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hermione

Hermione

Hermione is a utility for integration testing of web pages using WebdriverIO and Mocha.

Why you should choose hermione

Hermione provides several features that WebdriverIO doesn't, and makes the testing process easier.

Easy to use

If you are familiar with WebdriverIO and Mocha, you can start writing and running tests in 5 minutes! You need to install hermione via npm and add a tiny config to your project. For details, see the Quick start section.

Runs tests in parallel

When tests are run one by one, it takes a lot of time. Hermione can run tests in parallel sessions in different browsers out of the box.

Extensible

WebdriverIO provides built-in commands for browser and page manipulation. Often projects need to store some common code and reuse it throughout all tests, so the developer needs to create some helpers and include them in the tests.

With hermione this is very simple and straightforward. You can add any number of custom commands in the hermione config and use them as this.browser.myCustomCommand in tests.

Moreover, hermione provides plugins that work like hooks. They allow the developer to prepare the testing environment and react properly to test execution events.

Retries failed tests

Integration tests use a dynamic environment with a lot of dependencies, where any of them could be unstable from time to time. As a result, integration tests turn red randomly, which makes them imprecise. This spoils the entire testing process.

To prevent incidental fails, hermione retries a failed test before marking it as failed. This makes it possible to get rid of a majority of incidental fails. The number of retries can be specified for all browsers or for a specific browser.

⚠️ Hermione reruns tests in a new browser session to exclude situations when the browser environment is the cause of the failure.

Executes separate tests

Sometimes you only need to run specific tests, not all the tests in a set. Hermione makes this possible. You can specify the path to the test file

hermione tests/func/mytest.js

or filter describes by using the --grep option

hermione --grep login

or simply use the mocha only() API in the test

describe.only('user login', function() {...});

Skips tests in specific browsers

Sometimes you need to skip a test just in a specific browser, not in all browsers. For example, you don't need to run some test in ugly IE browsers. In hermione you can do this with hermione helper. For example, you can skip some tests in a specific browser

describe('feature', function() {
    hermione.skip.in('ie8', 'it cannot work in this browser');
    it('nowaday functionality', function() {...});
});

or run tests in just one browser

describe('feature', function() {
    // will be skipped in all browsers except Chrome 
    hermione.skip.notIn('chrome', 'it should work only in Chrome');
    it('specific functionality', function() {...});
});

In these cases you will see messages in reports with the reason for skipping.

To skip a suite or test silently (without any messages in reports), you can pass the third argument with the silent flag:

hermione.skip.in('ie8', 'skipReason', {silent: true});
// or 
hermione.skip.notIn('chrome', 'skipReason', {silent: true});

Or you can use another hermione helper, only, which is silent by default:

hermione.only.in('chrome');
// or 
hermione.only.notIn('ie8');

hermione.only.in will run tests only in the specified browsers and skip the rest silently.

hermione.only.notIn will run tests in all browsers except the specified ones.

Offers flexible test configuration

Hermione lets you configure running some set of tests in specific browsers. For example,

sets: {
    desktop: {
        files: 'tests/desktop',
        browsers: ['ie8', 'opera']
    },
    touch: {
        files: 'tests/touch',
        browsers: ['iphone', 'android']
    }
}

See sets for more details.

Automatically initializes and closes grid sessions

All work with the grid client is encapsulated in hermione. Forget about client.init and client.end in your tests ;)

Prerequisites

Because hermione is based on WebdriverIO, you need to set up Selenium before proceeding further.

The simplest way to get started is to use one of the NPM selenium standalone packages, such as vvo/selenium-standalone. After installing it (globally), you can run your server by executing:

selenium-standalone start

before and beforeEach hooks

before hook is similar in meaning to beforeEach one. This feature was implemented in order to ensure better stability while running tests and make them independent of each other.

Skip

This feature allows you to ignore the specified suite or test in any browser, with an additional comment. You can do this by using the global hermione.skip helper. It supports the following methods:

  • .in – Adds matchers for browsers with the additional comment.
  • .notIn.in method with the reverted value.

Each of these methods takes the following arguments:

  • browser {String|RegExp|Array<String|RegExp>} – Matcher for browser(s) to skip.
  • [comment] {String} – Comment for skipped test.
  • [options] {Object} – Additional options.

Note that matchers will be compared with browserId specified in the config file, e.g. chrome-desktop.

For example,

describe('feature', function() {
    hermione.skip.in('chrome', "It shouldn't work this way in Chrome");
    it('should work this way', function() {
        return runTestThisWay();
    });
 
    it('should work that way', function() {
        return runTestThatWay();
    });
 
    hermione.skip.in(['chrome', 'firefox', /ie\d*/], 'Unstable test, see ticket TEST-487');
    it('should have done some tricky things', function() {
        return runTrickyTest();
    });
});

In this case, the behaviour it should work this way will be skipped only in chrome browser, but will be run in other browsers. It should work that way will not be ignored. So only the nearest test will be skipped. If you need to skip all tests within a suite, you can apply the skip helper to a describe so all tests within this suite will be skipped with the same comment.

hermione.skip.in('chrome', 'skip comment');
describe('some feature', function() {
    it(...);
    it(...);
});

You can also use the .notIn method to invert matching. For example,

// ... 
hermione.skip.notIn('chrome', 'some comment');
it('should work this way', function() {
    return doSomething();
});
// ... 

In this case, the test will be skipped in all browsers except chrome.

All of these methods are chainable, so you can skip a test in several browsers with different comments. For example,

// ... 
hermione.skip
    .in('chrome', 'some comment')
    .notIn('ie9', 'another comment');
it('test1', function() {
    return doSomething();
});
// ... 

If you need to skip a test in all browsers without a comment, you can use mocha .skip method instead of hermione.skip.in(/.*/);. The result will be the same.

Only

This feature allows you to ignore the specified suite or test in any browser silently (without any messages in reports). You can do this by using the global hermione.only helper. It supports two methods:

  • .in — The hermione.skip.notIn method with the silent flag,
  • .notIn — The hermione.skip.in with the silent flag.

These methods take the following arguments:

  • browser {String|RegExp|Array<String|RegExp>} — A matcher for browser(s) to skip.

For example:

// ... 
hermione.only.in('chrome');
 
it('should work this way', function() {
    return doSomething();
});

The test will be skipped all browsers silently except in chrome.

hermione.only.notIn('ie9');
it('should work another way', function() {
    return doSomething();
});

The test will be processed in all browsers and silently skipped in ie9.

WebdriverIO extensions

Hermione adds some useful methods and properties to the webdriverio session after its initialization.

Sharable meta info

Implemented via two commands:

  • setMeta(key, value)
  • getMeta(key)

These methods allow you to store some information between webdriver calls and it can then be used in custom commands, for instance. This meta information will be shown in the allure report.

Note: hermione saves the last URL opened in the browser in meta info.

Example:

it('test1', function() {
    return this.browser
        .setMeta('foo', 'bar')
        .url('/foo/bar?baz=qux')
        .getMeta('foo')
        .then((val) => console.log(val)) // prints 'bar' 
        .getMeta('url')
        .then((url) => console.log(url)); // prints '/foo/bar?baz=qux' 
});

Execution context

The execution context can be accessed by the browser.executionContext property, which contains the current test/hook mocha object extended with the browser id.

Example:

it('some test', function() {
    return this.browser
        .url('/foo/bar')
        .then(function() {
            console.log('test', this.executionContext);
        });
});

will print something like this

test: {
  "title": "some test",
  "async": 0,
  "sync": true,
  "timedOut": false,
  "pending": false,
  "type": "test",
  "body": "...",
  "file": "/foo/bar/baz/qux.js",
  "parent": "#<Suite>",
  "ctx": "#<Context>",
  "browserId": "chrome",
  "meta": {},
  "timer": {}
}

Quick start

First of all, make sure that all prerequisites are satisfied.

Install the package.

npm install -g hermione

Then put .hermione.conf.js in the project root.

module.exports = {
    sets: {
        desktop: {
            files: 'tests/desktop'
        }
    },
 
    browsers: {
        chrome: {
            desiredCapabilities: {
                browserName: 'chrome'
            }
        }
    }
};

Write your first test.

var assert = require('chai').assert;
 
describe('github', function() {
    it('should find hermione', function() {
        return this.browser
            .url('https://github.com/gemini-testing/hermione')
            .getText('#readme h1')
            .then(function(title) {
                assert.equal(title, 'Hermione')
            });
    });
});

Finally, run tests.

hermione

.hermione.conf.js

hermione is tuned using a configuration file. By default, it uses .hermione.conf.js, but you can use the --conf option to specify a path to the configuration file.

There is only one required field – browsers.

module.exports = {
    browsers: {
        chrome: {
            desiredCapabilities: {
                browserName: 'chrome'
            }
        }
    }
};

sets

You can use sets to bind some set of tests to certain browsers.

Format of the sets section:

sets: {
    common: {                 // run tests associated with this path in all browsers 
        files: 'tests/common' // which are configured in the `browsers` option 
    },
    desktop: {
        files: [
            'tests/desktop/*.hermione.js',
            'tests/common/*.hermione.js'
        ]
        browsers: ['browser'] // run tests which match the specified masks in the browser with the `browser` id 
    }
}
  • files – A list of test files or directories with test files. This can be a string if you want to specify just one file or directory. Also, you can use masks for this property.

  • browsers – A list of browser IDs to run the tests specified in files. All browsers by default.

You can specify sets to run using the CLI option --set.

If sets are not specified in the config and paths were not passed from CLI, all files from the hermione directory are launched in all browsers specified in the config.

Running tests using sets:

hermione --set desktop

browsers

Required. The list of browsers to use for running tests.

The browser section has the following format

browsers: {
    <browser_id>: {
        <option>:<value>
        <option>:<value>
    }
}

<browser-id> value is used for browser identification.

Available browser options:

Option name Description
desiredCapabilities Required. Used WebDriver DesiredCapabilities
gridUrl Selenium grid URL. Default value is http://localhost:4444/wd/hub.
baseUrl Base service-under-test URL. Default value is http://localhost.
waitTimeout Timeout for web page event. Default value is 1000 ms.
httpTimeout Timeout for any requests to Selenium server. Default value is 90000 ms.
sessionRequestTimeout Timeout for getting a browser session. Default value is httpTimeout.
sessionQuitTimeout Timeout for quitting a session. Default value is httpTimeout.
sessionsPerBrowser Number of sessions which are run simultaneously. Default value is 1.
testsPerSession Maximum amount of tests (its) to run in each web driver session.
retry How many times a test should be rerun. Default value is 0.
screenshotPath Directory to save screenshots by Webdriverio. Default value is null.
meta Additional data that can be obtained via .getMeta() method

gridUrl

Selenium grid URL. Default value is http://localhost:4444/wd/hub.

baseUrl

Base service-under-test URL. Default value is http://localhost.

httpTimeout

Timeout for any requests to Selenium server. Default value is 90000 ms.

sessionRequestTimeout

Timeout for getting a browser session. Default value is httpTimeout.

sessionQuitTimeout

Timeout for quitting a session. Default value is httpTimeout.

waitTimeout

Timeout for web page events. Default value is 1000 ms.

sessionsPerBrowser

Number of sessions which are run simultaneously. Global value for all browsers. Default value is 1.

testsPerSession

Maximum amount of tests (its) to run in each web driver session. After limit is reached, session will be closed and new one will be started. By default is Infinity (no limit, all tests will be run in the same session). Set to smaller number in case of problems with stability.

retry

How many times a test should be retried if it fails. Global value for all browsers. Default value is 0.

meta

Additional data that can be obtained via .getMeta() method

system

debug

Turn webdriver debug mode on. Default value is false.

mochaOpts

Extra options for mocha which are passed to mocha.setup. See Mocha documentation for the list of options. Default values are:

mochaOpts: {
    slow: 10000, // If test execution time is greater than this value, then the test is slow. 
    timeout: 60000 // timeout for test execution. 
}

ctx

A context which will be available in tests via method hermione.ctx:

ctx: {
    foo: 'bar'
}
it('awesome test', function() {
    console.log(hermione.ctx); // {foo: 'bar'} 
});

Recommendation: use ctx in your tests in favor of global variables.

patternsOnReject

Session would be rejected if test has been faile with error message which matches to specified patterns:

patternsOnReject: [
    /some-pattern/,
    'other-pattern'
]

plugins

Hermione plugins are commonly used to extend built-in functionality. For example, hermione-allure-reporter and hermione-tunnel.

A plugin is a module that exports a single function. The function has two arguments:

  • The hermione instance
  • Plugin options from the configuration file

Plugins will be loaded before hermione runs tests.

It's strongly recommended to name hermione plugins with the hermione- prefix. This makes searching for user plugins very simple.

If a plugin name starts with hermione-, then the prefix can be ommited in the configuration file. If two modules with names hermione-some-module and some-module are specified, the module with the prefix will have higher priority.

For example:

// .hermione.conf.js 
// ... 
plugins: {
    'my-cool-plugin': {
        param: 'value'
    }
}
// ... 
 
// hermione-my-cool-plugin/index.js 
module.exports = function(hermione, opts) {
    hermione.on(hermione.events.RUNNER_START, function(runner) {
        return setUp(hermione.config, opts.param); // config can be mutated 
    });
 
    hermione.on(hermione.events.RUNNER_END, function() {
        return tearDown();
    });
}

Properties of the hermione object

Property name Description
config Config that is used in the test runner. Can be mutated.
events Events list for subscription.

Available events

Event Description
BEFORE_FILE_READ Will be triggered on test files parsing before reading the file. The handler accepts data object with file, browser (browser id string), hermione (helper which will be available in test file) and suite (collection of tests in a file; provides the ability to subscribe on test and suite events) fields.
AFTER_FILE_READ Will be triggered on test files parsing right after reading the file. The handler accepts data object with file, browser (browser id string), hermione (helper which will be available in test file) and suite (collection of tests in a file; provides the ability to subscribe on test and suite events) fields.
RUNNER_START Will be triggered before test execution. If a handler returns a promise, tests will be executed only after the promise is resolved. The handler accepts an instance of a runner as the first argument. You can use this instance to emit and subscribe to any other available events.
RUNNER_END Will be triggered after test execution. If a handler returns a promise, tests will be executed only after the promise is resolved.
NEW_BROWSER Will be triggered after new browser instance created. The handler accepts an instance of webdriverIO as the first argument and an object with a browser identifier as the second.
SESSION_START Will be triggered after browser session initialization. If a handler returns a promise, tests will be executed only after the promise is resolved. The handler accepts an instance of webdriverIO as the first argument and an object with a browser identifier as the second.
SESSION_END Will be triggered after the browser session ends. If a handler returns a promise, tests will be executed only after the promise is resolved. The handler accepts an instance of webdriverIO as the first argument and an object with a browser identifier as the second.
BEGIN Will be triggered before test execution, but after all the runners are initialized.
SUITE_BEGIN Test suite is about to execute.
SUITE_END Test suite execution is finished.
TEST_BEGIN Test is about to execute.
TEST_END Test execution is finished.
TEST_PASS Test passed.
TEST_FAIL Test failed.
TEST_PENDING Test is skipped.
RETRY Test failed but went to retry.
ERROR Generic (no tests) errors.
INFO Reserved.
WARNING Reserved.
EXIT Will be triggered when SIGTERM is received (for example, Ctrl + C). The handler can return a promise.

prepareBrowser

Prepare the browser session before tests are run. For example, add custom user commands.

prepareBrowser: function(browser) {
    // do setup here 
}

The browser argument is a WebdriverIO session.

prepareEnvironment

Configuration data can be changed depending on extra conditions in the prepareEnvironment function.

CLI

  Usage: hermione [options]

  Options:

    -h, --help                 Output usage information
    -c, --config <path>        Path to configuration file
    -r, --reporter <reporter>  Test reporter
    -b, --browser <browser>    Run tests only in specified browser
    --grep <grep>              Run only tests matching string or regexp

For example,

hermione --config ./config.js --reporter flat --browser firefox --grep name

Note. All CLI options override config values.

Reporters

You can choose flat or plain reporter by option -r, --reporter. Default is flat.

  • flat – all information about failed and retried tests would be grouped by browsers at the end of the report.

  • plain – information about fails and retries would be placed after each test.

Overriding settings

All options can also be overridden via command-line flags or environment variables. Priorities are the following:

  • A command-line option has the highest priority. It overrides the environment variable and config file value.

  • An environment variable has second priority. It overrides the config file value.

  • A config file value has the lowest priority.

  • If there isn't a command-line option, environment variable or config file option specified, the default is used.

To override a config setting with a CLI option, convert the full option path to --kebab-case. For example, if you want to run tests against a different base URL, call:

hermione path/to/mytest.js --base-url http://example.com

To change the number of sessions for Firefox (assuming you have a browser with the firefox id in the config):

hermione path/to/mytest.js --browsers-firefox-sessions-per-browser 7

To override a setting with an environment variable, convert its full path to snake_case and add the hermione_ prefix. The above examples can be rewritten to use environment variables instead of CLI options:

hermione_base_url=http://example.com hermione path/to/mytest.js
hermione_browsers_firefox_sessions_per_browser=7 hermione path/to/mytest.js

Programmatic API

With the API, you can use Hermione programmatically in your scripts or build tools.

const Hermione = require('hermione');
 
const hermione = new Hermione(config, allowOverrides);
  • config (required) String|Object – Path to the configuration file that will be read relative to process.cwd or configuration object.
  • allowOverrides (optional) Object – Switch on/off configuration override via environment variables or CLI options:
    • env (optional) Boolean – Switch on/off configuration override via environment variables. Default is false.
    • cli (optional) Boolean - Switch on/off configuration override via CLI options. Default is false.

run

hermione.run(testPaths, options)
    .then((success) => process.exit(success ? 0 : 1))
    .catch((e) => {
        console.log(e.stack);
        process.exit(1);
    })
    .done();
  • testPaths (optional) String[] – Paths to tests relative to process.cwd.
  • options (optional) Object
    • reporters (optional) String[] – Test result reporters.
    • browsers (optional) String[] – Browsers to run tests in.
    • grep (optional) RegExp – Pattern that defines which tests to run.

readTests

hermione.readTests(testPaths, browsers, options).done();
  • testPaths (required) String[] – Paths to tests relative to process.cwd.
  • browsers (optional) String[] – Read tests only for the specified browsers.
  • options (optional) Object:
    • loadPlugins (optional) Boolean – flag which enables/disables loading of plugins before reading tests; default is true.

isFailed

hermione.isFailed();

Returns true or false depending on whether there has been an error or a test fail while running tests; can be useful in plugins to determine current Hermione status.

Environment variables

HERMIONE_SKIP_BROWSERS

Skip the browsers specified in the config by passing the browser IDs. Multiple browser IDs should be separated by commas (spaces after commas are allowed).

For example,

HERMIONE_SKIP_BROWSERS=ie10,ie11 hermione