0.0.25 • Public • Published


Due to a naming conflict with this project has been moved to denodata

A Deno native indexed database. Backed by the Deno KV store, denobase has zero external dependencies.

Both traditional table-oriented and object-oriented index approaches are supported and can be mixed and matched.

The standard Deno KV key-value functions remain available and are enhanced to support the indexing and metadata features.

Support for automatic serialization and deserialization of class instances, automatic key/value expiration and developer defined metadata.

Support for Date, RegExp and symbol as part of keys. Support for symbol as part of values.

A powerful db.find function that supports approximate matching and works on both indexes and regular keys with over 50 operators including regular expressions, soundex/echoes, credit card, SSNs and more. If something is missing, it can be added in as little as one line.


import {Denobase,operators} from "";
import {Denobase} from "";
import {operators} from "";
const {$startsWith,$eq} = operators;

const db = await Denobase();

Use like Deno KV

await db.set(["mykey"], "myvalue");
const {key,value,version} = await db.get(["mykey"]);
await db.delete(["mykey"]);

Simplified and Extended Deno KV

Primitive keys are automatically converted to the arrays required by Deno KV.

Deno KV does not provide a db.clear function. Denobase does.

await db.set("mykey", "myvalue");
await (async () => { const {key,value,version} = await db.get("mykey")})();
await db.delete("mykey");
await db.clear();

Automatic object indexes

All properties and sub-properties on an object can be automatically indexed and collection/class names specified using the option cname.

await (async () => {
  const id = await db.put({id:1,name:"John Doe",age:42},{cname:"Person",autoIndex:true});
  const {key,value,version} = await db.get(id);
  console.log(value); // prints the Person instance

Finding objects

Denobase can be searched using literals, built-in operators, or inline functions.

A class instance can be passed as a pattern or a cname or ctor (constructor) can be used to restrict searches to a specific collection/class.

A POJO can be passed as a pattern without a cname or ctor to search across all collections/classes.

If both a cname and ctor are specified, the cname takes precedence and is used to determine the collection/class name.

// find with literals
await (async () => {
  for await (const {key,value,version} of db.find(new Person({age:42}))) {
    console.log(value); // prints the Person instance
// use built in operators
await (async () => {
  for await (const {key,value,version} of db.find({age:$eq(42)},{cname:"Person"})) {
    console.log(value); // prints the Person instance
// inline your own operators
await (async () => {
  for await (const {key, value, version} of db.find({age: (v) => v === 42 ? v : undefined}, {ctor: Person})) {
    console.log(value); // prints the Person instance
  await db.delete(value);
  // or await db.delete(id); // deletes the Person instance, updates indexes

Declared indexes and classes

class Book {
  constructor(author, title,publisher) { = author;
    this.title = title;
    this.publisher = {
await db.createIndex({indexType:"object",ctor:Book,keys:["author","title","publisher"]});
await db.createIndex({indexType:"table",ctor:Book,keys:["author","title",""]});
await db.put(new Book("John Doe", "My Life","ACME, Inc"),{metadata:{*60*60*24*30}});
await (async () => {
  for await (const {key,value,version,score,count,offsetCount,totalCount} of db.find(
          {author:"John Doe",title:"My Life"},// partial match pattern
          {cname:"Book",indexName:""})) { // use the table index
    console.log(value); // prints Book instance, so long as record has not expired
await (async () => {
  for await (const {key, value, version} of db.find(new Book(undefined,undefined,$startsWith("ACME")))) {
    console.log(value); // prints Book instance, a cname for index matching is inferred from class of pattern
await (async () => {
  for await (const {key, value, version, score} of db.find(
          {author: "John Doe",title:"Another Life"}, // only 50% of this pattern matches anything
          {minScore:.5,cname:"Book",indexType:"object"})) { // use object index (minScore is only supported for object indexes)
    console.log(value,score); // prints Book instance, less efficient, large index scans because of lack of cname
await (async () => {
  for await (const {key, value, version} of db.find(
          {author: "John Doe"})) { // use object index across any class since cname and index name are not specified
    console.log(value); // prints Book instance, less efficient, large index scans because of lack of cname


Not yet available on For now, use:

import {Denobase} from "";` 
import {operators} from "";

Run Deno with the --allow-net and --unstable flags.


db Denobase(options={})

  • Returns an enhanced Deno KV.

    • options has the surface {idProperty:string="#",metadataProperty:string="^",maxTransactionSize:number=10,indexValueMutator:function}. At the moment, 10 is the max transaction size supported by Deno KV itself. indexValueMutator is documented below.
    • indexValueMutator is a function that takes key and cname. It should either return the key, a modified form of the key, undefined or throw an error. The value being indexed is the last item in the key. If undefined is returned, the property holding the value is not indexed. If an error is thrown the indexing operation is aborted. This is useful for indexing objects that contain properties that contain string values too large for Deno KV to handle. The current limit for Deno KV is 2048 bytes for an entire key. The Denobase index structure includes property names, so the practical limit for a string is slightly less and depends on the length of property names. If you expect large string values, you must provide an implementation for this function. In advanced cases, it can be used to support vector transformations on values.


  • Keys in denobase can be any value that is a valid Deno KV key component, or they can be a Deno KV key. If they are not a Deno KV key, they are automatically converted into the arrays normally used by Deno KV. For example "mykey" is the same as ["mykey"].

  • Object ids are stored in the property #. This can be changed with the database option idProperty.

  • Several methods take a metadata parameter. This can contain any metadata you want to associate with the record, e.g. person that created the record. It can also contain an expires property. If expires is a number it represents the number of milliseconds in the future. If expires is a Date it is the datetime the record expires. For compliance and resource management reasons it is important to know that deletion actually occurs when an attempt is made to retrieve the record. There is no daemon that constantly purges the database. Metadata is automatically indexed when using autoIndex. When manually creating indexes, add ^ to the index keys to index metadata. This can be changed with the start-up option metadataProperty.

  • For the v0.x.x releases only the top level database functions have been modified to support enhanced capabilities. Methods on transactions, e.g. db.atomic().set(), are native and do not support automatic key conversion, metadata, etc.

void db.delete(keyOrPattern:primitive|UInt8Array|array|object,{?cname:string,?indexOnly:bool,?find:boolean})

  • Deletes a record using key or pattern. Updates indexes.

  • If keyOrPattern is a primitive, UInt8Array, or valid Deno KV key, the record is deleted.

  • If keyOrPattern is an array, but not a valid Deno KV key and find is true, db.find is used with the array as a pattern. Yielded values are deleted. The find flag is used to prevent deletion when an invalid Deno KV key is accidentally passed.

  • If keyOrPattern is an object with an id, the id is used to delete the object.

  • If keyOrPattern is an object without an id and find is true, db.find is used with the object as a pattern. Yielded values are deleted.

  • If cname is specified and keyOrPattern is a POJO, it is treated like an instance of cname.

  • If indexOnly is true and keyOrPattern is an object, only the index entries are deleted.

Entry *db.find(pattern:array|object,{?cname:string,?ctor:function,?valueMatch:function|object,?minScore:number,?select:function|object,?offset:number,?limit:number})

  • Entry is an object, but not a formal class, with the following properties:

    • key - the key of the record
    • value - the value of the record
    • version - the version of the record
    • metadata - the metadata object of the record, if any has ever been provided, e.g. expires

    The value property will be an instantiated class instance if the object was a class instance stored by db.put.

  • When returned by db.find an entry also has the following properties:

    • score - usually 1, but can be between 0 and 1 exclusive for partial matches
    • offset - the absolute offset of the entry in the results
    • count - the position of the entry in the results after the initial search offset is applied
    • totalCount - the total number of entries in the results
  • pattern can be an array or an object. If it is an array, it is treated similar to a Deno KV key, except additional pattern matching semantics below apply. If it is an object, it is converted into a collection of keys for matching against indexes.

  • If pattern is a POJO, the cname parameter can be used to treat it like a class. If pattern is an object and cname is not specified, the cname defaults to the of the object, unless it is a POJO, in which case a cross collection/class search is conducted.

  • The key pattern matching semantics are as follows:

    • A null pattern matches all records.
    • Any element of a pattern key that is not a valid Deno KV key component is treated as a wildcard with a lower bound of UInt8Array([]). Since bounds are non-inclusive, true is not the upper bound; rather, the key is extended one element with a value of UInt8Array([]).
    • The Deno KV list function is called with the pattern(s) to get the initial set(s) of keys.
    • The associated sets of keys are intersected to get the final set of keys.
    • The final set of keys is filtered to ensure that the keys match the original pattern(s) exactly, e.g. functions and RegExp or special literals, e.g. Dates, in the pattern(s) are used to test the key part at the same index.
    • The values associated with the keys are retrieved from the database.
  • If the optional valueMatch is specified, it is used to filter the resulting entries. The semantics are as follows:

    • If it is a function, it is called with the entry value and any return value that is not undefined is used as the result.
    • If it is an object, each property in the valueMatch, including nested properties, is found in the value and is tested using the literal value, function, or RegExp in the corresponding property of the pattern. If a function returns anything other than undefined the match is successful and the result is used as the property value. If a property value fails the match, the object is discarded.
  • If minScore is specified, it should be a number between 0 and 1 that represents the percentage of the pattern that needs to match.

  • The optional select parameter can be used to modify the return value. It can be a function or an object. If it is a function, it is called with the entry value and the return value is used as the result. If it is an object, each property in the select, including nested properties, is used to test the same property in the entry value. If literals, RegExp, or Dates match, the property is included, if the select value is a function it is called with the entry value and defined return values are retained. If a property is not found, it is not included in the result.

  • limit limits the number of entries returned and defaults to Infinity.

  • offset indicates how many entries to skip before returning results.

Entry db.get(key:primitive|UInt8Array|array)

  • Works like Deno KV.get except that if the entry value is a class instance saved using db.put, it is automatically deserialized and instantiated.

Entry db.patch(value:object|function,{?cname:string,?metadata:object,?pattern:array|object})

  • If value is an object and pattern is not provided, db.patch finds the object in the database based on its id, applies the changes, updates indexes, and saves the object.
  • If pattern is provided, it is used as an argument to db.find and all matching entries are updated using value. If value is a primitive, it is used as the new value. If it is an object, it is merged with the existing value. If it is a function, it is called with the existing value and the return value is used as the new value. If the function returns undefined, the value is not changed.
  • Using undefined as a property or a sub-property of value deletes the property.
  • If value is an object and it does not exist, it is created.
  • If cname is provided, the object is treated as an instance of cname.
  • If metadata is provided, it is merged with the existing metadata.

void db.put(object,{?cname:string,?metadata:object,?autoIndex:boolean})

  • Takes an object, assigns an id if necessary, populates/updates indexes, and serializes then saves the object using the id as the key.

  • If cname is provided, the object is treated as an instance of cname.

  • If autoIndex is true, the object is indexed using all of its keys.

  • Denobase serializes bigints, symbols, Dates, and RegExp so that they can be restored.

void db.set(key:primitive|Deno KV Key,value:any,?metadata:object)

  • Works like Deno KV.set. Does not manage indexes or do specialized serialization.
  • See notes at start of API section regarding key and value types.

Key and Value Space


Key parts are ordered lexicographically by their type (with the exception of Date, RegExp and symbol), and within a given type, they are ordered by their value (including Dates). The ordering of types is as follows:

  • Uint8Array
  • string (Date, RegExp, symbol)
  • number
  • bigint
  • boolean

Within a given type, the ordering is:

  • Uint8Array: byte ordering of the array
  • string: byte ordering of the UTF-8 encoding of the string
  • number: -NaN < -Infinity < -1.0 < -0.5 < -0.0 < 0.0 < 0.5 < 1.0 < Infinity < NaN
  • bigint: mathematical ordering, largest negative number first, largest positive number last
  • boolean: false < true

This means that the part 1.0 (a number) is ordered before the part 2.0 (also a number), but is greater than the part 0n (a bigint), because 1.0 is a number and 0n is a bigint, and type ordering has precedence over the ordering of values within a type.

Date, RegExp, symbol in indexes are stored as strings with the form @<classname>(value). This means that they will order by their string representation. This will be transparent to most code because db.set and db.get have been customized to serialize and deserialize Date and RegExp.


Values in Denobase can be arbitrary JavaScript values that are compatible with the structured clone algorithm. This includes:

  • boolean
  • number
  • string
  • symbol
  • bigint
  • Uint8Array
  • Array
  • Object
  • Map
  • Set
  • Date
  • RegExp

Unlike Deno KV, undefined and null are not valid values.

Objects and arrays can contain any of the above types, including other objects and arrays. Maps and Sets can contain any of the above types, including other Maps and Sets.

Unlike Deno KV, circular references within values are not officially supported.

Objects with non-primitive prototypes are supported when inserted via db.put. This is unlike Deno KV, which does not support objects with a non-primitive prototype.

Functions cannot be serialized but symbols can (also an enhancement over Deno KV).

Index Structure

The index structure is documented for convenience and will not be finalized until the final BETA release. At the moment the structure is easy to manage but quite large. It is RAM efficient, but read/write heavy. It is likely changes will be made to optimize for read/write at the expense of RAM.

Index keys are arrays that start with a prefix indicating the type of index, __oindex__ for object indexes and __tindex__ for table indexes. The prefix is followed by property names and a value. The final component is the id of the object.

Indexes are named based on the keys they contain.

Re-indexing is automatic when objects are patched or deleted.

The underlying Deno KV has limits on the size of transactions. Indexing more keys than the transaction limit will result in multiple transactions. This is handled automatically by the library.

The underlying Deno KV has limits on key size. Index keys are constructed to be as small as possible, but if the key size limit is exceeded, the library will handle based on start-up options. The default is to throw an error.

Unless restricted by an index definition, an object index has one entry for each property and sub-property in an object. Sub-properties result in a sequence of property names in the index key. These are followed by the value and finally the id of the object. For example, a full object index of {a: {b: 1},c:2,"#":'id'} would have the following index entries:

['__oindex__', 'a', 'b', 1, 'id']
['__oindex__', 'c', 2, 'id']
['__oindex__', '#', 'id']

Table indexes are not generated automatically. Nested properties will appear in the index key using dot notation; whereas, for object indexes the key arrays just get longer. Immediately after a property names is its value. The final component is the id of the object. For example, a full table index of {a: {b: 1},c:2,"#":'id'} would have the following index entries:

['__tindex__', 'a.b', 1, 'id']
['__tindex__', 'c', 2, 'id']
['__tindex__', '#', 'id']

Table indexes can be more efficient than object indexes, but they require more work to maintain.

const book = {
    id: `Book@4b1dd123-9eda-4133-a6b4-3ec9eb68149a`,
    title: 'The Hobbit',
    author: 'J.R.R. Tolkien',
    pubisher: {
        name: 'Houghton Mifflin',
        location: 'Boston'
// object index entries
['__oindex__', 'title', 'The Hobbit', 'Book@4b1dd123-9eda-4133-a6b4-3ec9eb68149a']
['__oindex__', 'author', 'J.R.R. Tolkien', 'Book@4b1dd123-9eda-4133-a6b4-3ec9eb68149a']
['__oindex__', 'publisher', 'name','Houghton Mifflin','Book@4b1dd123-9eda-4133-a6b4-3ec9eb68149a']
['__oindex__', 'publisher','location', 'Boston','Book@4b1dd123-9eda-4133-a6b4-3ec9eb68149a']
// table index entries
['__tindex__', 'title', 'The Hobbit', 'Book@4b1dd123-9eda-4133-a6b4-3ec9eb68149a']
['__tindex__', 'author', 'J.R.R. Tolkien', 'Book@4b1dd123-9eda-4133-a6b4-3ec9eb68149a']
['__tindex__', '','Houghton Mifflin','Book@4b1dd123-9eda-4133-a6b4-3ec9eb68149a']
['__tindex__', 'pubisher.location', 'Boston','Book@4b1dd123-9eda-4133-a6b4-3ec9eb68149a']


The following operators are supported in patterns.


  • $and(...operatorResult) - logical and
  • $or(...operatorResult)) - logical or
  • $not(...operatorResult)) - logical not
  • $ior(...operatorResult)) - fuzzy matching inclusive or (more matches increase score)
  • $xor(...operatorResult)) - exclusive or


  • $lt(boolean|number|string) - less than
  • $lte(boolean|number|string) - less than or equal to
  • $gt(boolean|number|string) - greater than
  • $gte(boolean|number|string) - greater than or equal to
  • $eq(boolean|number|string) - equal to
  • $eeq(boolean|number|string) - equal to and same type, e.g. 1 is not equal to `'1'
  • $neq(boolean|number|string) - not equal to
  • $between(boolean|number|string,boolean|number|string) - property value is between the two values (inclusive)
  • $outside(boolean|number|string,boolean|number|string) - property value is not between the two values (exclusive)


  • $startsWith(string) - property value starts with string
  • $endsWith(string) - property value ends with string
  • $matches(RegExp) - property value matches regular expression
  • $similar(RegExp) - alias for $matches
  • $includes(string) - property value contains string
  • $excludes(string) - property value does not contain string
  • $echoes(string) - property value sounds like the string
  • $soundsLike(string) - alias for $echoes

Arrays and Sets

  • $in(array) - property value is in array
  • $nin(array) - property values is not in array
  • $includes(boolean|number|string|null) - property value is an array and includes value
  • $excludes(boolean|number|string|null) - property value is an array and does not include value
  • $intersects(array) - property value is an array and intersects with array
  • $disjoint(array) - property value is an array and does not intersect with array
  • $subset(array) - property value is an array and is a subset of array
  • $superset(array) - property value is an array and is a superset of array
  • $symmetric(array) - property value is an array and has same elements as array

Basic Types

  • $type(typeName:string) - property value is of typeName type
  • $isOdd() - property value is odd
  • $isEven() - property value is even
  • $isPrime() - property value is prime
  • $isComposite() - property value is composite
  • $isPositive() - property value is positive
  • $isNegative() - property value is negative
  • $isInteger() - property value is an integer
  • $isFloat() - property value is a float
  • $isNaN() - property value is not a number
  • $isArray() - property value is an array
  • $isObject() - property value is an object
  • $isPrimitive() - property value is a primitive
  • $isUndefined() - property value is undefined
  • $isNull() - property value is null
  • $isTruthy() - property value is truthy
  • $isFalsy() - property value is falsy

Extended Types

  • $isCreditCard() - property value is a credit card number
  • $isEmail() - property value is an email address
  • $isHexColor() - property value is a hex color
  • $isIPV4Address() - property value is an IP address
  • $isIPV6Address() - property value is an IP address
  • $isISBN() - property value is an ISBN
  • $isMACAddress() - property value is a MAC address
  • $isURL() - property value is a URL
  • $isUUID() - property value is a UUID
  • $isZIPCode() - property value is a ZIP code


  • constants.js ... 100.000% (3/3)
  • index.js ... index.js ... 90.196% (690/765)
  • operators.js ... ... 95.330% (347/364)

Release History (Reverse Chronological Order)

  • Until production release, all versions will just have a tertiary version number.
  • Beta commenced when unit test coverage first exceeded 90%
  • The exposed API is stable. Additional features may be exposed.

2023-07-27 v0.0.22 (Beta)

  • Converted remainder of repository to TypeScript except some supporting files is ./src directory.
  • Simplified and made more generic $isEmail() operator.

2023-07-26 v0.0.21 (Beta)

  • Converted index.js to index.ts since Deno is a TypeScript first environment.

2023-07-23 v0.0.20 (Beta)

  • Packaged tests as a module for use in Deno Deploy working.

2023-07-22 v0.0.19 (Beta)

  • Refine packaged tests as a module for use in Deno Deploy.

2023-07-22 v0.0.18 (Beta)

  • Attempt to package tests as a module for use in Deno Deploy.

2023-07-22 v0.0.17 (Beta)

  • Commenced testing on Deno Deploy
  • Adjusted serializations to handle data that is manipulated at the atomic transaction level rather than just the database level
  • Ensured metadata is not stored twice (once on object and once as metadata)

2023-07-14 v0.0.16 (Beta)

  • Updated package.json test command so it executes all existing tests which were being run from IDE

2023-07-12 v0.0.15 (Beta)

  • Enhanced documentation
  • Minor code cleanup
  • Added support for options {idProperty,metadataProperty,maxTransactionSize,indexValueMutator}

2023-07-11 v0.0.14 (Beta)

  • Added unit tests
  • Removed some unreachable code
  • Addressed issues with deleting indexed objects
  • Coverage now exceeds 90%, moving to Beta

2023-07-11 v0.0.13 (Alpha)

  • Added unit tests
  • Fixed issue with Date and RegExp as keys
  • Enhanced documentation

2023-07-07 v0.0.12 (Alpha)

  • Added unit tests
  • Fixed issues related to partial matching on table indexes

2023-07-03 v0.0.11 (Alpha)

  • Moved constants to their own file
  • Added unit tests
  • Fixed issue with automatic generation of constructor based on cname

2023-07-03 v0.0.10 (Alpha)

  • Enhanced documentation
  • Improved test coverage
  • Added support for select option for find

2023-07-02 v0.0.9 (Alpha)

  • Added support for metadata and record expiration

2023-06-30 v0.0.8 (Alpha)

  • Enhanced documentation

2023-06-28 v0.0.7 (Alpha)

  • Fixed issue with serializing RegExp in keys
  • Fixed issue with serializing symbols
  • Fixed issue with patching when special value, e.g. Date, exists in index keys

2023-06-27 v0.0.6 (Alpha)

  • More refinement to db.getKeys
  • Fixes to db.delete by object reference
  • Optimizations to serialization
  • More unit tests
  • Enhanced documentation

2023-06-26 v0.0.5 (Alpha)

  • Fixed issue with db.getKeys returning too many keys for table indexes

2023-06-26 v0.0.4 (Alpha)

  • Added unit tests for patch and delete
  • Started reporting test coverage
  • Enhanced documentation

2023-06-26 v0.0.3 (Alpha)

  • Added unit tests for operators
  • Pulled operators into index.js and re-exported from there
  • Corrected issue with table indexes on nested objects
  • Optimizations for find on object indexes
  • Updated usage example in documentation to ensure it would execute
  • Added autoIndex option to db.put
  • Enhanced documentation

2023-06-25 v0.0.2 (Alpha)

  • Corrected date on v0.0.1 below
  • Added find functionality to db.patch
  • Enhanced documentation

2023-06-25 v0.0.1 (Alpha)

  • Added db.find function
  • Added db.put function
  • Added automatic serialization and deserialization of class instances
  • Added support for declared indexes
  • Added support for table like indexes
  • Added support for automatic object indexes

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