express-jwt
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    7.7.5 • Public • Published

    express-jwt

    This module provides Express middleware for validating JWTs (JSON Web Tokens) through the jsonwebtoken module. The decoded JWT payload is available on the request object.

    Install

    $ npm install express-jwt
    

    API

    expressjwt(options)

    Options has the following parameters:

    • secret: jwt.Secret | GetVerificationKey (required): The secret as a string or a function to retrieve the secret.
    • getToken?: TokenGetter (optional): A function that receives the express Request and returns the token, by default it looks in the Authorization header.
    • isRevoked?: IsRevoked (optional): A function to verify if a token is revoked.
    • credentialsRequired?: boolean (optional): If its false, continue to the next middleware if the request does not contain a token instead of failing, defaults to true.
    • requestProperty?: string (optional): Name of the property in the request object where the payload is set. Default to req.auth.
    • Plus... all the options available in the jsonwebtoken verify function.

    The available functions have the following interface:

    • GetVerificationKey = (req: express.Request, token: jwt.Jwt | undefined) => Promise<jwt.Secret>;
    • IsRevoked = (req: express.Request, token: jwt.Jwt | undefined) => Promise<boolean>;
    • TokenGetter = (req: express.Request) => string | Promise<string> | undefined;

    Usage

    Basic usage using an HS256 secret:

    var { expressjwt: jwt } = require("express-jwt");
    // or ES6
    // import { expressjwt, ExpressJwtRequest } from "express-jwt";
    
    app.get(
      "/protected",
      jwt({ secret: "shhhhhhared-secret", algorithms: ["HS256"] }),
      function (req, res) {
        if (!req.auth.admin) return res.sendStatus(401);
        res.sendStatus(200);
      }
    );

    The decoded JWT payload is available on the request via the auth property.

    The default behavior of the module is to extract the JWT from the Authorization header as an OAuth2 Bearer token.

    Required Parameters

    The algorithms parameter is required to prevent potential downgrade attacks when providing third party libraries as secrets.

    ⚠️ Do not mix symmetric and asymmetric (ie HS256/RS256) algorithms: Mixing algorithms without further validation can potentially result in downgrade vulnerabilities.

    jwt({
      secret: "shhhhhhared-secret",
      algorithms: ["HS256"],
      //algorithms: ['RS256']
    });

    Additional Options

    You can specify audience and/or issuer as well, which is highly recommended for security purposes:

    jwt({
      secret: "shhhhhhared-secret",
      audience: "http://myapi/protected",
      issuer: "http://issuer",
      algorithms: ["HS256"],
    });

    If the JWT has an expiration (exp), it will be checked.

    If you are using a base64 URL-encoded secret, pass a Buffer with base64 encoding as the secret instead of a string:

    jwt({
      secret: Buffer.from("shhhhhhared-secret", "base64"),
      algorithms: ["RS256"],
    });

    To only protect specific paths (e.g. beginning with /api), use express router call use, like so:

    app.use("/api", jwt({ secret: "shhhhhhared-secret", algorithms: ["HS256"] }));

    Or, the other way around, if you want to make some paths unprotected, cal unless like so.

    app.use(
      jwt({
        secret: "shhhhhhared-secret",
        algorithms: ["HS256"],
      }).unless({ path: ["/token"] })
    );

    This is especially useful when applying to multiple routes. In the example above, path can be a string, a regexp, or an array of any of those.

    For more details on the .unless syntax including additional options, please see express-unless.

    This module also support tokens signed with public/private key pairs. Instead of a secret, you can specify a Buffer with the public key

    var publicKey = fs.readFileSync("/path/to/public.pub");
    jwt({ secret: publicKey, algorithms: ["RS256"] });

    Customizing Token Location

    A custom function for extracting the token from a request can be specified with the getToken option. This is useful if you need to pass the token through a query parameter or a cookie. You can throw an error in this function and it will be handled by express-jwt.

    app.use(
      jwt({
        secret: "hello world !",
        algorithms: ["HS256"],
        credentialsRequired: false,
        getToken: function fromHeaderOrQuerystring(req) {
          if (
            req.headers.authorization &&
            req.headers.authorization.split(" ")[0] === "Bearer"
          ) {
            return req.headers.authorization.split(" ")[1];
          } else if (req.query && req.query.token) {
            return req.query.token;
          }
          return null;
        },
      })
    );

    Retrieve key dynamically

    If you need to obtain the key dynamically from other sources, you can pass a function in the secret parameter with the following parameters:

    • req (Object) - The express request object.
    • token (Object) - An object with the JWT payload and headers.

    For example, if the secret varies based on the issuer:

    var jwt = require("express-jwt");
    var data = require("./data");
    var utilities = require("./utilities");
    
    var getSecret = async function (req, token) {
      const issuer = token.payload.iss;
      const tenant = await data.getTenantByIdentifier(issuer);
      if (!tenant) {
        throw new Error("missing_secret");
      }
      return utilities.decrypt(tenant.secret);
    };
    
    app.get(
      "/protected",
      jwt({ secret: getSecret, algorithms: ["HS256"] }),
      function (req, res) {
        if (!req.auth.admin) return res.sendStatus(401);
        res.sendStatus(200);
      }
    );

    Revoked tokens

    It is possible that some tokens will need to be revoked so they cannot be used any longer. You can provide a function as the isRevoked option. The signature of the function is function(req, payload, done):

    • req (Object) - The express request object.
    • token (Object) - An object with the JWT payload and headers.

    For example, if the (iss, jti) claim pair is used to identify a JWT:

    const jwt = require("express-jwt");
    const data = require("./data");
    
    const isRevokedCallback = async (req, token) => {
      const issuer = token.payload.iss;
      const tokenId = token.payload.jti;
      const token = await data.getRevokedToken(issuer, tokenId);
      return token !== "undefined";
    };
    
    app.get(
      "/protected",
      jwt({
        secret: "shhhhhhared-secret",
        algorithms: ["HS256"],
        isRevoked: isRevokedCallback,
      }),
      function (req, res) {
        if (!req.auth.admin) return res.sendStatus(401);
        res.sendStatus(200);
      }
    );

    Error handling

    The default behavior is to throw an error when the token is invalid, so you can add your custom logic to manage unauthorized access as follows:

    app.use(function (err, req, res, next) {
      if (err.name === "UnauthorizedError") {
        res.status(401).send("invalid token...");
      } else {
        next(err);
      }
    });

    You might want to use this module to identify registered users while still providing access to unregistered users. You can do this by using the option credentialsRequired:

    app.use(
      jwt({
        secret: "hello world !",
        algorithms: ["HS256"],
        credentialsRequired: false,
      })
    );

    Typescript

    An ExpressJwtRequest type is provided which extends express.Request with the auth property.

    import { expressjwt, Request as JWTRequest } from "express-jwt";
    
    app.get(
      "/protected",
      expressjwt({ secret: "shhhhhhared-secret", algorithms: ["HS256"] }),
      function (req: JWTRequest, res: express.Response) {
        if (!req.auth?.admin) return res.sendStatus(401);
        res.sendStatus(200);
      }
    );

    Migration from v6

    1. The middleware function is now available as a named import rather than a default one: import { expressjwt } from 'express-jwt'
    2. The decoded JWT payload is now available as req.auth rather than req.user
    3. The secret function had (req, header, payload, cb), now it can return a promise and receives (req, token). token has header and payload.
    4. The isRevoked function had (req, payload, cb), now it can return a promise and receives (req, token). token has header and payload.

    Related Modules

    Tests

    $ npm install
    $ npm test
    

    Contributors

    Check them out here

    Issue Reporting

    If you have found a bug or if you have a feature request, please report them at this repository issues section. Please do not report security vulnerabilities on the public GitHub issue tracker. The Responsible Disclosure Program details the procedure for disclosing security issues.

    Author

    Auth0

    License

    This project is licensed under the MIT license. See the LICENSE file for more info.

    Install

    npm i express-jwt

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    Version

    7.7.5

    License

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