it also is opinionated in that it requires you to use reflect-metadata, which is supposed to be an ecma script proposal, but isn't yet (at the moment of writing this). It might take years for reflect-metadata to land in JavaScript, if it ever does.

    InversifyJS is not typesafe

    InversifyJS is also not typesafe. There is no check to see of the injected type is actually injectable or that the corresponding type adheres to the expected type.

    🗝️ Typesafe? How?

    Type safe dependency injection works by combining excellent TypeScript features. Some of those features are:

    Please read my blog article on Medium if you want to know how this works.

    👶 Child injectors

    The Injector interface is responsible for injecting classes or functions. You start off with an empty injector after calling createInjector. It can't provide any dependencies directly (expect for magic tokens).

    To do anything useful with your injector, you'll need to create child injectors. This what you do with the provideXXX methods.

    import { createInjector } from 'typed-inject';
    function barFactory(foo: number) {
      return foo + 1;
    }
    barFactory.inject = ['foo'] as const;
    class Baz {
      constructor(bar: number) {
        console.log(`bar is: ${bar}`);
      }
      static inject = ['bar'] as const;
    }
    
    // Create 3 child injectors here
    const childInjector = createInjector()
      .provideValue('foo', 42) // child injector can provide 'foo'
      .provideFactory('bar', barFactory) // child injector can provide both 'bar' and 'foo'
      .provideClass('baz', Baz); // child injector can provide 'baz', 'bar' and 'foo'
    
    // Now use it here
    function run(baz: Baz) {
      // baz is created!
    }
    run.inject = ['baz'] as const;
    childInjector.injectFunction(run);

    In the example above, a child injector is created. It can provide values for the tokens 'foo', 'bar' and 'baz'. You can create as many child injectors as you want.

    Injectors keep track of their child injectors and values they've injected. This way it can provide functionality like cache the injected value or keep track of stuff to dispose.

    🎄 Decorate your dependencies

    A common use case for dependency injection is the decorator design pattern. It is used to dynamically add functionality to existing dependencies. Typed inject supports decoration of existing dependencies using its provideFactory and provideClass methods.

    import { createInjector } from 'typed-inject';
    
    class Foo {
      public bar() {
        console.log('bar!');
      }
    }
    
    function fooDecorator(foo: Foo) {
      return {
        bar() {
          console.log('before call');
          foo.bar();
          console.log('after call');
        }
      };
    }
    fooDecorator.inject = ['foo'] as const;
    
    const fooProvider = createInjector().provideClass('foo', Foo).provideFactory('foo', fooDecorator);
    const foo = fooProvider.resolve('foo');
    
    foo.bar();
    // => "before call"
    // => "bar!"
    // => "after call"

    In this example above the Foo class is decorated by the fooDecorator.

    Lifecycle control

    You can determine the lifecycle of dependencies with the third Scope parameter of provideFactory and provideClass methods.

    function loggerFactory(target: Function | null) {
      return getLogger((target && target.name) || 'UNKNOWN');
    }
    loggerFactory.inject('target');
    class Foo {
      constructor(public log: Logger) {
        log.info('Foo created');
      }
      static inject = ['log'] as const;
    }
    
    const fooProvider = injector.provideFactory('log', loggerFactory, Scope.Transient).provideClass('foo', Foo, Scope.Singleton);
    const foo = fooProvider.resolve('foo');
    const fooCopy = fooProvider.resolve('foo');
    const log = fooProvider.resolve('log');
    console.log(foo === fooCopy); // => true
    console.log(log === foo.log); // => false

    A scope has 2 possible values.

    • Scope.Singleton (default value)
      Use Scope.Singleton to enable caching. Every time the dependency needs to be provided by the injector, the same instance is returned. Other injectors will still create their own instances, so it's only a Singleton for the specific injector (and child injectors created from it). In other words, the instance will be scoped to the Injector
    • Scope.Transient
      Use Scope.Transient to altogether disable cashing. You'll always get fresh instances.

    🚮 Disposing provided stuff

    Memory in JavaScript is garbage collected, so, we usually don't care about cleaning up after ourselves. However, there might be a need to explicit cleanup. For example removing a temp folder, or killing a child process.

    As typed-inject is responsible for creating (providing) your dependencies, it only makes sense it is also responsible for the disposing of them.

    Any Injector has a dispose method. Calling it will call dispose on any instance that was ever provided from it, as well as any child injectors that were created from it.

    import { createInjector } from 'typed-inject';
    
    class Foo {
      constructor() {
        console.log('Foo created');
      }
      dispose() {
        console.log('Foo disposed');
      }
    }
    const rootInjector = createInjector();
    const fooProvider = rootInjector.provideClass('foo', Foo);
    fooProvider.resolve('foo'); // => "Foo created"
    await rootInjector.dispose(); // => "Foo disposed"
    fooProvider.resolve('foo'); // Error: Injector already disposed

    Note: Always dispose from the top down! In this example, the rootInjector is disposed, which in turn disposes everything that was ever provided from one if it's child injectors.

    To help you implementing the dispose method correctly, typed-inject exports the Disposable interface for convenience:

    import { Disposable } from 'typed-inject';
    class Foo implements Disposable {
      dispose() {}
    }

    Dispose methods are typically async. For example, you might need to clean up some files or get rid of a child process. If you do so, your dependencies should return a promise from the dispose method. In turn, calling dispose on an Injector is always async. You are responsible for the correct handling of the async behavior of the dispose method. This means you should either await the result or attach then/catch handlers.

    import { createInjector, Disposable } from 'typed-inject';
    class Foo implements Disposable {
      dispose(): Promise<void> {
        return Promise.resolve();
      }
    }
    const rootInjector = createInjector();
    const fooProvider = rootInjector
      .provideClass('foo', Foo);
    const foo = fooProvider.resolve('foo');
    async function disposeFoo() {
      await fooProvider.dispose();
    }
    disposeFoo()
      .then(() => console.log('Foo disposed'))
      .catch(err => console.error('Foo disposal resulted in an error', err);

    Using dispose on the rootInjector will automatically dispose it's child injectors as well:

    import { createInjector } from 'typed-inject';
    class Foo {}
    class Bar {}
    const rootInjector = createInjector();
    const fooProvider = rootInjector.provideClass('foo', Foo);
    const barProvider = fooProvider.provideClass('bar', Bar);
    await rootInjector.dispose(); // => fooProvider is also disposed!
    fooProvider.resolve('foo'); // => Error: Injector already disposed

    Disposing of provided values is done in order of child first. So they are disposed in the opposite order of respective providedXXX calls (like a stack):

    import { createInjector } from 'typed-inject';
    
    class Foo {
      dispose() {
        console.log('Foo disposed');
      }
    }
    class Bar {
      dispose() {
        console.log('Bar disposed');
      }
    }
    class Baz {
      static inject = ['foo', 'bar'] as const;
      constructor(public foo: Foo, public bar: Bar) {}
    }
    const rootInjector = createInjector();
    rootInjector
      .provideClass('foo', Foo)
      .provideClass('bar', Bar)
      .injectClass(Baz);
    await fooProvider.dispose();
    // => "Foo disposed"
    // => "Bar disposed",

    Any instance created with injectClass or injectFactory will not be disposed when dispose is called. You were responsible for creating it, so you are also responsible for the disposing of it. In the same vain, anything provided as a value with providedValue will also not be disposed when dispose is called on it's injector.

    Magic tokens

    Any Injector instance can always provide the following tokens:

    Token name Token value Description
    INJECTOR_TOKEN '$injector' Injects the current injector
    TARGET_TOKEN '$target' The class or function in which the current values are injected, or undefined if resolved directly

    An example:

    import { createInjector, Injector, TARGET_TOKEN, INJECTOR_TOKEN } from 'typed-inject';
    
    class Foo {
      constructor(injector: Injector<{}>, target: Function | undefined) {}
      static inject = [INJECTOR_TOKEN, TARGET_TOKEN] as const;
    }
    
    const foo = createInjector().inject(Foo);

    😬 Error handling

    When a runtime error occurs, typed inject will provide you with the exact path where the error occurred.

    class GrandChild {
      public baz = 'baz';
      constructor() {
        throw expectedCause;
      }
    }
    class Child {
      public bar = 'foo';
      constructor(public grandchild: GrandChild) {}
      public static inject = ['grandChild'] as const;
    }
    class Parent {
      constructor(public readonly child: Child) {}
      public static inject = ['child'] as const;
    }
    createInjector()
      .provideClass('grandChild', GrandChild)
      .provideClass('child', Child)
      .injectClass(Parent);
    // => Error: Could not inject [class Parent] -> [token "child"] -> [class Child] -> [token "grandChild"] -> [class GrandChild]. Cause: Expected error

    When you handle the error, you will be able to capture the original cause.

    import { InjectionError } from 'typed-inject';
    try {
      createInjector()
        .provideClass('grandChild', GrandChild)
        .provideClass('child', Child)
        .injectClass(Parent);
    } catch (err) {
      if (err instanceof InjectionError) {
        console.error(err.cause.stack);
      }
    }

    📖 API reference

    Note: some generic parameters are omitted for clarity.

    createInjector

    Create a new Injector<{}>. You generally want to create one per application/request. If you're using typed-inject also in your unit tests, you probably want to create a fresh one for each test, for example in global test setup.

    Injector<TContext>

    The Injector<TContext> is the core interface of typed-inject. It provides the ability to inject your class or function with injectClass and injectFunction respectively. You can create new child injectors from it using the provideXXX methods.

    The TContext generic argument is a lookup type. The keys in this type are the tokens that can be injected, the values are the exact types of those tokens. For example, if TContext extends { foo: string, bar: number }, you can let a token 'foo' be injected of type string, and a token 'bar' of type number.

    Typed inject comes with only one implementation. The rootInjector. It implements Injector<{}> interface, meaning that it does not provide any tokens (except for magic tokens). Import it with import { rootInjector } from 'typed-inject'. From the rootInjector, you can create child injectors. See creating child injectors for more information.

    injector.injectClass(injectable: InjectableClass)

    This method creates a new instance of class injectable and returns it. When there are any problems in the dependency graph, it gives a compiler error.

    class Foo {
      constructor(bar: number) {}
      static inject = ['bar'] as const;
    }
    const foo /*: Foo*/ = injector.injectClass(Foo);

    injector.injectFunction(fn: InjectableFunction)

    This methods injects the function with requested tokens and returns the return value of the function. When there are any problems in the dependency graph, it gives a compiler error.

    function foo(bar: number) {
      return bar + 1;
    }
    foo.inject = ['bar'] as const;
    const baz /*: number*/ = injector.injectFunction(Foo);

    injector.resolve(token: Token): CorrespondingType<TContext, Token>

    The resolve method lets you resolve tokens by hand.

    const foo = injector.resolve('foo');
    // Equivalent to:
    function retrieveFoo(foo: number) {
      return foo;
    }
    retrieveFoo.inject = ['foo'] as const;
    const foo2 = injector.injectFunction(retrieveFoo);

    injector.provideValue(token: Token, value: R): Injector<ChildContext<TContext, Token, R>>

    Create a child injector that can provide value value for token 'token'. The new child injector can resolve all tokens the parent injector can as well as 'token'.

    const fooInjector = injector.provideValue('foo', 42);

    injector.provideFactory(token: Token, factory: InjectableFunction<TContext>, scope = Scope.Singleton): Injector<ChildContext<TContext, Token, R>>

    Create a child injector that can provide a value using factory for token 'token'. The new child injector can resolve all tokens the parent injector can and the new 'token'.

    With scope you can decide whether the value must be cached after the factory is invoked once. Use Scope.Singleton to enable caching (default), or Scope.Transient to disable caching.

    const fooInjector = injector.provideFactory('foo', () => 42);
    function loggerFactory(target: Function | undefined) {
      return new Logger((target && target.name) || '');
    }
    loggerFactory.inject = [TARGET_TOKEN] as const;
    const fooBarInjector = fooInjector.provideFactory('logger', loggerFactory, Scope.Transient);

    injector.provideFactory(token: Token, Class: InjectableClass<TContext>, scope = Scope.Singleton): Injector<ChildContext<TContext, Token, R>>

    Create a child injector that can provide a value using instances of Class for token 'token'. The new child injector can resolve all tokens the parent injector can, as well as the new 'token'.

    Scope is also supported here, for more info, see provideFactory.

    injector.dispose(): Promise<void>

    Use dispose to explicitly dispose the injector. This will result in the following (in order):

    1. Call dispose on each child injector created from this injector.
    2. It will call dispose on any dependency created by the injector (if it exists) using provideClass or provideFactory (not provideValue or injectXXX).
    3. It will also await any promise that might have been returned by disposable dependencies.

    Note: this behavior changed since v2. Before v2, the parent injector was always disposed before the child injector. Note: this behavior changed again in v3, calling dispose on a child injector will no longer dispose it's parent injector and instead will dispose it's child injectors. The order of disposal is still child first.

    After an injector is disposed, you cannot use it anymore. Any attempt to do so will result in an InjectorDisposedError error.

    Disposing of your dependencies is always done asynchronously. You should take care to handle this appropriately. The best way to do that is to await the result of myInjector.dispose().

    Scope

    The Scope enum indicates the scope of a provided injectable (class or factory). Possible values: Scope.Transient (new injection per resolve) or Scope.Singleton (inject once, and reuse values). It generally defaults to Singleton.

    tokens

    The tokens function is a simple helper method that makes sure that an inject array is filled with a readonly tuple type filled with literal strings. It is mostly there for backward compatibility reasons, since we can now use as const, but one might also simply prefer to use tokens instead.

    const inject = tokens('foo', 'bar');
    // Equivalent to:
    const inject = ['foo', 'bar'] as const;

    InjectableClass<TContext, R, Tokens extends InjectionToken<TContext>[]>

    The InjectableClass interface is used to identify the (static) interface of classes that can be injected. It is defined as follows:

    {
      new(...args: CorrespondingTypes<TContext, Tokens>): R;
      readonly inject: Tokens;
    }

    In other words, it makes sure that the inject tokens is corresponding with the constructor types.

    InjectableFunction<TContext, R, Tokens extends InjectionToken<TContext>[]>

    Comparable to InjectableClass, but for (non-constructor) functions.

    Disposable

    You can implement the Disposable interface in your dependencies. It looks like this:

    interface Disposable {
      dispose(): void;
    }

    With this, you can let the Injector call your dispose method.

    Note: This is just a convenience interface. Due to TypeScripts structural typing system typed-inject calls your dispose method without you having to explicitly implement it.

    InjectionError

    The error class of which instances are thrown when an error occurs during injection or dependency resolving.

    An example:

    const explosion = new Error('boom!');
    class Boom {
      constructor() {
        throw explosion;
      }
    }
    class Prison {
      constructor(public readonly child: Boom) {}
      public static inject = ['boom'] as const;
    }
    try {
      rootInjector.provideClass('boom', Boom).injectClass(Prison);
    } catch (error) {
      if (error instanceof InjectionError) {
        error.path[0] === Prison;
        error.path[1] === 'boom';
        error.path[2] === Boom;
        error.cause === explosion;
      }
    }

    InjectionError.path

    This will contain the path that was taken to get to the error.

    InjectionError.cause

    The original cause of the injection error.

    🤝 Commendation

    This entire framework would not be possible without the awesome guys working on TypeScript. Guys like Ryan, Anders and the rest of the team: a heartfelt thanks! 💖

    Inspiration for the API with static inject method comes from years-long AngularJS development. Special thanks to the Angular team.

    Install

    npm i typed-inject

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    3.0.1

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