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    clean-css is a fast and efficient CSS optimizer for Node.js platform and any modern browser.

    According to tests it is one of the best available.

    Table of Contents

    Node.js version support

    clean-css requires Node.js 4.0+ (tested on Linux, OS X, and Windows)

    Install

    npm install clean-css
    

    Use

    var CleanCSS = require('clean-css');
    var input = 'a{font-weight:bold;}';
    var options = { /* options */ };
    var output = new CleanCSS(options).minify(input);

    Important: 4.0 breaking changes

    clean-css 4.0 introduces some breaking changes:

    • API and CLI interfaces are split, so API stays in this repository while CLI moves to clean-css-cli;
    • root, relativeTo, and target options are replaced by a single rebaseTo option - this means that rebasing URLs and import inlining is much simpler but may not be (YMMV) as powerful as in 3.x;
    • debug option is gone as stats are always provided in output object under stats property;
    • roundingPrecision is disabled by default;
    • roundingPrecision applies to all units now, not only px as in 3.x;
    • processImport and processImportFrom are merged into inline option which defaults to local. Remote @import rules are NOT inlined by default anymore;
    • splits inliner: { request: ..., timeout: ... } option into inlineRequest and inlineTimeout options;
    • remote resources without a protocol, e.g. //fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Domine:700, are not inlined anymore;
    • changes default Internet Explorer compatibility from 9+ to 10+, to revert the old default use { compatibility: 'ie9' } flag;
    • renames keepSpecialComments to specialComments;
    • moves roundingPrecision and specialComments to level 1 optimizations options, see examples;
    • moves mediaMerging, restructuring, semanticMerging, and shorthandCompacting to level 2 optimizations options, see examples below;
    • renames shorthandCompacting option to mergeIntoShorthands;
    • level 1 optimizations are the new default, up to 3.x it was level 2;
    • keepBreaks option is replaced with { format: 'keep-breaks' } to ease transition;
    • sourceMap option has to be a boolean from now on - to specify an input source map pass it a 2nd argument to minify method or via a hash instead;
    • aggressiveMerging option is removed as aggressive merging is replaced by smarter override merging.

    What's new in version 4.1

    clean-css 4.1 introduces the following changes / features:

    • inline: false as an alias to inline: ['none'];
    • multiplePseudoMerging compatibility flag controlling merging of rules with multiple pseudo classes / elements;
    • removeEmpty flag in level 1 optimizations controlling removal of rules and nested blocks;
    • removeEmpty flag in level 2 optimizations controlling removal of rules and nested blocks;
    • compatibility: { selectors: { mergeLimit: <number> } } flag in compatibility settings controlling maximum number of selectors in a single rule;
    • minify method improved signature accepting a list of hashes for a predictable traversal;
    • selectorsSortingMethod level 1 optimization allows false or 'none' for disabling selector sorting;
    • fetch option controlling a function for handling remote requests;
    • new font shorthand and font-* longhand optimizers;
    • removal of optimizeFont flag in level 1 optimizations due to new font shorthand optimizer;
    • skipProperties flag in level 2 optimizations controlling which properties won't be optimized;
    • new animation shorthand and animation-* longhand optimizers;
    • removeUnusedAtRules level 2 optimization controlling removal of unused @counter-style, @font-face, @keyframes, and @namespace at rules;
    • the web interface gets an improved settings panel with "reset to defaults", instant option changes, and settings being persisted across sessions.

    Constructor options

    clean-css constructor accepts a hash as a parameter with the following options available:

    • compatibility - controls compatibility mode used; defaults to ie10+; see compatibility modes for examples;
    • fetch - controls a function for handling remote requests; see fetch option for examples (since 4.1.0);
    • format - controls output CSS formatting; defaults to false; see formatting options for examples;
    • inline - controls @import inlining rules; defaults to 'local'; see inlining options for examples;
    • inlineRequest - controls extra options for inlining remote @import rules, can be any of HTTP(S) request options;
    • inlineTimeout - controls number of milliseconds after which inlining a remote @import fails; defaults to 5000;
    • level - controls optimization level used; defaults to 1; see optimization levels for examples;
    • rebase - controls URL rebasing; defaults to true;
    • rebaseTo - controls a directory to which all URLs are rebased, most likely the directory under which the output file will live; defaults to the current directory;
    • returnPromise - controls whether minify method returns a Promise object or not; defaults to false; see promise interface for examples;
    • sourceMap - controls whether an output source map is built; defaults to false;
    • sourceMapInlineSources - controls embedding sources inside a source map's sourcesContent field; defaults to false.

    Compatibility modes

    There is a certain number of compatibility mode shortcuts, namely:

    • new CleanCSS({ compatibility: '*' }) (default) - Internet Explorer 10+ compatibility mode
    • new CleanCSS({ compatibility: 'ie9' }) - Internet Explorer 9+ compatibility mode
    • new CleanCSS({ compatibility: 'ie8' }) - Internet Explorer 8+ compatibility mode
    • new CleanCSS({ compatibility: 'ie7' }) - Internet Explorer 7+ compatibility mode

    Each of these modes is an alias to a fine grained configuration, with the following options available:

    new CleanCSS({
      compatibility: {
        colors: {
          opacity: true // controls `rgba()` / `hsla()` color support
        },
        properties: {
          backgroundClipMerging: true, // controls background-clip merging into shorthand
          backgroundOriginMerging: true, // controls background-origin merging into shorthand
          backgroundSizeMerging: true, // controls background-size merging into shorthand
          colors: true, // controls color optimizations
          ieBangHack: false, // controls keeping IE bang hack
          ieFilters: false, // controls keeping IE `filter` / `-ms-filter`
          iePrefixHack: false, // controls keeping IE prefix hack
          ieSuffixHack: false, // controls keeping IE suffix hack
          merging: true, // controls property merging based on understandability
          shorterLengthUnits: false, // controls shortening pixel units into `pc`, `pt`, or `in` units
          spaceAfterClosingBrace: true, // controls keeping space after closing brace - `url() no-repeat` into `url()no-repeat`
          urlQuotes: false, // controls keeping quoting inside `url()`
          zeroUnits: true // controls removal of units `0` value
        },
        selectors: {
          adjacentSpace: false, // controls extra space before `nav` element
          ie7Hack: true, // controls removal of IE7 selector hacks, e.g. `*+html...`
          mergeablePseudoClasses: [':active', ...], // controls a whitelist of mergeable pseudo classes
          mergeablePseudoElements: ['::after', ...], // controls a whitelist of mergeable pseudo elements
          mergeLimit: 8191, // controls maximum number of selectors in a single rule (since 4.1.0)
          multiplePseudoMerging: true // controls merging of rules with multiple pseudo classes / elements (since 4.1.0)
        },
        units: {
          ch: true, // controls treating `ch` as a supported unit
          in: true, // controls treating `in` as a supported unit
          pc: true, // controls treating `pc` as a supported unit
          pt: true, // controls treating `pt` as a supported unit
          rem: true, // controls treating `rem` as a supported unit
          vh: true, // controls treating `vh` as a supported unit
          vm: true, // controls treating `vm` as a supported unit
          vmax: true, // controls treating `vmax` as a supported unit
          vmin: true // controls treating `vmin` as a supported unit
        }
      }
    })

    You can also use a string when setting a compatibility mode, e.g.

    new CleanCSS({
      compatibility: 'ie9,-properties.merging' // sets compatibility to IE9 mode with disabled property merging
    })

    Fetch option

    The fetch option accepts a function which handles remote resource fetching, e.g.

    var request = require('request');
    var source = '@import url(http://example.com/path/to/stylesheet.css);';
    new CleanCSS({
      fetch: function (uri, inlineRequest, inlineTimeout, callback) {
        request(uri, function (error, response, body) {
          if (error) {
            callback(error, null);
          } else if (response && response.statusCode != 200) {
            callback(response.statusCode, null);
          } else {
            callback(null, body);
          }
        });
      }
    }).minify(source);

    This option provides a convenient way of overriding the default fetching logic if it doesn't support a particular feature, say CONNECT proxies.

    Unless given, the default loadRemoteResource logic is used.

    Formatting options

    By default output CSS is formatted without any whitespace unless a format option is given. First of all there are two shorthands:

    new CleanCSS({
      format: 'beautify' // formats output in a really nice way
    })

    and

    new CleanCSS({
      format: 'keep-breaks' // formats output the default way but adds line breaks for improved readability
    })

    however format option also accept a fine-grained set of options:

    new CleanCSS({
      format: {
        breaks: { // controls where to insert breaks
          afterAtRule: false, // controls if a line break comes after an at-rule; e.g. `@charset`; defaults to `false`
          afterBlockBegins: false, // controls if a line break comes after a block begins; e.g. `@media`; defaults to `false`
          afterBlockEnds: false, // controls if a line break comes after a block ends, defaults to `false`
          afterComment: false, // controls if a line break comes after a comment; defaults to `false`
          afterProperty: false, // controls if a line break comes after a property; defaults to `false`
          afterRuleBegins: false, // controls if a line break comes after a rule begins; defaults to `false`
          afterRuleEnds: false, // controls if a line break comes after a rule ends; defaults to `false`
          beforeBlockEnds: false, // controls if a line break comes before a block ends; defaults to `false`
          betweenSelectors: false // controls if a line break comes between selectors; defaults to `false`
        },
        indentBy: 0, // controls number of characters to indent with; defaults to `0`
        indentWith: 'space', // controls a character to indent with, can be `'space'` or `'tab'`; defaults to `'space'`
        spaces: { // controls where to insert spaces
          aroundSelectorRelation: false, // controls if spaces come around selector relations; e.g. `div > a`; defaults to `false`
          beforeBlockBegins: false, // controls if a space comes before a block begins; e.g. `.block {`; defaults to `false`
          beforeValue: false // controls if a space comes before a value; e.g. `width: 1rem`; defaults to `false`
        },
        wrapAt: false // controls maximum line length; defaults to `false`
      }
    })

    Inlining options

    inline option whitelists which @import rules will be processed, e.g.

    new CleanCSS({
      inline: ['local'] // default; enables local inlining only
    })
    new CleanCSS({
      inline: ['none'] // disables all inlining
    })
    // introduced in clean-css 4.1.0
     
    new CleanCSS({
      inline: false // disables all inlining (alias to `['none']`)
    })
    new CleanCSS({
      inline: ['all'] // enables all inlining, same as ['local', 'remote']
    })
    new CleanCSS({
      inline: ['local', 'mydomain.example.com'] // enables local inlining plus given remote source
    })
    new CleanCSS({
      inline: ['local', 'remote', '!fonts.googleapis.com'] // enables all inlining but from given remote source
    })

    Optimization levels

    The level option can be either 0, 1 (default), or 2, e.g.

    new CleanCSS({
      level: 2
    })

    or a fine-grained configuration given via a hash.

    Please note that level 1 optimization options are generally safe while level 2 optimizations should be safe for most users.

    Level 0 optimizations

    Level 0 optimizations simply means "no optimizations". Use it when you'd like to inline imports and / or rebase URLs but skip everything else.

    Level 1 optimizations

    Level 1 optimizations (default) operate on single properties only, e.g. can remove units when not required, turn rgb colors to a shorter hex representation, remove comments, etc

    Here is a full list of available options:

    new CleanCSS({
      level: {
        1: {
          cleanupCharsets: true, // controls `@charset` moving to the front of a stylesheet; defaults to `true`
          normalizeUrls: true, // controls URL normalization; defaults to `true`
          optimizeBackground: true, // controls `background` property optimizations; defaults to `true`
          optimizeBorderRadius: true, // controls `border-radius` property optimizations; defaults to `true`
          optimizeFilter: true, // controls `filter` property optimizations; defaults to `true`
          optimizeFont: true, // controls `font` property optimizations; defaults to `true`
          optimizeFontWeight: true, // controls `font-weight` property optimizations; defaults to `true`
          optimizeOutline: true, // controls `outline` property optimizations; defaults to `true`
          removeEmpty: true, // controls removing empty rules and nested blocks; defaults to `true`
          removeNegativePaddings: true, // controls removing negative paddings; defaults to `true`
          removeQuotes: true, // controls removing quotes when unnecessary; defaults to `true`
          removeWhitespace: true, // controls removing unused whitespace; defaults to `true`
          replaceMultipleZeros: true, // contols removing redundant zeros; defaults to `true`
          replaceTimeUnits: true, // controls replacing time units with shorter values; defaults to `true`
          replaceZeroUnits: true, // controls replacing zero values with units; defaults to `true`
          roundingPrecision: false, // rounds pixel values to `N` decimal places; `false` disables rounding; defaults to `false`
          selectorsSortingMethod: 'standard', // denotes selector sorting method; can be `'natural'` or `'standard'`, `'none'`, or false (the last two since 4.1.0); defaults to `'standard'`
          specialComments: 'all', // denotes a number of /*! ... */ comments preserved; defaults to `all`
          tidyAtRules: true, // controls at-rules (e.g. `@charset`, `@import`) optimizing; defaults to `true`
          tidyBlockScopes: true, // controls block scopes (e.g. `@media`) optimizing; defaults to `true`
          tidySelectors: true, // controls selectors optimizing; defaults to `true`,
          transform: function () {} // defines a callback for fine-grained property optimization; defaults to no-op
        }
      }
    });

    There is an all shortcut for toggling all options at the same time, e.g.

    new CleanCSS({
      level: {
        1: {
          all: false, // set all values to `false`
          tidySelectors: true // turns on optimizing selectors
        }
      }
    });

    Level 2 optimizations

    Level 2 optimizations operate at rules or multiple properties level, e.g. can remove duplicate rules, remove properties redefined further down a stylesheet, or restructure rules by moving them around.

    Please note that if level 2 optimizations are turned on then, unless explicitely disabled, level 1 optimizations are applied as well.

    Here is a full list of available options:

    new CleanCSS({
      level: {
        2: {
          mergeAdjacentRules: true, // controls adjacent rules merging; defaults to true
          mergeIntoShorthands: true, // controls merging properties into shorthands; defaults to true
          mergeMedia: true, // controls `@media` merging; defaults to true
          mergeNonAdjacentRules: true, // controls non-adjacent rule merging; defaults to true
          mergeSemantically: false, // controls semantic merging; defaults to false
          overrideProperties: true, // controls property overriding based on understandability; defaults to true
          removeEmpty: true, // controls removing empty rules and nested blocks; defaults to `true`
          reduceNonAdjacentRules: true, // controls non-adjacent rule reducing; defaults to true
          removeDuplicateFontRules: true, // controls duplicate `@font-face` removing; defaults to true
          removeDuplicateMediaBlocks: true, // controls duplicate `@media` removing; defaults to true
          removeDuplicateRules: true, // controls duplicate rules removing; defaults to true
          removeUnusedAtRules: false, // controls unused at rule removing; defaults to false (available since 4.1.0)
          restructureRules: false, // controls rule restructuring; defaults to false
          skipProperties: [] // controls which properties won't be optimized, defaults to `[]` which means all will be optimized (since 4.1.0)
        }
      }
    });

    There is an all shortcut for toggling all options at the same time, e.g.

    new CleanCSS({
      level: {
        2: {
          all: false, // sets all values to `false`
          removeDuplicateRules: true // turns on removing duplicate rules
        }
      }
    });

    Minify method

    Once configured clean-css provides a minify method to optimize a given CSS, e.g.

    var output = new CleanCSS(options).minify(source);

    The output of the minify method is a hash with following fields:

    console.log(output.styles); // optimized output CSS as a string
    console.log(output.sourceMap); // output source map if requested with `sourceMap` option
    console.log(output.errors); // a list of errors raised
    console.log(output.warnings); // a list of warnings raised
    console.log(output.stats.originalSize); // original content size after import inlining
    console.log(output.stats.minifiedSize); // optimized content size
    console.log(output.stats.timeSpent); // time spent on optimizations in milliseconds
    console.log(output.stats.efficiency); // `(originalSize - minifiedSize) / originalSize`, e.g. 0.25 if size is reduced from 100 bytes to 75 bytes

    The minify method also accepts an input source map, e.g.

    var output = new CleanCSS(options).minify(source, inputSourceMap);

    or a callback invoked when optimizations are finished, e.g.

    new CleanCSS(options).minify(source, function (error, output) {
      // `output` is the same as in the synchronous call above
    });

    Promise interface

    If you prefer clean-css to return a Promise object then you need to explicitely ask for it, e.g.

    new CleanCSS({ returnPromise: true })
      .minify(source)
      .then(function (output) { console.log(output.styles); })
      .catch(function (error) { // deal with errors });

    CLI utility

    Clean-css has an associated command line utility that can be installed separately using npm install clean-css-cli. For more detailed information, please visit https://github.com/jakubpawlowicz/clean-css-cli.

    FAQ

    How to optimize multiple files?

    It can be done either by passing an array of paths, or, when sources are already available, a hash or an array of hashes:

    new CleanCSS().minify(['path/to/file/one', 'path/to/file/two']);
    new CleanCSS().minify({
      'path/to/file/one': {
        styles: 'contents of file one'
      },
      'path/to/file/two': {
        styles: 'contents of file two'
      }
    });
    new CleanCSS().minify([
      {'path/to/file/one': {styles: 'contents of file one'}},
      {'path/to/file/two': {styles: 'contents of file two'}}
    ]);

    Passing an array of hashes allows you to explicitly specify the order in which the input files are concatenated. Whereas when you use a single hash the order is determined by the traversal order of object properties - available since 4.1.0.

    Important note - any @import rules already present in the hash will be resolved in memory.

    How to process remote @imports correctly?

    In order to inline remote @import statements you need to provide a callback to minify method as fetching remote assets is an asynchronous operation, e.g.:

    var source = '@import url(http://example.com/path/to/remote/styles);';
    new CleanCSS({ inline: ['remote'] }).minify(source, function (error, output) {
      // output.styles
    });

    If you don't provide a callback, then remote @imports will be left as is.

    How to apply arbitrary transformations to CSS properties?

    If clean-css doesn't perform a particular property optimization, you can use transform callback to apply it:

    var source = '.block{background-image:url(/path/to/image.png)}';
    var output = new CleanCSS({
      level: {
        1: {
          transform: function (propertyName, propertyValue) {
            if (propertyName == 'background-image' && propertyValue.indexOf('/path/to') > -1) {
              return propertyValue.replace('/path/to', '../valid/path/to');
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }).minify(source);
     
    console.log(output.styles); # => .block{background-image:url(../valid/path/to/image.png)}

    Note: returning false from transform callback will drop a property.

    How to specify a custom rounding precision?

    The level 1 roundingPrecision optimization option accept a string with per-unit rounding precision settings, e.g.

    new CleanCSS({
      level: {
        1: {
          roundingPrecision: 'all=3,px=5'
        }
      }
    }).minify(source)

    which sets all units rounding precision to 3 digits except px unit precision of 5 digits.

    How to preserve a comment block?

    Use the /*! notation instead of the standard one /*:

    /*!
      Important comments included in optimized output.
    */

    How to rebase relative image URLs?

    clean-css will handle it automatically for you in the following cases:

    • when full paths to input files are passed in as options;
    • when correct paths are passed in via a hash;
    • when rebaseTo is used with any of above two.

    How to work with source maps?

    To generate a source map, use sourceMap: true option, e.g.:

    new CleanCSS({ sourceMap: true, rebaseTo: pathToOutputDirectory })
      .minify(source, function (error, output) {
        // access output.sourceMap for SourceMapGenerator object
        // see https://github.com/mozilla/source-map/#sourcemapgenerator for more details
    });

    You can also pass an input source map directly as a 2nd argument to minify method:

    new CleanCSS({ sourceMap: true, rebaseTo: pathToOutputDirectory })
      .minify(source, inputSourceMap, function (error, output) {
        // access output.sourceMap to access SourceMapGenerator object
        // see https://github.com/mozilla/source-map/#sourcemapgenerator for more details
    });

    or even multiple input source maps at once:

    new CleanCSS({ sourceMap: true, rebaseTo: pathToOutputDirectory }).minify({
      'path/to/source/1': {
        styles: '...styles...',
        sourceMap: '...source-map...'
      },
      'path/to/source/2': {
        styles: '...styles...',
        sourceMap: '...source-map...'
      }
    }, function (error, output) {
      // access output.sourceMap as above
    });

    How to apply level 1 & 2 optimizations at the same time?

    Using the hash configuration specifying both optimization levels, e.g.

    new CleanCSS({
      level: {
        1: {
          all: true,
          normalizeUrls: false
        },
        2: {
          restructureRules: true
        }
      }
    })

    will apply level 1 optimizations, except url normalization, and default level 2 optimizations with rule restructuring.

    What level 2 optimizations do?

    All level 2 optimizations are dispatched here, and this is what they do:

    • recursivelyOptimizeBlocks - does all the following operations on a nested block, like @media or @keyframe;
    • recursivelyOptimizeProperties - optimizes properties in rulesets and flat at-rules, like @font-face, by splitting them into components (e.g. margin into margin-(bottom|left|right|top)), optimizing, and restoring them back. You may want to use mergeIntoShorthands option to control whether you want to turn multiple components into shorthands;
    • removeDuplicates - gets rid of duplicate rulesets with exactly the same set of properties, e.g. when including a Sass / Less partial twice for no good reason;
    • mergeAdjacent - merges adjacent rulesets with the same selector or rules;
    • reduceNonAdjacent - identifies which properties are overridden in same-selector non-adjacent rulesets, and removes them;
    • mergeNonAdjacentBySelector - identifies same-selector non-adjacent rulesets which can be moved (!) to be merged, requires all intermediate rulesets to not redefine the moved properties, or if redefined to have the same value;
    • mergeNonAdjacentByBody - same as the one above but for same-selector non-adjacent rulesets;
    • restructure - tries to reorganize different-selector different-rules rulesets so they take less space, e.g. .one{padding:0}.two{margin:0}.one{margin-bottom:3px} into .two{margin:0}.one{padding:0;margin-bottom:3px};
    • removeDuplicateFontAtRules - removes duplicated @font-face rules;
    • removeDuplicateMediaQueries - removes duplicated @media nested blocks;
    • mergeMediaQueries - merges non-adjacent @media at-rules by the same rules as mergeNonAdjacentBy* above;

    How to use clean-css with build tools?

    There is a number of 3rd party plugins to popular build tools:

    How to use clean-css from web browser?

    Contributing

    See CONTRIBUTING.md.

    How to get started?

    First clone the sources:

    git clone git@github.com:jakubpawlowicz/clean-css.git

    then install dependencies:

    cd clean-css
    npm install

    then use any of the following commands to verify your copy:

    npm run bench # for clean-css benchmarks (see [test/bench.js](https://github.com/jakubpawlowicz/clean-css/blob/master/test/bench.js) for details) 
    npm run browserify # to create the browser-ready clean-css version 
    npm run check # to lint JS sources with [JSHint](https://github.com/jshint/jshint/) 
    npm test # to run all tests 

    Acknowledgments

    Sorted alphabetically by GitHub handle:

    • @abarre (Anthony Barre) for improvements to @import processing;
    • @alexlamsl (Alex Lam S.L.) for testing early clean-css 4 versions, reporting bugs, and suggesting numerous improvements.
    • @altschuler (Simon Altschuler) for fixing @import processing inside comments;
    • @ben-eb (Ben Briggs) for sharing ideas about CSS optimizations;
    • @davisjam (Jamie Davis) for disclosing ReDOS vulnerabilities;
    • @facelessuser (Isaac) for pointing out a flaw in clean-css' stateless mode;
    • @grandrath (Martin Grandrath) for improving minify method source traversal in ES6;
    • @jmalonzo (Jan Michael Alonzo) for a patch removing node.js' old sys package;
    • @lukeapage (Luke Page) for suggestions and testing the source maps feature; Plus everyone else involved in #125 for pushing it forward;
    • @madwizard-thomas for sharing ideas about @import inlining and URL rebasing.
    • @ngyikp (Ng Yik Phang) for testing early clean-css 4 versions, reporting bugs, and suggesting numerous improvements.
    • @wagenet (Peter Wagenet) for suggesting improvements to @import inlining behavior;
    • @venemo (Timur Kristรณf) for an outstanding contribution of advanced property optimizer for 2.2 release;
    • @vvo (Vincent Voyer) for a patch with better empty element regex and for inspiring us to do many performance improvements in 0.4 release;
    • @xhmikosr for suggesting new features, like option to remove special comments and strip out URLs quotation, and pointing out numerous improvements like JSHint, media queries, etc.

    License

    clean-css is released under the MIT License.

    Keywords

    install

    npm i clean-css

    Downloadsweekly downloads

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    version

    4.1.11

    license

    MIT

    repository

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