node-seal
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5.1.3 • Public • Published

node-seal · GitHub license codecov npm version FOSSA Status

node-seal is a homomorphic encryption library for TypeScript or JavaScript.

  • Web Assembly: Fastest web implementation of the C++ Microsoft SEAL library
  • Zero dependencies: Very lean, only contains a low level API which is very close to the C++ calls from Microsoft SEAL.
  • Node.js, Browser: Install once, work in any server/client configuration.

Now supporting Microsoft SEAL 4.1.1

Installation

node-seal can be installed with your favorite package manager:

npm install node-seal
yarn add node-seal

Import the library using import or require syntax:

// Auto-detects browser or nodejs.
// Defaults to "node-seal/throws_wasm_node_umd" for NodeJS
// Defaults to "node-seal/throws_wasm_web_umd" for Browsers
// Defaults to "node-seal/throws_wasm_web_es" for Modules
import SEAL from 'node-seal'
const SEAL = require('node-seal')

You may also specify a deep import to target your environment better. This is useful for environments that aren't detected properly or do not support WebAssembly. In addition, there are two separate bundles for throwing on transparent ciphertexts and another for allowing transparent ciphertexts. If you're unsure what you need, start with the build that throws on transparent ciphertexts. This is also the default import that is used.

The deep import link is structured like the following:

node-seal / <throws|allows>_wasm_<node|web|worker>_<umd|es>

// Always Pick a variant which throws on transparent ciphertexts unless you
// have a specific reason to allow the use of transparent ciphertexts.
import SEAL from 'node-seal/throws_wasm_node_umd'

// Or pick a variant which allows transparent ciphertexts (only use this if you know what you're doing)
import SEAL from 'node-seal/allows_wasm_node_umd'

React-Native

React-native does not support WASM libraries; however, it is possible to run a WASM library, including node-seal by using a WebView to load both the library and a simple interface to communicate with on top of the built-in postMessage API. Instead of publicly hosting the web application to be rendered by the WebView, it is possible to bundle the mini web application into a single HTML file (with JS inlined) and load the HTML file directly to the WebView.

Demo

Go to morfix.io

This sandbox was built for users to experiment and learn how to use Microsoft SEAL featuring node-seal.

  • Encryption Parameters: experiment with many settings to prototype a context.
  • Keys: Create, download, upload Secret/Public Keys - even for Relinearization and Galois Keys.
  • Variables: Create, download, upload PlainTexts or CipherTexts
  • Functions: Create a list of HE functions to execute!
  • Code Generation: After your experimentation is complete, generate working code to use!

Usage

Checkout the basics

Documentation

View the latest docs here

Examples

Check out the Sandbox to run HE functions and even generate working code!

If you'd rather read an example, take a look here.

For more exhaustive examples, view the tests.

Changes

For changes in this library, take a look here.

For changes in Microsoft SEAL, take a look at their list of changes.

Benchmarking

Microsoft SEAL has a native benchmark tool that we compile directly to WASM.

  1. npm run seal:build:bench
  2. npm run benchmark

Performance

Microsoft SEAL now comes with a benchmark binary that can be directly compiled to WASM. All numbers are measured in us and are ran on an arm64 system

Test specs:

  • MacBook Pro (14-inch, 2021)
  • MacOS Ventura 13.1 (22C65)
  • Apple M1 Pro (8 performance and 2 efficiency), 32 GB

Versions:

  • Microsoft SEAL v4.1.0
  • Node-seal v5.1.0
  • NodeJS v18.12.1
  • Chrome Version 108.0.5359.124 (Official Build) (arm64)
  • Firefox Version 108.0.1 (64-bit)
  • Safari Version 16.2 (18614.3.7.1.5)
Native (No HEXL) Node Chrome Firefox Safari
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / KeyGen / Secret/iterations:10 66.7 143 460 100.0 100.0
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / KeyGen / Public/iterations:10 92.7 187 1010 0.000 100
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 106 360 1210 300 600
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 148 412 1310 400 500
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / Decrypt/iterations:10 30.6 148 160 200 300
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / EncodeBatch/iterations:10 6.17 20.5 20.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / DecodeBatch/iterations:10 8.87 24.3 40.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 3.42 13.8 10.0 0.000 200
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 9.21 160 180 100.0 100.0
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 2.22 2.20 10.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / EvaluateSubCt/iterations:10 2.63 12.5 0.000 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / EvaluateSubPt/iterations:10 7.20 169 210 200 100
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 274 975 1740 900 1400
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 35.0 117 180 100.0 200
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BFV / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 209 752 1300 600 900
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 109 213 1020 100.0 100
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 151 282 1150 200 200
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / Decrypt/iterations:10 16.3 64.1 110 0.000 200
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EncodeBatch/iterations:10 6.01 19.3 30.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / DecodeBatch/iterations:10 8.59 23.9 40.0 0.000 100
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 2.51 3.05 0.000 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateNegateInplace/iterations:10 1.80 1.84 0.000 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 3.10 8.35 0.000 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateAddCtInplace/iterations:10 2.56 12.5 10.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 13.6 40.0 50.0 0.000 100
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateAddPtInplace/iterations:10 13.1 38.1 50.0 0.000 100.0
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 10.2 37.6 50.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateMulCtInplace/iterations:10 8.95 36.8 40.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 16.0 46.9 50.0 0.000 100
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateMulPtInplace/iterations:10 15.7 45.8 80.0 0.000 100.0
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 7.55 28.3 50.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateSquareInplace/iterations:10 7.15 27.0 30.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateToNTTInplace/iterations:10 14.0 45.1 50.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / BGV / EvaluateFromNTTInplace/iterations:10 10.7 37.9 50.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 95.8 192 1010 100 100.0
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 144 260 1170 200 200
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / Decrypt/iterations:10 4.74 12.6 30.0 0.000 100.0
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / EncodeDouble/iterations:10 23.2 65.4 70.0 100 400
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / DecodeDouble/iterations:10 19.9 49.0 70.0 0.000 300
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 3.34 8.84 10.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 2.38 4.41 10.00 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 2.31 1.55 10.00 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / EvaluateSubCt/iterations:10 2.76 9.54 10.00 0.000 100.0
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / EvaluateSubPt/iterations:10 2.22 4.52 0.000 100.0 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 9.50 42.7 20.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 5.15 16.2 20.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / CKKS / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 7.60 27.5 30.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / UTIL / NTTForward/iterations:10 14.7 46.2 70.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=27 / UTIL / NTTInverse/iterations:10 11.0 37.1 80.0 100.0 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTForwardLowLevel/iterations:10 8.75 22.2 30.0 0.000 100
n=1024 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTInverseLowLevel/iterations:10 5.68 18.3 40.0 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTForwardLowLevelLazy/iterations:10 5.07 18.0 10.00 0.000 0.000
n=1024 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTInverseLowLevelLazy/iterations:10 5.24 17.9 30.0 100.0 100.0
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / KeyGen / Secret/iterations:10 105 182 710 100 100.0
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / KeyGen / Public/iterations:10 150 302 1750 200 200
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 170 637 2310 600 600
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 258 778 2470 800 800
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / Decrypt/iterations:10 53.7 192 320 200 300
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / EncodeBatch/iterations:10 11.7 43.5 60.0 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / DecodeBatch/iterations:10 17.1 53.2 80.0 100.0 100
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 5.70 16.7 10.0 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 13.9 336 430 400 300
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 3.41 2.35 0.000 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / EvaluateSubCt/iterations:10 4.88 18.1 10.00 0.000 100
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / EvaluateSubPt/iterations:10 13.6 335 440 400 500
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 578 1945 3480 1700 1500
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 72.4 269 370 200 200
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BFV / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 427 1457 2530 1200 1300
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 183 340 1830 300 300
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 280 507 2170 300 400
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / Decrypt/iterations:10 31.7 123 190 300 100
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EncodeBatch/iterations:10 11.9 40.5 60.0 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / DecodeBatch/iterations:10 17.1 50.7 60.0 0.000 100.0
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 3.78 3.06 10.00 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateNegateInplace/iterations:10 2.73 1.69 0.000 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 5.56 16.8 40.0 100 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateAddCtInplace/iterations:10 4.24 17.7 50.0 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 27.8 69.1 140 0.000 100.0
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateAddPtInplace/iterations:10 26.2 73.2 100 100.0 100.0
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 17.1 73.2 90.0 100 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateMulCtInplace/iterations:10 16.2 75.8 100.0 100.0 100
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 30.6 92.8 110 0.000 200
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateMulPtInplace/iterations:10 29.7 88.2 110 100 100
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 13.8 57.3 60.0 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateSquareInplace/iterations:10 12.6 57.3 50.0 100.0 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateToNTTInplace/iterations:10 27.3 96.2 130 100 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / BGV / EvaluateFromNTTInplace/iterations:10 20.8 79.2 130 100.0 100.0
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 152 286 1740 200 200
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 271 465 2080 300 300
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / Decrypt/iterations:10 8.37 24.3 40.0 100.0 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / EncodeDouble/iterations:10 47.7 100 150 100 200
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / DecodeDouble/iterations:10 40.5 71.1 120 100.0 200
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 5.27 16.3 20.0 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 3.64 8.16 0.000 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 3.08 2.31 0.000 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / EvaluateSubCt/iterations:10 4.68 18.8 20.0 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / EvaluateSubPt/iterations:10 3.58 8.16 10.00 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 17.7 77.3 80.0 100.0 100.0
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 9.40 32.5 50.0 100.0 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / CKKS / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 13.5 53.7 60.0 100 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / UTIL / NTTForward/iterations:10 29.6 97.1 150 100.0 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=54 / UTIL / NTTInverse/iterations:10 22.5 83.9 120 0.000 100.0
n=2048 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTForwardLowLevel/iterations:10 15.3 49.5 70.0 100 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTInverseLowLevel/iterations:10 11.8 39.5 70.0 100.0 100.0
n=2048 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTForwardLowLevelLazy/iterations:10 10.0 39.6 60.0 0.000 0.000
n=2048 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTInverseLowLevelLazy/iterations:10 10.8 38.7 70.0 0.000 100.0
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / KeyGen / Secret/iterations:10 268 534 1720 300 400
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / KeyGen / Public/iterations:10 545 1076 6400 700 800
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / KeyGen / Relin/iterations:10 1102 2073 12790 1500 1600
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / KeyGen / Galois/iterations:10 1078 2150 12820 1600 1600
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 477 1619 5900 1500 1400
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 778 2444 6200 2000 2200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / Decrypt/iterations:10 178 630 1070 500 500
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EncodeBatch/iterations:10 24.3 86.4 150 0.000 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / DecodeBatch/iterations:10 33.5 106 160 100 100
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 16.1 66.1 80.0 0.000 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 39.2 702 890 700 600
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 11.2 8.47 0.000 100.0 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EvaluateSubCt/iterations:10 12.1 69.9 70.0 0.000 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EvaluateSubPt/iterations:10 37.0 698 900 800 800
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 1842 6841 11430 5800 5100
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 280 1015 1480 700 600
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 1359 4941 8390 4200 4500
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EvaluateModSwitchInplace/iterations:10 26.9 117 190 0.000 100
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EvaluateRelinInplace/iterations:10 389 1518 2060 1100 2100
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EvaluateRotateRows/iterations:10 397 1385 2060 1300 1400
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BFV / EvaluateRotateCols/iterations:10 399 1396 2090 1200 1100
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 506 1017 5150 800 700
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 1009 2796 6810 1800 2200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / Decrypt/iterations:10 104 400 660 300 200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EncodeBatch/iterations:10 25.0 86.3 140 100 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / DecodeBatch/iterations:10 33.8 106 140 200 100.0
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 10.6 12.0 20.0 0.000 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateNegateInplace/iterations:10 9.21 5.94 0.000 0.000 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 14.9 76.9 100 0.000 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateAddCtInplace/iterations:10 11.1 69.0 110 0.000 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 92.0 263 390 200 200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateAddPtInplace/iterations:10 89.6 260 340 200 300
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 63.6 271 310 300 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateMulCtInplace/iterations:10 62.6 268 330 300 500
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 120 347 470 100.0 300
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateMulPtInplace/iterations:10 115 351 440 300 300
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 53.5 216 270 200 200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateSquareInplace/iterations:10 52.3 216 250 200 200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateModSwitchInplace/iterations:10 141 551 840 500 300
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateRelinInplace/iterations:10 465 1625 2410 1200 1200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateRotateRows/iterations:10 437 1620 2370 1300 1100
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateRotateRowsInplace/iterations:10 446 1601 2470 1200 1000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateRotateCols/iterations:10 463 1613 2410 1300 1100
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateRotateColsInplace/iterations:10 452 1607 2410 1200 1200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateToNTTInplace/iterations:10 111 398 620 200 200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / BGV / EvaluateFromNTTInplace/iterations:10 85.7 336 510 200 200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 425 807 4810 700 600
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 903 2329 6290 1800 1700
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / Decrypt/iterations:10 26.0 94.3 130 0.000 200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EncodeDouble/iterations:10 129 311 470 300 200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / DecodeDouble/iterations:10 200 417 640 400 600
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 14.7 63.7 90.0 0.000 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 8.32 31.7 50.0 0.000 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 9.91 8.48 0.000 0.000 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EvaluateSubCt/iterations:10 12.6 68.6 100 0.000 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EvaluateSubPt/iterations:10 7.72 29.9 40.0 0.000 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 66.3 272 320 300 300
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 33.7 122 140 0.000 100
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 52.1 210 250 200 200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EvaluateRescaleInplace/iterations:10 101 386 590 300 300
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EvaluateRelinInplace/iterations:10 386 1403 2160 1200 1000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / CKKS / EvaluateRotate/iterations:10 386 1373 2060 1000 1000
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / UTIL / NTTForward/iterations:10 117 398 560 300 200
n=4096 / log(q)=109 / UTIL / NTTInverse/iterations:10 90.9 342 470 300 200
n=4096 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTForwardLowLevel/iterations:10 32.5 98.7 130 100.0 0.000
n=4096 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTInverseLowLevel/iterations:10 23.4 85.2 110 200 100
n=4096 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTForwardLowLevelLazy/iterations:10 19.9 83.7 150 100.0 100.0
n=4096 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTInverseLowLevelLazy/iterations:10 24.2 82.9 150 0.000 100
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / KeyGen / Secret/iterations:10 661 1453 4000 1000 1000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / KeyGen / Public/iterations:10 1528 2867 18720 2300 2400
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / KeyGen / Relin/iterations:10 6168 11488 75050 9400 9700
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / KeyGen / Galois/iterations:10 6159 11566 75850 9400 9700
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 1524 4493 18670 4100 4000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 2062 6914 15360 5600 5000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / Decrypt/iterations:10 648 2380 3980 1900 1800
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EncodeBatch/iterations:10 52.2 186 270 200 100.0
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / DecodeBatch/iterations:10 68.8 229 330 200 200
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 60.8 268 400 0.000 0.000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 110 1631 2180 1600 2000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 41.5 33.5 70.0 0.000 0.000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EvaluateSubCt/iterations:10 45.7 277 370 0.000 200
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EvaluateSubPt/iterations:10 103 1650 2180 2000 1000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 6827 26875 50570 23300 19700
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 1186 4344 6310 3300 2900
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 5021 19686 39450 17300 16300
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EvaluateModSwitchInplace/iterations:10 136 480 790 0.000 200
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EvaluateRelinInplace/iterations:10 1920 7149 10890 5700 4600
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EvaluateRotateRows/iterations:10 1995 7061 10620 5800 5000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BFV / EvaluateRotateCols/iterations:10 1973 7064 10630 5900 4900
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 1664 3410 17050 2600 2600
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 2899 8769 18280 6500 5700
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / Decrypt/iterations:10 399 1416 2280 1200 1100
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EncodeBatch/iterations:10 52.8 186 290 200 100.0
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / DecodeBatch/iterations:10 70.4 224 320 100.0 0.000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 45.0 43.3 80.0 100.0 100.0
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateNegateInplace/iterations:10 33.7 22.9 40.0 0.000 0.000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 54.1 299 420 0.000 200
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateAddCtInplace/iterations:10 44.7 279 350 100.0 0.000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 379 1100 1580 1000 1000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateAddPtInplace/iterations:10 368 1088 1550 1000 300
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 265 1085 1280 800 1000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateMulCtInplace/iterations:10 246 1073 1280 1100 800
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 466 1420 1960 1100 1100
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateMulPtInplace/iterations:10 439 1431 1930 1100 1000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 214 869 1060 1000 1000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateSquareInplace/iterations:10 192 859 1050 1000 700
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateModSwitchInplace/iterations:10 613 2321 3380 1400 1300
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateRelinInplace/iterations:10 2188 8097 11830 6000 5500
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateRotateRows/iterations:10 2193 8056 11740 6200 5400
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateRotateRowsInplace/iterations:10 2175 7942 11730 6300 5500
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateRotateCols/iterations:10 2203 7972 11760 6100 5300
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateRotateColsInplace/iterations:10 2201 7941 11710 6700 6000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateToNTTInplace/iterations:10 480 1713 2510 1100 1000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / BGV / EvaluateFromNTTInplace/iterations:10 382 1461 2130 1200 800
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 1322 2488 15610 1900 2000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 2483 7284 16090 5200 4700
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / Decrypt/iterations:10 99.4 377 530 400 300
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EncodeDouble/iterations:10 413 1129 1660 800 800
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / DecodeDouble/iterations:10 847 1789 2850 2000 1600
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 54.1 252 390 0.000 100.0
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 30.1 128 190 0.000 0.000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 37.8 30.5 50.0 0.000 0.000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EvaluateSubCt/iterations:10 47.1 274 360 100.0 100
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EvaluateSubPt/iterations:10 26.8 117 190 200 0.000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 265 1093 1300 1100 1000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 134 488 550 200 1000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 190 843 1040 800 500
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EvaluateRescaleInplace/iterations:10 444 1694 2560 1400 1200
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EvaluateRelinInplace/iterations:10 1936 7119 10670 5300 4800
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / CKKS / EvaluateRotate/iterations:10 1999 7097 10600 5500 4800
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / UTIL / NTTForward/iterations:10 480 1716 2560 1300 1000
n=8192 / log(q)=218 / UTIL / NTTInverse/iterations:10 382 1461 2150 1100 1000
n=8192 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTForwardLowLevel/iterations:10 62.8 214 330 200 200
n=8192 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTInverseLowLevel/iterations:10 48.7 181 260 100 200
n=8192 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTForwardLowLevelLazy/iterations:10 44.0 181 260 200 100
n=8192 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTInverseLowLevelLazy/iterations:10 47.3 178 270 0.000 0.000
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / KeyGen / Secret/iterations:10 1930 5004 10940 3600 3100
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / KeyGen / Public/iterations:10 5250 9852 62980 8200 8300
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / KeyGen / Relin/iterations:10 41363 79759 505470 65500 66500
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / KeyGen / Galois/iterations:10 41180 79114 513060 65200 66100
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 5589 15454 66270 13400 12600
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 6435 22588 44050 17300 15200
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / Decrypt/iterations:10 2584 9524 15250 7600 6600
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EncodeBatch/iterations:10 114 404 590 200 200
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / DecodeBatch/iterations:10 147 477 710 400 400
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 278 1032 1610 300 300
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 403 4055 5290 3600 3200
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 167 125 220 200 100
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EvaluateSubCt/iterations:10 199 1101 1420 200 0.000
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EvaluateSubPt/iterations:10 373 4123 5300 3900 3200
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 29817 117736 227420 102400 86600
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 4983 18316 26500 13700 11700
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 22176 86792 170920 77400 69900
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EvaluateModSwitchInplace/iterations:10 596 2209 3300 1400 1000
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EvaluateRelinInplace/iterations:10 11944 45319 65990 34700 29100
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EvaluateRotateRows/iterations:10 12108 44093 65730 34800 29600
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BFV / EvaluateRotateCols/iterations:10 11979 43902 66720 34700 29400
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 6134 13390 63660 10500 10000
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 9965 32783 58940 23400 20300
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / Decrypt/iterations:10 1715 5731 9120 4800 4100
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EncodeBatch/iterations:10 107 399 620 300 200
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / DecodeBatch/iterations:10 143 474 740 200 300
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 185 169 360 300 100.0
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateNegateInplace/iterations:10 143 90.1 200 100 100.0
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 234 1196 1610 300 400
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateAddCtInplace/iterations:10 291 1108 1430 200 600
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 1559 4515 6760 2700 2400
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateAddPtInplace/iterations:10 1534 4480 6930 3000 2700
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 1017 4357 5260 4100 3900
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateMulCtInplace/iterations:10 978 4299 5190 4100 3800
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 1919 5894 8230 4800 4400
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateMulPtInplace/iterations:10 1920 5859 8210 4900 4400
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 826 3473 4240 3000 2900
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateSquareInplace/iterations:10 810 3431 4150 3100 2900
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateModSwitchInplace/iterations:10 2745 9759 14580 7200 6200
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateRelinInplace/iterations:10 12612 47355 71200 36700 31200
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateRotateRows/iterations:10 12936 47165 70090 36700 31300
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateRotateRowsInplace/iterations:10 12768 46966 70940 36600 31300
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateRotateCols/iterations:10 12853 47131 70640 36300 31300
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateRotateColsInplace/iterations:10 12813 46947 70720 36600 31100
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateToNTTInplace/iterations:10 2056 7261 10700 5100 4100
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / BGV / EvaluateFromNTTInplace/iterations:10 1639 6253 9410 4800 4000
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 4731 9146 57720 7500 7400
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 8211 25798 49370 18300 16000
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / Decrypt/iterations:10 392 1500 1990 1300 1100
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EncodeDouble/iterations:10 1444 4363 6510 3200 2800
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / DecodeDouble/iterations:10 4305 8908 14740 9100 8600
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 224 1002 1650 200 200
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 126 506 660 0.000 200
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 165 120 210 300 0.000
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EvaluateSubCt/iterations:10 193 1104 1390 100.0 200
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EvaluateSubPt/iterations:10 114 468 630 0.000 100.0
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 1035 4355 5190 4000 3900
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 512 1948 2240 2100 1800
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 768 3374 4060 3200 3000
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EvaluateRescaleInplace/iterations:10 2027 7030 10900 5400 4400
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EvaluateRelinInplace/iterations:10 12391 43962 66280 34300 29100
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / CKKS / EvaluateRotate/iterations:10 12528 43821 65930 34500 29200
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / UTIL / NTTForward/iterations:10 2101 7277 10900 4800 4300
n=16384 / log(q)=438 / UTIL / NTTInverse/iterations:10 1700 6285 9360 4700 4000
n=16384 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTForwardLowLevel/iterations:10 134 454 670 300 300
n=16384 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTInverseLowLevel/iterations:10 110 389 550 200 300
n=16384 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTForwardLowLevelLazy/iterations:10 94.3 387 580 100 200
n=16384 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTInverseLowLevelLazy/iterations:10 102 387 590 300 200
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / KeyGen / Secret/iterations:10 7794 18226 33730 13600 11400
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / KeyGen / Public/iterations:10 19455 35959 221200 30000 30400
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / KeyGen / Relin/iterations:10 290137 535191 3305720 454400 459800
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / KeyGen / Galois/iterations:10 284505 532167 3285190 449200 454100
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 22457 53915 233440 45700 43300
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 27071 77804 132030 61100 53300
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / Decrypt/iterations:10 9906 36006 56710 28500 23700
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EncodeBatch/iterations:10 256 859 1350 600 600
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / DecodeBatch/iterations:10 321 1003 1490 1100 100.0
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 993 3899 6000 1000 1100
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 2362 10517 13540 8500 8000
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 629 465 920 600 500
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EvaluateSubCt/iterations:10 768 4184 5340 900 800
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EvaluateSubPt/iterations:10 2355 10761 13640 8600 7900
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 137938 531834 1078700 463000 383100
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 19996 72301 106050 54800 45900
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 103629 399673 824100 353300 306200
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EvaluateModSwitchInplace/iterations:10 2262 10109 14290 5200 5000
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EvaluateRelinInplace/iterations:10 74559 277711 414450 214000 181800
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EvaluateRotateRows/iterations:10 75499 276267 414860 216200 183100
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BFV / EvaluateRotateCols/iterations:10 75629 276612 415690 216200 183000
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 23877 51190 231300 40100 39200
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 39409 121329 198670 88800 77400
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / Decrypt/iterations:10 6785 21804 33690 17500 15000
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EncodeBatch/iterations:10 256 862 1330 900 700
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / DecodeBatch/iterations:10 317 1001 1530 900 500
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 737 655 1320 1000 1000
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateNegateInplace/iterations:10 799 336 760 600 500
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 905 3785 5930 900 1000
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateAddCtInplace/iterations:10 625 4150 5370 400 800
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 6036 17338 26290 11800 10000
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateAddPtInplace/iterations:10 5884 17211 26150 11600 9800
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 3787 16312 19480 15700 14400
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateMulCtInplace/iterations:10 3530 16058 19010 15600 14100
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 7404 22868 31870 18900 16700
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateMulPtInplace/iterations:10 7253 22829 32120 19000 16500
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 3135 13104 16060 12000 11600
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateSquareInplace/iterations:10 3048 12740 15490 11900 11000
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateModSwitchInplace/iterations:10 10832 38685 58050 28100 24600
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateRelinInplace/iterations:10 77860 288197 433160 221400 187800
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateRotateRows/iterations:10 78629 287167 431860 221500 188600
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateRotateRowsInplace/iterations:10 78221 286311 432220 221100 188500
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateRotateCols/iterations:10 78445 287150 433080 221800 188600
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateRotateColsInplace/iterations:10 78351 287128 432190 221000 187800
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateToNTTInplace/iterations:10 8137 28871 43020 19400 16200
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / BGV / EvaluateFromNTTInplace/iterations:10 6656 25156 37470 19300 15400
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EncryptSecret/iterations:10 18153 34982 206890 28400 28400
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EncryptPublic/iterations:10 32572 97712 164410 71300 61600
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / Decrypt/iterations:10 1494 5668 7540 4400 4000
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EncodeDouble/iterations:10 6769 16548 24610 11900 10200
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / DecodeDouble/iterations:10 21918 45509 75220 47500 47500
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EvaluateAddCt/iterations:10 912 3782 6020 900 900
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EvaluateAddPt/iterations:10 509 1875 2570 200 700
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EvaluateNegate/iterations:10 645 458 890 800 500
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EvaluateSubCt/iterations:10 777 4192 5420 800 900
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EvaluateSubPt/iterations:10 448 1796 2450 200 100
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EvaluateMulCt/iterations:10 3790 16369 19400 15900 14400
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EvaluateMulPt/iterations:10 1906 7290 8420 7600 7100
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EvaluateSquare/iterations:10 2931 12665 15040 11800 10900
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EvaluateRescaleInplace/iterations:10 7452 27233 41840 20300 17200
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EvaluateRelinInplace/iterations:10 74785 276801 416320 214300 181300
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / CKKS / EvaluateRotate/iterations:10 75781 276715 415740 215100 182400
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / UTIL / NTTForward/iterations:10 8294 28889 42920 19600 16300
n=32768 / log(q)=881 / UTIL / NTTInverse/iterations:10 6842 25324 37970 19400 15600
n=32768 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTForwardLowLevel/iterations:10 285 961 1460 800 600
n=32768 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTInverseLowLevel/iterations:10 227 832 1250 700 700
n=32768 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTForwardLowLevelLazy/iterations:10 206 822 1310 700 400
n=32768 / log(q)=0 / UTIL / NTTInverseLowLevelLazy/iterations:10 216 817 1260 700 400

Caveats

Conversion from C++ to Web Assembly has some limitations:

  • ±2^53 bit numbers: JavaScript uses 2^53 numbers (not true 64 bit). This means we lose some precision after cryptographic operations are computed in WASM and we want to send the results to JS for consumption (across the WASM <> JS boundary). If you're using the CKKS scheme, you need to keep this in mind. BFV users will inherently adhere to these limitations due to the Int32Array/Uint32Array TypedArrays. Recently, BFV users now have support for BigInt64Array/BigUint64Array TypedArrays but at a significant encode/decode penalty - encyption/evaluation/decryption performance is the same.

  • Memory: Generating large keys and saving them in the browser could be problematic. We can control NodeJS heap size, but not inside a user's browser.

    Saving keys is very memory intensive especially for polyModulusDegreess above 16384. This is because there's currently no way (that we have found) to use io streams across JS and Web Assembly code, so the strings have to be buffered completely in RAM and they can be very, very large when using the default zstd compression. User's who are experiencing OOM exceptions when saving GaloisKeys should try specifying a compression override such as none or the less performant zlib. Ex: galoisKeys.save(seal.ComprModeType.zlib)

  • Garbage Collection: Unfortunately, the typical way of cleaning up dereferenced JS objects will leave behind a the Web Assembly (C++) object in memory. There is no way to automatically call the destructors on C++ objects. JavaScript code must explicitly delete any C++ object handles it has received, or the heap will grow indefinitely.

    <instance>.delete()

Contributing

The main purpose of this library is to continue to evolve and promote the adoption of homomorphic encryption (using Microsoft SEAL) in modern web applications today. Development of node-seal happens in the open on GitHub, and we are grateful to the community for contributing bugfixes and improvements.

See CONTRIBUTING.md.

License

node-seal is MIT licensed.

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