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    node-forgepublic

    Forge

    npm package

    Build status

    A native implementation of TLS (and various other cryptographic tools) in JavaScript.

    Introduction

    The Forge software is a fully native implementation of the TLS protocol in JavaScript, a set of cryptography utilities, and a set of tools for developing Web Apps that utilize many network resources.

    Performance

    Forge is fast. Benchmarks against other popular JavaScript cryptography libraries can be found here:

    Documentation

    API

    Transports

    Ciphers

    PKI

    Message Digests

    Utilities

    Other


    Installation

    Note: Please see the Security Considerations section before using packaging systems and pre-built files.

    Forge uses a CommonJS module structure with a build process for browser bundles. The older 0.6.x branch with standalone files is available but will not be regularly updated.

    Node.js

    If you want to use forge with Node.js, it is available through npm:

    https://npmjs.org/package/node-forge

    Installation:

    npm install node-forge
    

    You can then use forge as a regular module:

    var forge = require('node-forge');

    The npm package includes pre-built forge.min.js, forge.all.min.js, and prime.worker.min.js using the UMD format.

    Bundle / Bower

    Each release is published in a separate repository as pre-built and minimized basic forge bundles using the UMD format.

    https://github.com/digitalbazaar/forge-dist

    This bundle can be used in many environments. In particular it can be installed with Bower:

    bower install forge
    

    jsDelivr CDN

    To use it via jsDelivr include this in your html:

    <script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/node-forge@0.7.0/dist/forge.min.js"></script>

    unpkg CDN

    To use it via unpkg include this in your html:

    <script src="https://unpkg.com/node-forge@0.7.0/dist/forge.min.js"></script>

    Development Requirements

    The core JavaScript has the following requirements to build and test:

    • Building a browser bundle:
      • Node.js
      • npm
    • Testing
      • Node.js
      • npm
      • Chrome, Firefox, Safari (optional)

    Some special networking features can optionally use a Flash component. See the Flash README for details.

    Building for a web browser

    To create single file bundles for use with browsers run the following:

    npm install
    npm run build
    

    This will create single non-minimized and minimized files that can be included in the browser:

    dist/forge.js
    dist/forge.min.js
    

    A bundle that adds some utilities and networking support is also available:

    dist/forge.all.js
    dist/forge.all.min.js
    

    Include the file via:

    <script src="YOUR_SCRIPT_PATH/forge.js"></script>

    or

    <script src="YOUR_SCRIPT_PATH/forge.min.js"></script>

    The above bundles will synchronously create a global 'forge' object.

    Note: These bundles will not include any WebWorker scripts (eg: dist/prime.worker.js), so these will need to be accessible from the browser if any WebWorkers are used.

    Building a custom browser bundle

    The build process uses webpack and the config file can be modified to generate a file or files that only contain the parts of forge you need.

    Browserify override support is also present in package.json.

    Testing

    See the testing README for full details.

    Prepare to run tests

    npm install
    

    Running automated tests with Node.js

    Forge natively runs in a Node.js environment:

    npm test
    

    Running automated tests with PhantomJS

    Automated testing is done via Karma. By default it will run the tests in a headless manner with PhantomJS.

    npm run test-karma
    

    Is 'mocha' reporter output too verbose? Other reporters are available. Try 'dots', 'progress', or 'tap'.

    npm run test-karma -- --reporters progress
    

    By default webpack is used. Browserify can also be used.

    BUNDLER=browserify npm run test-karma
    

    Running automated tests with one or more browsers

    You can also specify one or more browsers to use.

    npm run test-karma -- --browsers Chrome,Firefox,Safari,PhantomJS
    

    The reporter option and BUNDLER environment variable can also be used.

    Running manual tests in a browser

    Testing in a browser uses webpack to combine forge and all tests and then loading the result in a browser. A simple web server is provided that will output the HTTP or HTTPS URLs to load. It also will start a simple Flash Policy Server. Unit tests and older legacy tests are provided. Custom ports can be used by running node tests/server.js manually.

    To run the unit tests in a browser a special forge build is required:

    npm run test-build
    

    To run legacy browser based tests the main forge build is required:

    npm run build
    

    The tests are run with a custom server that prints out the URLs to use:

    npm run test-server
    

    Running other tests

    There are some other random tests and benchmarks available in the tests directory.

    Coverage testing

    To perform coverage testing of the unit tests, run the following. The results will be put in the coverage/ directory. Note that coverage testing can slow down some tests considerably.

    npm install
    npm run coverage
    

    Contributing

    Any contributions (eg: PRs) that are accepted will be brought under the same license used by the rest of the Forge project. This license allows Forge to be used under the terms of either the BSD License or the GNU General Public License (GPL) Version 2.

    See: LICENSE

    If a contribution contains 3rd party source code with its own license, it may retain it, so long as that license is compatible with the Forge license.

    API

    Options

    If at any time you wish to disable the use of native code, where available, for particular forge features like its secure random number generator, you may set the forge.options.usePureJavaScript flag to true. It is not recommended that you set this flag as native code is typically more performant and may have stronger security properties. It may be useful to set this flag to test certain features that you plan to run in environments that are different from your testing environment.

    To disable native code when including forge in the browser:

    // run this *after* including the forge script
    forge.options.usePureJavaScript = true;

    To disable native code when using Node.js:

    var forge = require('node-forge');
    forge.options.usePureJavaScript = true;

    Transports

    TLS

    Provides a native javascript client and server-side TLS implementation.

    Examples

    // create TLS client
    var client = forge.tls.createConnection({
      server: false,
      caStore: /* Array of PEM-formatted certs or a CA store object */,
      sessionCache: {},
      // supported cipher suites in order of preference
      cipherSuites: [
        forge.tls.CipherSuites.TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,
        forge.tls.CipherSuites.TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA],
      virtualHost: 'example.com',
      verify: function(connection, verified, depth, certs) {
        if(depth === 0) {
          var cn = certs[0].subject.getField('CN').value;
          if(cn !== 'example.com') {
            verified = {
              alert: forge.tls.Alert.Description.bad_certificate,
              message: 'Certificate common name does not match hostname.'
            };
          }
        }
        return verified;
      },
      connected: function(connection) {
        console.log('connected');
        // send message to server
        connection.prepare(forge.util.encodeUtf8('Hi server!'));
        /* NOTE: experimental, start heartbeat retransmission timer
        myHeartbeatTimer = setInterval(function() {
          connection.prepareHeartbeatRequest(forge.util.createBuffer('1234'));
        }, 5*60*1000);*/
      },
      /* provide a client-side cert if you want
      getCertificate: function(connection, hint) {
        return myClientCertificate;
      },
      /* the private key for the client-side cert if provided */
      getPrivateKey: function(connection, cert) {
        return myClientPrivateKey;
      },
      tlsDataReady: function(connection) {
        // TLS data (encrypted) is ready to be sent to the server
        sendToServerSomehow(connection.tlsData.getBytes());
        // if you were communicating with the server below, you'd do:
        // server.process(connection.tlsData.getBytes());
      },
      dataReady: function(connection) {
        // clear data from the server is ready
        console.log('the server sent: ' +
          forge.util.decodeUtf8(connection.data.getBytes()));
        // close connection
        connection.close();
      },
      /* NOTE: experimental
      heartbeatReceived: function(connection, payload) {
        // restart retransmission timer, look at payload
        clearInterval(myHeartbeatTimer);
        myHeartbeatTimer = setInterval(function() {
          connection.prepareHeartbeatRequest(forge.util.createBuffer('1234'));
        }, 5*60*1000);
        payload.getBytes();
      },*/
      closed: function(connection) {
        console.log('disconnected');
      },
      error: function(connection, error) {
        console.log('uh oh', error);
      }
    });
     
    // start the handshake process
    client.handshake();
     
    // when encrypted TLS data is received from the server, process it
    client.process(encryptedBytesFromServer);
     
    // create TLS server
    var server = forge.tls.createConnection({
      server: true,
      caStore: /* Array of PEM-formatted certs or a CA store object */,
      sessionCache: {},
      // supported cipher suites in order of preference
      cipherSuites: [
        forge.tls.CipherSuites.TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,
        forge.tls.CipherSuites.TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA],
      // require a client-side certificate if you want
      verifyClient: true,
      verify: function(connection, verified, depth, certs) {
        if(depth === 0) {
          var cn = certs[0].subject.getField('CN').value;
          if(cn !== 'the-client') {
            verified = {
              alert: forge.tls.Alert.Description.bad_certificate,
              message: 'Certificate common name does not match expected client.'
            };
          }
        }
        return verified;
      },
      connected: function(connection) {
        console.log('connected');
        // send message to client
        connection.prepare(forge.util.encodeUtf8('Hi client!'));
        /* NOTE: experimental, start heartbeat retransmission timer
        myHeartbeatTimer = setInterval(function() {
          connection.prepareHeartbeatRequest(forge.util.createBuffer('1234'));
        }, 5*60*1000);*/
      },
      getCertificate: function(connection, hint) {
        return myServerCertificate;
      },
      getPrivateKey: function(connection, cert) {
        return myServerPrivateKey;
      },
      tlsDataReady: function(connection) {
        // TLS data (encrypted) is ready to be sent to the client
        sendToClientSomehow(connection.tlsData.getBytes());
        // if you were communicating with the client above you'd do:
        // client.process(connection.tlsData.getBytes());
      },
      dataReady: function(connection) {
        // clear data from the client is ready
        console.log('the client sent: ' +
          forge.util.decodeUtf8(connection.data.getBytes()));
        // close connection
        connection.close();
      },
      /* NOTE: experimental
      heartbeatReceived: function(connection, payload) {
        // restart retransmission timer, look at payload
        clearInterval(myHeartbeatTimer);
        myHeartbeatTimer = setInterval(function() {
          connection.prepareHeartbeatRequest(forge.util.createBuffer('1234'));
        }, 5*60*1000);
        payload.getBytes();
      },*/
      closed: function(connection) {
        console.log('disconnected');
      },
      error: function(connection, error) {
        console.log('uh oh', error);
      }
    });
     
    // when encrypted TLS data is received from the client, process it
    server.process(encryptedBytesFromClient);

    Connect to a TLS server using node's net.Socket:

    var socket = new net.Socket();
     
    var client = forge.tls.createConnection({
      server: false,
      verify: function(connection, verified, depth, certs) {
        // skip verification for testing
        console.log('[tls] server certificate verified');
        return true;
      },
      connected: function(connection) {
        console.log('[tls] connected');
        // prepare some data to send (note that the string is interpreted as
        // 'binary' encoded, which works for HTTP which only uses ASCII, use
        // forge.util.encodeUtf8(str) otherwise
        client.prepare('GET / HTTP/1.0\r\n\r\n');
      },
      tlsDataReady: function(connection) {
        // encrypted data is ready to be sent to the server
        var data = connection.tlsData.getBytes();
        socket.write(data, 'binary'); // encoding should be 'binary'
      },
      dataReady: function(connection) {
        // clear data from the server is ready
        var data = connection.data.getBytes();
        console.log('[tls] data received from the server: ' + data);
      },
      closed: function() {
        console.log('[tls] disconnected');
      },
      error: function(connection, error) {
        console.log('[tls] error', error);
      }
    });
     
    socket.on('connect', function() {
      console.log('[socket] connected');
      client.handshake();
    });
    socket.on('data', function(data) {
      client.process(data.toString('binary')); // encoding should be 'binary'
    });
    socket.on('end', function() {
      console.log('[socket] disconnected');
    });
     
    // connect to google.com
    socket.connect(443, 'google.com');
     
    // or connect to gmail's imap server (but don't send the HTTP header above)
    //socket.connect(993, 'imap.gmail.com');

    HTTP

    Provides a native JavaScript mini-implementation of an http client that uses pooled sockets.

    Examples

    // create an HTTP GET request
    var request = forge.http.createRequest({method: 'GET', path: url.path});
     
    // send the request somewhere
    sendSomehow(request.toString());
     
    // receive response
    var buffer = forge.util.createBuffer();
    var response = forge.http.createResponse();
    var someAsyncDataHandler = function(bytes) {
      if(!response.bodyReceived) {
        buffer.putBytes(bytes);
        if(!response.headerReceived) {
          if(response.readHeader(buffer)) {
            console.log('HTTP response header: ' + response.toString());
          }
        }
        if(response.headerReceived && !response.bodyReceived) {
          if(response.readBody(buffer)) {
            console.log('HTTP response body: ' + response.body);
          }
        }
      }
    };

    SSH

    Provides some SSH utility functions.

    Examples

    // encodes (and optionally encrypts) a private RSA key as a Putty PPK file
    forge.ssh.privateKeyToPutty(privateKey, passphrase, comment);
     
    // encodes a public RSA key as an OpenSSH file
    forge.ssh.publicKeyToOpenSSH(key, comment);
     
    // encodes a private RSA key as an OpenSSH file
    forge.ssh.privateKeyToOpenSSH(privateKey, passphrase);
     
    // gets the SSH public key fingerprint in a byte buffer
    forge.ssh.getPublicKeyFingerprint(key);
     
    // gets a hex-encoded, colon-delimited SSH public key fingerprint
    forge.ssh.getPublicKeyFingerprint(key, {encoding: 'hex', delimiter: ':'});

    XHR

    Provides an XmlHttpRequest implementation using forge.http as a backend.

    Examples

    // TODO

    Sockets

    Provides an interface to create and use raw sockets provided via Flash.

    Examples

    // TODO

    Ciphers

    CIPHER

    Provides a basic API for block encryption and decryption. There is built-in support for the ciphers: AES, 3DES, and DES, and for the modes of operation: ECB, CBC, CFB, OFB, CTR, and GCM.

    These algorithms are currently supported:

    • AES-ECB
    • AES-CBC
    • AES-CFB
    • AES-OFB
    • AES-CTR
    • AES-GCM
    • 3DES-ECB
    • 3DES-CBC
    • DES-ECB
    • DES-CBC

    When using an AES algorithm, the key size will determine whether AES-128, AES-192, or AES-256 is used (all are supported). When a DES algorithm is used, the key size will determine whether 3DES or regular DES is used. Use a 3DES algorithm to enforce Triple-DES.

    Examples

    // generate a random key and IV
    // Note: a key size of 16 bytes will use AES-128, 24 => AES-192, 32 => AES-256
    var key = forge.random.getBytesSync(16);
    var iv = forge.random.getBytesSync(16);
     
    /* alternatively, generate a password-based 16-byte key
    var salt = forge.random.getBytesSync(128);
    var key = forge.pkcs5.pbkdf2('password', salt, numIterations, 16);
    */
     
    // encrypt some bytes using CBC mode
    // (other modes include: ECB, CFB, OFB, CTR, and GCM)
    // Note: CBC and ECB modes use PKCS#7 padding as default
    var cipher = forge.cipher.createCipher('AES-CBC', key);
    cipher.start({iv: iv});
    cipher.update(forge.util.createBuffer(someBytes));
    cipher.finish();
    var encrypted = cipher.output;
    // outputs encrypted hex
    console.log(encrypted.toHex());
     
    // decrypt some bytes using CBC mode
    // (other modes include: CFB, OFB, CTR, and GCM)
    var decipher = forge.cipher.createDecipher('AES-CBC', key);
    decipher.start({iv: iv});
    decipher.update(encrypted);
    var result = decipher.finish(); // check 'result' for true/false
    // outputs decrypted hex
    console.log(decipher.output.toHex());
     
    // decrypt bytes using CBC mode and streaming
    // Performance can suffer for large multi-MB inputs due to buffer
    // manipulations. Stream processing in chunks can offer significant
    // improvement. CPU intensive update() calls could also be performed with
    // setImmediate/setTimeout to avoid blocking the main browser UI thread (not
    // shown here). Optimal block size depends on the JavaScript VM and other
    // factors. Encryption can use a simple technique for increased performance.
    var encryptedBytes = encrypted.bytes();
    var decipher = forge.cipher.createDecipher('AES-CBC', key);
    decipher.start({iv: iv});
    var length = encryptedBytes.length;
    var chunkSize = 1024 * 64;
    var index = 0;
    var decrypted = '';
    do {
      decrypted += decipher.output.getBytes();
      var buf = forge.util.createBuffer(encryptedBytes.substr(index, chunkSize));
      decipher.update(buf);
      index += chunkSize;
    } while(index < length);
    var result = decipher.finish();
    assert(result);
    decrypted += decipher.output.getBytes();
    console.log(forge.util.bytesToHex(decrypted));
     
    // encrypt some bytes using GCM mode
    var cipher = forge.cipher.createCipher('AES-GCM', key);
    cipher.start({
      iv: iv, // should be a 12-byte binary-encoded string or byte buffer
      additionalData: 'binary-encoded string', // optional
      tagLength: 128 // optional, defaults to 128 bits
    });
    cipher.update(forge.util.createBuffer(someBytes));
    cipher.finish();
    var encrypted = cipher.output;
    var tag = cipher.mode.tag;
    // outputs encrypted hex
    console.log(encrypted.toHex());
    // outputs authentication tag
    console.log(tag.toHex());
     
    // decrypt some bytes using GCM mode
    var decipher = forge.cipher.createDecipher('AES-GCM', key);
    decipher.start({
      iv: iv,
      additionalData: 'binary-encoded string', // optional
      tagLength: 128, // optional, defaults to 128 bits
      tag: tag // authentication tag from encryption
    });
    decipher.update(encrypted);
    var pass = decipher.finish();
    // pass is false if there was a failure (eg: authentication tag didn't match)
    if(pass) {
      // outputs decrypted hex
      console.log(decipher.output.toHex());
    }

    Using forge in Node.js to match openssl's "enc" command line tool (Note: OpenSSL "enc" uses a non-standard file format with a custom key derivation function and a fixed iteration count of 1, which some consider less secure than alternatives such as OpenPGP/GnuPG):

    var forge = require('node-forge');
    var fs = require('fs');
     
    // openssl enc -des3 -in input.txt -out input.enc
    function encrypt(password) {
      var input = fs.readFileSync('input.txt', {encoding: 'binary'});
     
      // 3DES key and IV sizes
      var keySize = 24;
      var ivSize = 8;
     
      // get derived bytes
      // Notes:
      // 1. If using an alternative hash (eg: "-md sha1") pass
      //   "forge.md.sha1.create()" as the final parameter.
      // 2. If using "-nosalt", set salt to null.
      var salt = forge.random.getBytesSync(8);
      // var md = forge.md.sha1.create(); // "-md sha1"
      var derivedBytes = forge.pbe.opensslDeriveBytes(
        password, salt, keySize + ivSize/*, md*/);
      var buffer = forge.util.createBuffer(derivedBytes);
      var key = buffer.getBytes(keySize);
      var iv = buffer.getBytes(ivSize);
     
      var cipher = forge.cipher.createCipher('3DES-CBC', key);
      cipher.start({iv: iv});
      cipher.update(forge.util.createBuffer(input, 'binary'));
      cipher.finish();
     
      var output = forge.util.createBuffer();
     
      // if using a salt, prepend this to the output:
      if(salt !== null) {
        output.putBytes('Salted__'); // (add to match openssl tool output)
        output.putBytes(salt);
      }
      output.putBuffer(cipher.output);
     
      fs.writeFileSync('input.enc', output.getBytes(), {encoding: 'binary'});
    }
     
    // openssl enc -d -des3 -in input.enc -out input.dec.txt
    function decrypt(password) {
      var input = fs.readFileSync('input.enc', {encoding: 'binary'});
     
      // parse salt from input
      input = forge.util.createBuffer(input, 'binary');
      // skip "Salted__" (if known to be present)
      input.getBytes('Salted__'.length);
      // read 8-byte salt
      var salt = input.getBytes(8);
     
      // Note: if using "-nosalt", skip above parsing and use
      // var salt = null;
     
      // 3DES key and IV sizes
      var keySize = 24;
      var ivSize = 8;
     
      var derivedBytes = forge.pbe.opensslDeriveBytes(
        password, salt, keySize + ivSize);
      var buffer = forge.util.createBuffer(derivedBytes);
      var key = buffer.getBytes(keySize);
      var iv = buffer.getBytes(ivSize);
     
      var decipher = forge.cipher.createDecipher('3DES-CBC', key);
      decipher.start({iv: iv});
      decipher.update(input);
      var result = decipher.finish(); // check 'result' for true/false
     
      fs.writeFileSync(
        'input.dec.txt', decipher.output.getBytes(), {encoding: 'binary'});
    }

    AES

    Provides AES encryption and decryption in CBC, CFB, OFB, CTR, and GCM modes. See CIPHER for examples.

    DES

    Provides 3DES and DES encryption and decryption in ECB and CBC modes. See CIPHER for examples.

    RC2

    Examples

    // generate a random key and IV
    var key = forge.random.getBytesSync(16);
    var iv = forge.random.getBytesSync(8);
     
    // encrypt some bytes
    var cipher = forge.rc2.createEncryptionCipher(key);
    cipher.start(iv);
    cipher.update(forge.util.createBuffer(someBytes));
    cipher.finish();
    var encrypted = cipher.output;
    // outputs encrypted hex
    console.log(encrypted.toHex());
     
    // decrypt some bytes
    var cipher = forge.rc2.createDecryptionCipher(key);
    cipher.start(iv);
    cipher.update(encrypted);
    cipher.finish();
    // outputs decrypted hex
    console.log(cipher.output.toHex());

    PKI

    Provides X.509 certificate support, ED25519 key generation and signing/verifying, and RSA public and private key encoding, decoding, encryption/decryption, and signing/verifying.

    ED25519

    Special thanks to [TweetNaCl.js][] for providing the bulk of the implementation.

    Examples

    var ed25519 = forge.pki.ed25519;
     
    // generate a random ED25519 keypair
    var keypair = ed25519.generateKeyPair();
    // `keypair.publicKey` is a node.js Buffer or Uint8Array
    // `keypair.privateKey` is a node.js Buffer or Uint8Array
     
    // generate a random ED25519 keypair based on a random 32-byte seed
    var seed = forge.random.getBytesSync(32);
    var keypair = ed25519.generateKeyPair({seed: seed});
     
    // generate a random ED25519 keypair based on a "password" 32-byte seed
    var password = 'Mai9ohgh6ahxee0jutheew0pungoozil';
    var seed = new forge.util.ByteBuffer(password, 'utf8');
    var keypair = ed25519.generateKeyPair({seed: seed});
     
    // sign a UTF-8 message
    var signature = ED25519.sign({
      message: 'test',
      // also accepts `binary` if you want to pass a binary string
      encoding: 'utf8',
      // node.js Buffer, Uint8Array, forge ByteBuffer, binary string
      privateKey: privateKey
    });
    // `signature` is a node.js Buffer or Uint8Array
     
    // sign a message passed as a buffer
    var signature = ED25519.sign({
      // also accepts a forge ByteBuffer or Uint8Array
      message: new Buffer('test', 'utf8'),
      privateKey: privateKey
    });
     
    // sign a message digest (shorter "message" == better performance)
    var md = forge.md.sha256.create();
    md.update('test', 'utf8');
    var signature = ED25519.sign({
      md: md,
      privateKey: privateKey
    });
     
    // verify a signature on a UTF-8 message
    var verified = ED25519.verify({
      message: 'test',
      encoding: 'utf8',
      // node.js Buffer, Uint8Array, forge ByteBuffer, or binary string
      signature: signature,
      // node.js Buffer, Uint8Array, forge ByteBuffer, or binary string
      publicKey: publicKey
    });
    // `verified` is true/false
     
    // sign a message passed as a buffer
    var verified = ED25519.verify({
      // also accepts a forge ByteBuffer or Uint8Array
      message: new Buffer('test', 'utf8'),
      // node.js Buffer, Uint8Array, forge ByteBuffer, or binary string
      signature: signature,
      // node.js Buffer, Uint8Array, forge ByteBuffer, or binary string
      publicKey: publicKey
    });
     
    // verify a signature on a message digest
    var md = forge.md.sha256.create();
    md.update('test', 'utf8');
    var verified = ED25519.verify({
      md: md,
      // node.js Buffer, Uint8Array, forge ByteBuffer, or binary string
      signature: signature,
      // node.js Buffer, Uint8Array, forge ByteBuffer, or binary string
      publicKey: publicKey
    });

    RSA

    Examples

    var rsa = forge.pki.rsa;
     
    // generate an RSA key pair synchronously
    // *NOT RECOMMENDED* -- can be significantly slower than async and will not
    // use native APIs if available.
    var keypair = rsa.generateKeyPair({bits: 2048, e: 0x10001});
     
    // generate an RSA key pair asynchronously (uses web workers if available)
    // use workers: -1 to run a fast core estimator to optimize # of workers
    // *RECOMMENDED* - can be significantly faster than sync -- and will use
    // native APIs if available.
    rsa.generateKeyPair({bits: 2048, workers: 2}, function(err, keypair) {
      // keypair.privateKey, keypair.publicKey
    });
     
    // generate an RSA key pair in steps that attempt to run for a specified period
    // of time on the main JS thread
    var state = rsa.createKeyPairGenerationState(2048, 0x10001);
    var step = function() {
      // run for 100 ms
      if(!rsa.stepKeyPairGenerationState(state, 100)) {
        setTimeout(step, 1);
      }
      else {
        // done, turn off progress indicator, use state.keys
      }
    };
    // turn on progress indicator, schedule generation to run
    setTimeout(step);
     
    // sign data with a private key and output DigestInfo DER-encoded bytes
    // (defaults to RSASSA PKCS#1 v1.5)
    var md = forge.md.sha1.create();
    md.update('sign this', 'utf8');
    var signature = privateKey.sign(md);
     
    // verify data with a public key
    // (defaults to RSASSA PKCS#1 v1.5)
    var verified = publicKey.verify(md.digest().bytes(), signature);
     
    // sign data using RSASSA-PSS where PSS uses a SHA-1 hash, a SHA-1 based
    // masking function MGF1, and a 20 byte salt
    var md = forge.md.sha1.create();
    md.update('sign this', 'utf8');
    var pss = forge.pss.create({
      md: forge.md.sha1.create(),
      mgf: forge.mgf.mgf1.create(forge.md.sha1.create()),
      saltLength: 20
      // optionally pass 'prng' with a custom PRNG implementation
      // optionalls pass 'salt' with a forge.util.ByteBuffer w/custom salt
    });
    var signature = privateKey.sign(md, pss);
     
    // verify RSASSA-PSS signature
    var pss = forge.pss.create({
      md: forge.md.sha1.create(),
      mgf: forge.mgf.mgf1.create(forge.md.sha1.create()),
      saltLength: 20
      // optionally pass 'prng' with a custom PRNG implementation
    });
    var md = forge.md.sha1.create();
    md.update('sign this', 'utf8');
    publicKey.verify(md.digest().getBytes(), signature, pss);
     
    // encrypt data with a public key (defaults to RSAES PKCS#1 v1.5)
    var encrypted = publicKey.encrypt(bytes);
     
    // decrypt data with a private key (defaults to RSAES PKCS#1 v1.5)
    var decrypted = privateKey.decrypt(encrypted);
     
    // encrypt data with a public key using RSAES PKCS#1 v1.5
    var encrypted = publicKey.encrypt(bytes, 'RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5');
     
    // decrypt data with a private key using RSAES PKCS#1 v1.5
    var decrypted = privateKey.decrypt(encrypted, 'RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5');
     
    // encrypt data with a public key using RSAES-OAEP
    var encrypted = publicKey.encrypt(bytes, 'RSA-OAEP');
     
    // decrypt data with a private key using RSAES-OAEP
    var decrypted = privateKey.decrypt(encrypted, 'RSA-OAEP');
     
    // encrypt data with a public key using RSAES-OAEP/SHA-256
    var encrypted = publicKey.encrypt(bytes, 'RSA-OAEP', {
      md: forge.md.sha256.create()
    });
     
    // decrypt data with a private key using RSAES-OAEP/SHA-256
    var decrypted = privateKey.decrypt(encrypted, 'RSA-OAEP', {
      md: forge.md.sha256.create()
    });
     
    // encrypt data with a public key using RSAES-OAEP/SHA-256/MGF1-SHA-1
    // compatible with Java's RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA-256AndMGF1Padding
    var encrypted = publicKey.encrypt(bytes, 'RSA-OAEP', {
      md: forge.md.sha256.create(),
      mgf1: {
        md: forge.md.sha1.create()
      }
    });
     
    // decrypt data with a private key using RSAES-OAEP/SHA-256/MGF1-SHA-1
    // compatible with Java's RSA/ECB/OAEPWithSHA-256AndMGF1Padding
    var decrypted = privateKey.decrypt(encrypted, 'RSA-OAEP', {
      md: forge.md.sha256.create(),
      mgf1: {
        md: forge.md.sha1.create()
      }
    });
     

    RSA-KEM

    Examples

    // generate an RSA key pair asynchronously (uses web workers if available)
    // use workers: -1 to run a fast core estimator to optimize # of workers
    forge.rsa.generateKeyPair({bits: 2048, workers: -1}, function(err, keypair) {
      // keypair.privateKey, keypair.publicKey
    });
     
    // generate and encapsulate a 16-byte secret key
    var kdf1 = new forge.kem.kdf1(forge.md.sha1.create());
    var kem = forge.kem.rsa.create(kdf1);
    var result = kem.encrypt(keypair.publicKey, 16);
    // result has 'encapsulation' and 'key'
     
    // encrypt some bytes
    var iv = forge.random.getBytesSync(12);
    var someBytes = 'hello world!';
    var cipher = forge.cipher.createCipher('AES-GCM', result.key);
    cipher.start({iv: iv});
    cipher.update(forge.util.createBuffer(someBytes));
    cipher.finish();
    var encrypted = cipher.output.getBytes();
    var tag = cipher.mode.tag.getBytes();
     
    // send 'encrypted', 'iv', 'tag', and result.encapsulation to recipient
     
    // decrypt encapsulated 16-byte secret key
    var kdf1 = new forge.kem.kdf1(forge.md.sha1.create());
    var kem = forge.kem.rsa.create(kdf1);
    var key = kem.decrypt(keypair.privateKey, result.encapsulation, 16);
     
    // decrypt some bytes
    var decipher = forge.cipher.createDecipher('AES-GCM', key);
    decipher.start({iv: iv, tag: tag});
    decipher.update(forge.util.createBuffer(encrypted));
    var pass = decipher.finish();
    // pass is false if there was a failure (eg: authentication tag didn't match)
    if(pass) {
      // outputs 'hello world!'
      console.log(decipher.output.getBytes());
    }
     

    X.509

    Examples

    var pki = forge.pki;
     
    // convert a PEM-formatted public key to a Forge public key
    var publicKey = pki.publicKeyFromPem(pem);
     
    // convert a Forge public key to PEM-format
    var pem = pki.publicKeyToPem(publicKey);
     
    // convert an ASN.1 SubjectPublicKeyInfo to a Forge public key
    var publicKey = pki.publicKeyFromAsn1(subjectPublicKeyInfo);
     
    // convert a Forge public key to an ASN.1 SubjectPublicKeyInfo
    var subjectPublicKeyInfo = pki.publicKeyToAsn1(publicKey);
     
    // gets a SHA-1 RSAPublicKey fingerprint a byte buffer
    pki.getPublicKeyFingerprint(key);
     
    // gets a SHA-1 SubjectPublicKeyInfo fingerprint a byte buffer
    pki.getPublicKeyFingerprint(key, {type: 'SubjectPublicKeyInfo'});
     
    // gets a hex-encoded, colon-delimited SHA-1 RSAPublicKey public key fingerprint
    pki.getPublicKeyFingerprint(key, {encoding: 'hex', delimiter: ':'});
     
    // gets a hex-encoded, colon-delimited SHA-1 SubjectPublicKeyInfo public key fingerprint
    pki.getPublicKeyFingerprint(key, {
      type: 'SubjectPublicKeyInfo',
      encoding: 'hex',
      delimiter: ':'
    });
     
    // gets a hex-encoded, colon-delimited MD5 RSAPublicKey public key fingerprint
    pki.getPublicKeyFingerprint(key, {
      md: forge.md.md5.create(),
      encoding: 'hex',
      delimiter: ':'
    });
     
    // creates a CA store
    var caStore = pki.createCaStore([/* PEM-encoded cert */, ...]);
     
    // add a certificate to the CA store
    caStore.addCertificate(certObjectOrPemString);
     
    // gets the issuer (its certificate) for the given certificate
    var issuerCert = caStore.getIssuer(subjectCert);
     
    // verifies a certificate chain against a CA store
    pki.verifyCertificateChain(caStore, chain, customVerifyCallback);
     
    // signs a certificate using the given private key
    cert.sign(privateKey);
     
    // signs a certificate using SHA-256 instead of SHA-1
    cert.sign(privateKey, forge.md.sha256.create());
     
    // verifies an issued certificate using the certificates public key
    var verified = issuer.verify(issued);
     
    // generate a keypair and create an X.509v3 certificate
    var keys = pki.rsa.generateKeyPair(2048);
    var cert = pki.createCertificate();
    cert.publicKey = keys.publicKey;
    // alternatively set public key from a csr
    //cert.publicKey = csr.publicKey;
    // NOTE: serialNumber is the hex encoded value of an ASN.1 INTEGER.
    // Conforming CAs should ensure serialNumber is:
    // - no more than 20 octets
    // - non-negative (prefix a '00' if your value starts with a '1' bit)
    cert.serialNumber = '01';
    cert.validity.notBefore = new Date();
    cert.validity.notAfter = new Date();
    cert.validity.notAfter.setFullYear(cert.validity.notBefore.getFullYear() + 1);
    var attrs = [{
      name: 'commonName',
      value: 'example.org'
    }, {
      name: 'countryName',
      value: 'US'
    }, {
      shortName: 'ST',
      value: 'Virginia'
    }, {
      name: 'localityName',
      value: 'Blacksburg'
    }, {
      name: 'organizationName',
      value: 'Test'
    }, {
      shortName: 'OU',
      value: 'Test'
    }];
    cert.setSubject(attrs);
    // alternatively set subject from a csr
    //cert.setSubject(csr.subject.attributes);
    cert.setIssuer(attrs);
    cert.setExtensions([{
      name: 'basicConstraints',
      cA: true
    }, {
      name: 'keyUsage',
      keyCertSign: true,
      digitalSignature: true,
      nonRepudiation: true,
      keyEncipherment: true,
      dataEncipherment: true
    }, {
      name: 'extKeyUsage',
      serverAuth: true,
      clientAuth: true,
      codeSigning: true,
      emailProtection: true,
      timeStamping: true
    }, {
      name: 'nsCertType',
      client: true,
      server: true,
      email: true,
      objsign: true,
      sslCA: true,
      emailCA: true,
      objCA: true
    }, {
      name: 'subjectAltName',
      altNames: [{
        type: 6, // URI
        value: 'http://example.org/webid#me'
      }, {
        type: 7, // IP
        ip: '127.0.0.1'
      }]
    }, {
      name: 'subjectKeyIdentifier'
    }]);
    /* alternatively set extensions from a csr
    var extensions = csr.getAttribute({name: 'extensionRequest'}).extensions;
    // optionally add more extensions
    extensions.push.apply(extensions, [{
      name: 'basicConstraints',
      cA: true
    }, {
      name: 'keyUsage',
      keyCertSign: true,
      digitalSignature: true,
      nonRepudiation: true,
      keyEncipherment: true,
      dataEncipherment: true
    }]);
    cert.setExtensions(extensions);
    */
    // self-sign certificate
    cert.sign(keys.privateKey);
     
    // convert a Forge certificate to PEM
    var pem = pki.certificateToPem(cert);
     
    // convert a Forge certificate from PEM
    var cert = pki.certificateFromPem(pem);
     
    // convert an ASN.1 X.509x3 object to a Forge certificate
    var cert = pki.certificateFromAsn1(obj);
     
    // convert a Forge certificate to an ASN.1 X.509v3 object
    var asn1Cert = pki.certificateToAsn1(cert);

    PKCS#5

    Provides the password-based key-derivation function from PKCS#5.

    Examples

    // generate a password-based 16-byte key
    // note an optional message digest can be passed as the final parameter
    var salt = forge.random.getBytesSync(128);
    var derivedKey = forge.pkcs5.pbkdf2('password', salt, numIterations, 16);
     
    // generate key asynchronously
    // note an optional message digest can be passed before the callback
    forge.pkcs5.pbkdf2('password', salt, numIterations, 16, function(err, derivedKey) {
      // do something w/derivedKey
    });

    PKCS#7

    Provides cryptographically protected messages from PKCS#7.

    Examples

    // convert a message from PEM
    var p7 = forge.pkcs7.messageFromPem(pem);
    // look at p7.recipients
     
    // find a recipient by the issuer of a certificate
    var recipient = p7.findRecipient(cert);
     
    // decrypt
    p7.decrypt(p7.recipients[0], privateKey);
     
    // create a p7 enveloped message
    var p7 = forge.pkcs7.createEnvelopedData();
     
    // add a recipient
    var cert = forge.pki.certificateFromPem(certPem);
    p7.addRecipient(cert);
     
    // set content
    p7.content = forge.util.createBuffer('Hello');
     
    // encrypt
    p7.encrypt();
     
    // convert message to PEM
    var pem = forge.pkcs7.messageToPem(p7);
     
    // create a degenerate PKCS#7 certificate container
    // (CRLs not currently supported, only certificates)
    var p7 = forge.pkcs7.createSignedData();
    p7.addCertificate(certOrCertPem1);
    p7.addCertificate(certOrCertPem2);
    var pem = forge.pkcs7.messageToPem(p7);
     
    // create PKCS#7 signed data with authenticatedAttributes
    // attributes include: PKCS#9 content-type, message-digest, and signing-time
    var p7 = forge.pkcs7.createSignedData();
    p7.content = forge.util.createBuffer('Some content to be signed.', 'utf8');
    p7.addCertificate(certOrCertPem);
    p7.addSigner({
      key: privateKeyAssociatedWithCert,
      certificate: certOrCertPem,
      digestAlgorithm: forge.pki.oids.sha256,
      authenticatedAttributes: [{
        type: forge.pki.oids.contentType,
        value: forge.pki.oids.data
      }, {
        type: forge.pki.oids.messageDigest
        // value will be auto-populated at signing time
      }, {
        type: forge.pki.oids.signingTime,
        // value can also be auto-populated at signing time
        value: new Date()
      }]
    });
    p7.sign();
    var pem = forge.pkcs7.messageToPem(p7);
     

    PKCS#8

    Examples

    var pki = forge.pki;
     
    // convert a PEM-formatted private key to a Forge private key
    var privateKey = pki.privateKeyFromPem(pem);
     
    // convert a Forge private key to PEM-format
    var pem = pki.privateKeyToPem(privateKey);
     
    // convert an ASN.1 PrivateKeyInfo or RSAPrivateKey to a Forge private key
    var privateKey = pki.privateKeyFromAsn1(rsaPrivateKey);
     
    // convert a Forge private key to an ASN.1 RSAPrivateKey
    var rsaPrivateKey = pki.privateKeyToAsn1(privateKey);
     
    // wrap an RSAPrivateKey ASN.1 object in a PKCS#8 ASN.1 PrivateKeyInfo
    var privateKeyInfo = pki.wrapRsaPrivateKey(rsaPrivateKey);
     
    // convert a PKCS#8 ASN.1 PrivateKeyInfo to PEM
    var pem = pki.privateKeyInfoToPem(privateKeyInfo);
     
    // encrypts a PrivateKeyInfo and outputs an EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo
    var encryptedPrivateKeyInfo = pki.encryptPrivateKeyInfo(
      privateKeyInfo, 'password', {
        algorithm: 'aes256', // 'aes128', 'aes192', 'aes256', '3des'
      });
     
    // decrypts an ASN.1 EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo
    var privateKeyInfo = pki.decryptPrivateKeyInfo(
      encryptedPrivateKeyInfo, 'password');
     
    // converts an EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo to PEM
    var pem = pki.encryptedPrivateKeyToPem(encryptedPrivateKeyInfo);
     
    // converts a PEM-encoded EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo to ASN.1 format
    var encryptedPrivateKeyInfo = pki.encryptedPrivateKeyFromPem(pem);
     
    // wraps and encrypts a Forge private key and outputs it in PEM format
    var pem = pki.encryptRsaPrivateKey(privateKey, 'password');
     
    // encrypts a Forge private key and outputs it in PEM format using OpenSSL's
    // proprietary legacy format + encapsulated PEM headers (DEK-Info)
    var pem = pki.encryptRsaPrivateKey(privateKey, 'password', {legacy: true});
     
    // decrypts a PEM-formatted, encrypted private key
    var privateKey = pki.decryptRsaPrivateKey(pem, 'password');
     
    // sets an RSA public key from a private key
    var publicKey = pki.setRsaPublicKey(privateKey.n, privateKey.e);

    PKCS#10

    Provides certification requests or certificate signing requests (CSR) from PKCS#10.

    Examples

    // generate a key pair
    var keys = forge.pki.rsa.generateKeyPair(1024);
     
    // create a certification request (CSR)
    var csr = forge.pki.createCertificationRequest();
    csr.publicKey = keys.publicKey;
    csr.setSubject([{
      name: 'commonName',
      value: 'example.org'
    }, {
      name: 'countryName',
      value: 'US'
    }, {
      shortName: 'ST',
      value: 'Virginia'
    }, {
      name: 'localityName',
      value: 'Blacksburg'
    }, {
      name: 'organizationName',
      value: 'Test'
    }, {
      shortName: 'OU',
      value: 'Test'
    }]);
    // set (optional) attributes
    csr.setAttributes([{
      name: 'challengePassword',
      value: 'password'
    }, {
      name: 'unstructuredName',
      value: 'My Company, Inc.'
    }, {
      name: 'extensionRequest',
      extensions: [{
        name: 'subjectAltName',
        altNames: [{
          // 2 is DNS type
          type: 2,
          value: 'test.domain.com'
        }, {
          type: 2,
          value: 'other.domain.com',
        }, {
          type: 2,
          value: 'www.domain.net'
        }]
      }]
    }]);
     
    // sign certification request
    csr.sign(keys.privateKey);
     
    // verify certification request
    var verified = csr.verify();
     
    // convert certification request to PEM-format
    var pem = forge.pki.certificationRequestToPem(csr);
     
    // convert a Forge certification request from PEM-format
    var csr = forge.pki.certificationRequestFromPem(pem);
     
    // get an attribute
    csr.getAttribute({name: 'challengePassword'});
     
    // get extensions array
    csr.getAttribute({name: 'extensionRequest'}).extensions;
     

    PKCS#12

    Provides the cryptographic archive file format from PKCS#12.

    Note for Chrome/Firefox/iOS/similar users: If you have trouble importing a PKCS#12 container, try using the TripleDES algorithm. It can be passed to forge.pkcs12.toPkcs12Asn1 using the {algorithm: '3des'} option.

    Examples

    // decode p12 from base64
    var p12Der = forge.util.decode64(p12b64);
    // get p12 as ASN.1 object
    var p12Asn1 = forge.asn1.fromDer(p12Der);
    // decrypt p12 using the password 'password'
    var p12 = forge.pkcs12.pkcs12FromAsn1(p12Asn1, 'password');
    // decrypt p12 using non-strict parsing mode (resolves some ASN.1 parse errors)
    var p12 = forge.pkcs12.pkcs12FromAsn1(p12Asn1, false, 'password');
    // decrypt p12 using literally no password (eg: Mac OS X/apple push)
    var p12 = forge.pkcs12.pkcs12FromAsn1(p12Asn1);
    // decrypt p12 using an "empty" password (eg: OpenSSL with no password input)
    var p12 = forge.pkcs12.pkcs12FromAsn1(p12Asn1, '');
    // p12.safeContents is an array of safe contents, each of
    // which contains an array of safeBags
     
    // get bags by friendlyName
    var bags = p12.getBags({friendlyName: 'test'});
    // bags are key'd by attribute type (here "friendlyName")
    // and the key values are an array of matching objects
    var cert = bags.friendlyName[0];
     
    // get bags by localKeyId
    var bags = p12.getBags({localKeyId: buffer});
    // bags are key'd by attribute type (here "localKeyId")
    // and the key values are an array of matching objects
    var cert = bags.localKeyId[0];
     
    // get bags by localKeyId (input in hex)
    var bags = p12.getBags({localKeyIdHex: '7b59377ff142d0be4565e9ac3d396c01401cd879'});
    // bags are key'd by attribute type (here "localKeyId", *not* "localKeyIdHex")
    // and the key values are an array of matching objects
    var cert = bags.localKeyId[0];
     
    // get bags by type
    var bags = p12.getBags({bagType: forge.pki.oids.certBag});
    // bags are key'd by bagType and each bagType key's value
    // is an array of matches (in this case, certificate objects)
    var cert = bags[forge.pki.oids.certBag][0];
     
    // get bags by friendlyName and filter on bag type
    var bags = p12.getBags({
      friendlyName: 'test',
      bagType: forge.pki.oids.certBag
    });
     
    // get key bags
    var bags = p12.getBags({bagType: forge.pki.oids.keyBag});
    // get key
    var bag = bags[forge.pki.oids.keyBag][0];
    var key = bag.key;
    // if the key is in a format unrecognized by forge then
    // bag.key will be `null`, use bag.asn1 to get the ASN.1
    // representation of the key
    if(bag.key === null) {
      var keyAsn1 = bag.asn1;
      // can now convert back to DER/PEM/etc for export
    }
     
    // generate a p12 using AES (default)
    var p12Asn1 = forge.pkcs12.toPkcs12Asn1(
      privateKey, certificateChain, 'password');
     
    // generate a p12 that can be imported by Chrome/Firefox/iOS
    // (requires the use of Triple DES instead of AES)
    var p12Asn1 = forge.pkcs12.toPkcs12Asn1(
      privateKey, certificateChain, 'password',
      {algorithm: '3des'});
     
    // base64-encode p12
    var p12Der = forge.asn1.toDer(p12Asn1).getBytes();
    var p12b64 = forge.util.encode64(p12Der);
     
    // create download link for p12
    var a = document.createElement('a');
    a.download = 'example.p12';
    a.setAttribute('href', 'data:application/x-pkcs12;base64,' + p12b64);
    a.appendChild(document.createTextNode('Download'));

    ASN.1

    Provides ASN.1 DER encoding and decoding.

    Examples

    var asn1 = forge.asn1;
     
    // create a SubjectPublicKeyInfo
    var subjectPublicKeyInfo =
      asn1.create(asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL, asn1.Type.SEQUENCE, true, [
        // AlgorithmIdentifier
        asn1.create(asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL, asn1.Type.SEQUENCE, true, [
          // algorithm
          asn1.create(asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL, asn1.Type.OID, false,
            asn1.oidToDer(pki.oids['rsaEncryption']).getBytes()),
          // parameters (null)
          asn1.create(asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL, asn1.Type.NULL, false, '')
        ]),
        // subjectPublicKey
        asn1.create(asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL, asn1.Type.BITSTRING, false, [
          // RSAPublicKey
          asn1.create(asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL, asn1.Type.SEQUENCE, true, [
            // modulus (n)
            asn1.create(asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL, asn1.Type.INTEGER, false,
              _bnToBytes(key.n)),
            // publicExponent (e)
            asn1.create(asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL, asn1.Type.INTEGER, false,
              _bnToBytes(key.e))
          ])
        ])
      ]);
     
    // serialize an ASN.1 object to DER format
    var derBuffer = asn1.toDer(subjectPublicKeyInfo);
     
    // deserialize to an ASN.1 object from a byte buffer filled with DER data
    var object = asn1.fromDer(derBuffer);
     
    // convert an OID dot-separated string to a byte buffer
    var derOidBuffer = asn1.oidToDer('1.2.840.113549.1.1.5');
     
    // convert a byte buffer with a DER-encoded OID to a dot-separated string
    console.log(asn1.derToOid(derOidBuffer));
    // output: 1.2.840.113549.1.1.5
     
    // validates that an ASN.1 object matches a particular ASN.1 structure and
    // captures data of interest from that structure for easy access
    var publicKeyValidator = {
      name: 'SubjectPublicKeyInfo',
      tagClass: asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL,
      type: asn1.Type.SEQUENCE,
      constructed: true,
      captureAsn1: 'subjectPublicKeyInfo',
      value: [{
        name: 'SubjectPublicKeyInfo.AlgorithmIdentifier',
        tagClass: asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL,
        type: asn1.Type.SEQUENCE,
        constructed: true,
        value: [{
          name: 'AlgorithmIdentifier.algorithm',
          tagClass: asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL,
          type: asn1.Type.OID,
          constructed: false,
          capture: 'publicKeyOid'
        }]
      }, {
        // subjectPublicKey
        name: 'SubjectPublicKeyInfo.subjectPublicKey',
        tagClass: asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL,
        type: asn1.Type.BITSTRING,
        constructed: false,
        value: [{
          // RSAPublicKey
          name: 'SubjectPublicKeyInfo.subjectPublicKey.RSAPublicKey',
          tagClass: asn1.Class.UNIVERSAL,
          type: asn1.Type.SEQUENCE,
          constructed: true,
          optional: true,
          captureAsn1: 'rsaPublicKey'
        }]
      }]
    };
     
    var capture = {};
    var errors = [];
    if(!asn1.validate(
      publicKeyValidator, subjectPublicKeyInfo, validator, capture, errors)) {
      throw 'ASN.1 object is not a SubjectPublicKeyInfo.';
    }
    // capture.subjectPublicKeyInfo contains the full ASN.1 object
    // capture.rsaPublicKey contains the full ASN.1 object for the RSA public key
    // capture.publicKeyOid only contains the value for the OID
    var oid = asn1.derToOid(capture.publicKeyOid);
    if(oid !== pki.oids['rsaEncryption']) {
      throw 'Unsupported OID.';
    }
     
    // pretty print an ASN.1 object to a string for debugging purposes
    asn1.prettyPrint(object);

    Message Digests

    SHA1

    Provides SHA-1 message digests.

    Examples

    var md = forge.md.sha1.create();
    md.update('The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog');
    console.log(md.digest().toHex());
    // output: 2fd4e1c67a2d28fced849ee1bb76e7391b93eb12

    SHA256

    Provides SHA-256 message digests.

    Examples

    var md = forge.md.sha256.create();
    md.update('The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog');
    console.log(md.digest().toHex());
    // output: d7a8fbb307d7809469ca9abcb0082e4f8d5651e46d3cdb762d02d0bf37c9e592

    SHA384

    Provides SHA-384 message digests.

    Examples

    var md = forge.md.sha384.create();
    md.update('The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog');
    console.log(md.digest().toHex());
    // output: ca737f1014a48f4c0b6dd43cb177b0afd9e5169367544c494011e3317dbf9a509cb1e5dc1e85a941bbee3d7f2afbc9b1

    SHA512

    Provides SHA-512 message digests.

    Examples

    // SHA-512
    var md = forge.md.sha512.create();
    md.update('The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog');
    console.log(md.digest().toHex());
    // output: 07e547d9586f6a73f73fbac0435ed76951218fb7d0c8d788a309d785436bbb642e93a252a954f23912547d1e8a3b5ed6e1bfd7097821233fa0538f3db854fee6
     
    // SHA-512/224
    var md = forge.md.sha512.sha224.create();
    md.update('The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog');
    console.log(md.digest().toHex());
    // output: 944cd2847fb54558d4775db0485a50003111c8e5daa63fe722c6aa37
     
    // SHA-512/256
    var md = forge.md.sha512.sha256.create();
    md.update('The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog');
    console.log(md.digest().toHex());
    // output: dd9d67b371519c339ed8dbd25af90e976a1eeefd4ad3d889005e532fc5bef04d

    MD5

    Provides MD5 message digests.

    Examples

    var md = forge.md.md5.create();
    md.update('The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog');
    console.log(md.digest().toHex());
    // output: 9e107d9d372bb6826bd81d3542a419d6

    HMAC

    Provides HMAC w/any supported message digest algorithm.

    Examples

    var hmac = forge.hmac.create();
    hmac.start('sha1', 'Jefe');
    hmac.update('what do ya want for nothing?');
    console.log(hmac.digest().toHex());
    // output: effcdf6ae5eb2fa2d27416d5f184df9c259a7c79

    Utilities

    Prime

    Provides an API for generating large, random, probable primes.

    Examples

    // generate a random prime on the main JS thread
    var bits = 1024;
    forge.prime.generateProbablePrime(bits, function(err, num) {
      console.log('random prime', num.toString(16));
    });
     
    // generate a random prime using Web Workers (if available, otherwise
    // falls back to the main thread)
    var bits = 1024;
    var options = {
      algorithm: {
        name: 'PRIMEINC',
        workers: -1 // auto-optimize # of workers
      }
    };
    forge.prime.generateProbablePrime(bits, options, function(err, num) {
      console.log('random prime', num.toString(16));
    });

    PRNG

    Provides a Fortuna-based cryptographically-secure pseudo-random number generator, to be used with a cryptographic function backend, e.g. AES. An implementation using AES as a backend is provided. An API for collecting entropy is given, though if window.crypto.getRandomValues is available, it will be used automatically.

    Examples

    // get some random bytes synchronously
    var bytes = forge.random.getBytesSync(32);
    console.log(forge.util.bytesToHex(bytes));
     
    // get some random bytes asynchronously
    forge.random.getBytes(32, function(err, bytes) {
      console.log(forge.util.bytesToHex(bytes));
    });
     
    // collect some entropy if you'd like
    forge.random.collect(someRandomBytes);
    jQuery().mousemove(function(e) {
      forge.random.collectInt(e.clientX, 16);
      forge.random.collectInt(e.clientY, 16);
    });
     
    // specify a seed file for use with the synchronous API if you'd like
    forge.random.seedFileSync = function(needed) {
      // get 'needed' number of random bytes from somewhere
      return fetchedRandomBytes;
    };
     
    // specify a seed file for use with the asynchronous API if you'd like
    forge.random.seedFile = function(needed, callback) {
      // get the 'needed' number of random bytes from somewhere
      callback(null, fetchedRandomBytes);
    });
     
    // register the main thread to send entropy or a Web Worker to receive
    // entropy on demand from the main thread
    forge.random.registerWorker(self);
     
    // generate a new instance of a PRNG with no collected entropy
    var myPrng = forge.random.createInstance();

    Tasks

    Provides queuing and synchronizing tasks in a web application.

    Examples

    // TODO

    Utilities

    Provides utility functions, including byte buffer support, base64, bytes to/from hex, zlib inflate/deflate, etc.

    Examples

    // encode/decode base64
    var encoded = forge.util.encode64(str);
    var str = forge.util.decode64(encoded);
     
    // encode/decode UTF-8
    var encoded = forge.util.encodeUtf8(str);
    var str = forge.util.decodeUtf8(encoded);
     
    // bytes to/from hex
    var bytes = forge.util.hexToBytes(hex);
    var hex = forge.util.bytesToHex(bytes);
     
    // create an empty byte buffer
    var buffer = forge.util.createBuffer();
    // create a byte buffer from raw binary bytes
    var buffer = forge.util.createBuffer(input, 'raw');
    // create a byte buffer from utf8 bytes
    var buffer = forge.util.createBuffer(input, 'utf8');
     
    // get the length of the buffer in bytes
    buffer.length();
    // put bytes into the buffer
    buffer.putBytes(bytes);
    // put a 32-bit integer into the buffer
    buffer.putInt32(10);
    // buffer to hex
    buffer.toHex();
    // get a copy of the bytes in the buffer
    bytes.bytes(/* count */);
    // empty this buffer and get its contents
    bytes.getBytes(/* count */);
     
    // convert a forge buffer into a Node.js Buffer
    // make sure you specify the encoding as 'binary'
    var forgeBuffer = forge.util.createBuffer();
    var nodeBuffer = new Buffer(forgeBuffer.getBytes(), 'binary');
     
    // convert a Node.js Buffer into a forge buffer
    // make sure you specify the encoding as 'binary'
    var nodeBuffer = new Buffer();
    var forgeBuffer = forge.util.createBuffer(nodeBuffer.toString('binary'));
     
    // parse a URL
    var parsed = forge.util.parseUrl('http://example.com/foo?bar=baz');
    // parsed.scheme, parsed.host, parsed.port, parsed.path, parsed.fullHost

    Logging

    Provides logging to a javascript console using various categories and levels of verbosity.

    Examples

    // TODO

    Debugging

    Provides storage of debugging information normally inaccessible in closures for viewing/investigation.

    Examples

    // TODO

    Flash Networking Support

    The flash README provides details on rebuilding the optional Flash component used for networking. It also provides details on Policy Server support.

    Security Considerations

    When using this code please keep the following in mind:

    • Cryptography is hard. Please review and test this code before depending on it for critical functionality.
    • The nature of JavaScript is that execution of this code depends on trusting a very large set of JavaScript tools and systems. Consider runtime variations, runtime characteristics, runtime optimization, code optimization, code minimization, code obfuscation, bundling tools, possible bugs, the Forge code itself, and so on.
    • If using pre-built bundles from Bower or similar be aware someone else ran the tools to create those files.
    • Use a secure transport channel such as TLS to load scripts and consider using additional security mechanisms such as Subresource Integrity script attributes.
    • Use "native" functionality where possible. This can be critical when dealing with performance and random number generation. Note that the JavaScript random number algorithms should perform well if given suitable entropy.
    • Understand possible attacks against cryptographic systems. For instance side channel and timing attacks may be possible due to the difficulty in implementing constant time algorithms in pure JavaScript.
    • Certain features in this library are less susceptible to attacks depending on usage. This primarily includes features that deal with data format manipulation or those that are not involved in communication.

    Library Background

    Contact

    Donations

    Financial support is welcome and helps contribute to futher development:

    install

    npm i node-forge

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    version

    0.7.5

    license

    (BSD-3-Clause OR GPL-2.0)

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