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    express-json-validator-middleware
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    3.0.1 • Public • Published

    Express JSON Validator Middleware

    Express middleware for validating requests against JSON schemas with Ajv.

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    Why validate with JSON schemas?

    • Expressive — JSON schemas are an expressive way to describe data structures.
    • Standard — JSON schemas are portable. There are validator implementations in many languages.
    • Separate validation — Avoid the need to handle request validation in your route handlers.
    • Error messaging — Ajv provides rich and descriptive error objects.
    • Documentation — Schemas can help document your application.

    Requirements

    Installation

    npm install express-json-validator-middleware

    If you're upgrading from v2 to v3, make sure you read the migration notes.

    Getting started

    import { Validator } from "express-json-validator-middleware";
    
    /**
     * Define a JSON schema.
     */
    const addressSchema = {
      type: "object",
      required: ["street"],
      properties: {
        street: {
          type: "string",
        }
      },
    };
    
    /**
     * Initialize a `Validator` instance, optionally passing in
     * an Ajv options object.
     *
     * @see https://github.com/ajv-validator/ajv/tree/v6#options
     */
     const { validate } = new Validator();
    
    /**
     * The `validate` method accepts an object which maps request
     * properties to the JSON schema you want them to be validated
     * against e.g.
     *
     * { requestPropertyToValidate: jsonSchemaObject }
     *
     * Validate `request.body` against `addressSchema`.
     */
    app.post("/address", validate({ body: addressSchema }), (request, response) => {
      /**
       * Route handler logic to run when `request.body` has been validated.
       */
      response.send({});
    });

    Coming from express-jsonschema? Read the migration notes.

    Schemas in TypeScript

    If you're writing JSON schemas in TypeScript, you'll need to use the AllowedSchema type e.g.

    import { AllowedSchema } from "express-json-validator-middleware";
    
    const addressSchema: AllowedSchema  = {
      type: "object",
      required: ["street"],
      properties: {
        street: {
          type: "string",
        }
      },
    };

    This is required so TypeScript doesn't attempt to widen the types of values in the schema object. If you omit this type, TypeScript will raise an error.

    See issues #39 and #102 for more background.

    Error handling

    On encountering invalid data, the validator will call next() with a ValidationError object. It is recommended to setup a general error handler for your app where you handle ValidationError errors.

    Example - error thrown for the body request property:

    ValidationError {
        name: "JsonSchemaValidationError",
        validationErrors: {
            body: [AjvError]
        }
    }

    More information on Ajv errors.

    Example Express application

    import express from "express";
    
    import { Validator, ValidationError } from "express-json-validator-middleware";
    
    const app = express();
    
    app.use(express.json());
    
    const addressSchema = {
      type: "object",
      required: ["number", "street", "type"],
      properties: {
        number: {
          type: "number",
        },
        street: {
          type: "string",
        },
        type: {
          type: "string",
          enum: ["Street", "Avenue", "Boulevard"],
        },
      },
    };
    
    const { validate } = new Validator();
    
    /**
     * Validate `request.body` against `addressSchema`.
     */
    app.post("/address", validate({ body: addressSchema }), (request, response) => {
      /**
       * Route handler logic to run when `request.body` has been validated.
       */
      response.send({});
    });
    
    /**
     * Error handler middleware for validation errors.
     */
    app.use((error, request, response, next) => {
      // Check the error is a validation error
      if (error instanceof ValidationError) {
        // Handle the error
        response.status(400).send(error.validationErrors);
        next();
      } else {
        // Pass error on if not a validation error
        next(error);
      }
    });
    
    app.listen(3000);

    Validating multiple request properties

    Sometimes your route may depend on the body and query both having a specific format. In this example we use body and query but you can choose to validate any request properties you like. This example builds on the Example Express application.

    const tokenSchema = {
      type: "object",
      required: ["token"],
      properties: {
        token: {
          type: "string",
          minLength: 36,
          maxLength: 36
        },
      },
    };
    
    app.post(
      "/address",
      validate({ body: addressSchema, query: tokenSchema }),
      (request, response) => {
        /**
         * Route handler logic to run when `request.body` and
         * `request.query` have both been validated.
         */
        response.send({});
      }
    );

    A valid request must now include a token URL query. Example valid URL: /street/?uuid=af3996d0-0e8b-4165-ae97-fdc0823be417

    Using dynamic schema

    Instead of passing in a schema object you can also pass in a function that will return a schema. It is useful if you need to generate or alter the schema based on the request object.

    Example: Loading schema from a database (this example builds on the Example Express application):

    function getSchemaFromDb() {
      /**
       * In a real application this would be making a database query.
       */
      return Promise.resolve(addressSchema);
    }
    
    /**
     * Middleware to set schema on the `request` object.
     */
    async function loadSchema(request, response, next) {
      try {
        request.schema = await getSchemaFromDb();
        next();
      } catch (error) {
        next(error);
      }
    }
    
    /**
     * Get schema set by the `loadSchema` middleware.
     */
    function getSchema(request) {
      return request.schema;
    }
    
    app.post(
      "/address",
      loadSchema,
      validate({ body: getSchema }),
      (request, response) => {
        /**
         * Route handler logic to run when `request.body` has been validated.
         */
        response.send({});
      }
    );

    Ajv instance

    The Ajv instance can be accessed via validator.ajv.

    import { Validator, ValidationError } from "express-json-validator-middleware";
    
    const validator = new Validator();
    
    // Ajv instance
    validator.ajv;

    Ajv must be configured before you call Validator.validate() to add middleware (e.g. if you need to define custom keywords.

    Upgrading from v2 to v3

    v2.x releases of this library use Ajv v6. v3.x of this library uses Ajv v8.

    Notable changes between Ajv v6 and v8:

    • All formats have been moved to ajv-formats. If you're using formats in your schemas, you must install this package to continue using them.
    • The structure of validation errors has changed.
    • Support has been dropped for JSON Schema draft-04.

    For full details, read the Ajv migration guide: Changes from Ajv v6.12.6 to v8.0.0.

    If you have any Ajv plugins as dependencies, update them to their newest versions. Older versions of Ajv plugins are less likely to be compatible with Ajv v8.

    Tests

    Tests are written using node-tap.

    npm install
    
    npm test
    

    More documentation on JSON Schema

    Credits

    Install

    npm i express-json-validator-middleware

    DownloadsWeekly Downloads

    13,134

    Version

    3.0.1

    License

    MIT

    Unpacked Size

    14.4 kB

    Total Files

    5

    Last publish

    Collaborators

    • vacekj
    • simonplend