10.0.1 • Public • Published


semantic-release plugin to commit release assets to the project's git repository.

Build Status npm latest version npm next version npm beta version

Step Description
verifyConditions Verify the access to the remote Git repository, the commit message and the assets option configuration.
prepare Create a release commit, including configurable file assets.


$ npm install @semantic-release/git -D


The plugin can be configured in the semantic-release configuration file:

  "plugins": [
    ["@semantic-release/git", {
      "assets": ["dist/**/*.{js,css}", "docs", "package.json"],
      "message": "chore(release): ${nextRelease.version} [skip ci]\n\n${nextRelease.notes}"

With this example, for each release a release commit will be pushed to the remote Git repository with:

  • a message formatted like chore(release): <version> [skip ci]\n\n<release notes>
  • the .js and .css files in the dist directory, the files in the docs directory and the package.json

Merging between semantic-release branches

This plugin will, by default, create commit messages with the keyword [skip ci], so they won't trigger a new unnecessary CI build. If you are using semantic-release with multiple branches, when merging a branch with a head being a release commit, a CI job will be triggered on the target branch. Depending on the CI service that might create an unexpected behavior as the head of the target branch might be ignored by the build due to the [skip ci] keyword.

To avoid any unexpected behavior we recommend to use the --no-ff option when merging branches used by semantic-release.

Note: This concerns only merges done between two branches configured in the branches option.


Git authentication

The Git user associated with the Git credentials has to be able to push commit to the release branch.

When configuring branches permission on a Git hosting service (e.g. GitHub protected branches, GitLab protected branches or Bitbucket branch permissions) it might be necessary to create a specific configuration in order to allow the semantic-release user to bypass global restrictions. For example on GitHub you can uncheck "Include administrators" and configure semantic-release to use an administrator user, so the plugin can push the release commit without requiring status checks and pull request reviews.

Environment variables

Variable Description Default
GIT_AUTHOR_NAME The author name associated with the release commit. See Git environment variables. @semantic-release-bot.
GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL The author email associated with the release commit. See Git environment variables. @semantic-release-bot email address.
GIT_COMMITTER_NAME The committer name associated with the release commit. See Git environment variables. @semantic-release-bot.
GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL The committer email associated with the release commit. See Git environment variables. @semantic-release-bot email address.


Options Description Default
message The message for the release commit. See message. chore(release): ${nextRelease.version} [skip ci]\n\n${nextRelease.notes}
assets Files to include in the release commit. Set to false to disable adding files to the release commit. See assets. ['CHANGELOG.md', 'package.json', 'package-lock.json', 'npm-shrinkwrap.json']


The message for the release commit is generated with Lodash template. The following variables are available:

Parameter Description
branch The branch from which the release is done.
branch.name The branch name.
branch.type The type of branch.
branch.channel The distribution channel on which to publish releases from this branch.
branch.range The range of semantic versions to support on this branch.
branch.prerelease The pre-release detonation to append to semantic versions released from this branch.
lastRelease Object with version, gitTag and gitHead of the last release.
nextRelease Object with version, gitTag, gitHead and notes of the release being done.

Note: It is recommended to include [skip ci] in the commit message to not trigger a new build. Some CI service support the [skip ci] keyword only in the subject of the message.

message examples

The message Release <%= nextRelease.version %> - <%= new Date().toLocaleDateString('en-US', {year: 'numeric', month: 'short', day: 'numeric', hour: 'numeric', minute: 'numeric' }) %> [skip ci]\n\n<%= nextRelease.notes %> will generate the commit message:

Release v1.0.0 - Oct. 21, 2015 1:24 AM [skip ci]

## 1.0.0

### Features
* Generate 1.21 gigawatts of electricity


Can be an Array or a single entry. Each entry can be either:

  • a glob
  • or an Object with a path property containing a glob.

Each entry in the assets Array is globbed individually. A glob can be a String ("dist/**/*.js" or "dist/mylib.js") or an Array of Strings that will be globbed together (["dist/**", "!**/*.css"]).

If a directory is configured, all the files under this directory and its children will be included.

Note: If a file has a match in assets it will be included even if it also has a match in .gitignore.

assets examples

'dist/*.js': include all js files in the dist directory, but not in its sub-directories.

'dist/**/*.js': include all js files in the dist directory and its sub-directories.

[['dist', '!**/*.css']]: include all files in the dist directory and its sub-directories excluding the css files.

[['dist', '!**/*.css'], 'package.json']: include package.json and all files in the dist directory and its sub-directories excluding the css files.

[['dist/**/*.{js,css}', '!**/*.min.*']]: include all js and css files in the dist directory and its sub-directories excluding the minified version.


When used with the @semantic-release/changelog or @semantic-release/npm plugins:

  • The @semantic-release/changelog plugin must be called first in order to update the changelog file so the @semantic-release/git and @semantic-release/npm plugins can include it in the release.
  • The @semantic-release/npm plugin must be called second in order to update the package.json file so the @semantic-release/git plugin can include it in the release commit.
  "plugins": [

GPG signature

Using GPG, you can sign and verify tags and commits. With GPG keys, the release tags and commits made by Semantic-release are verified and other people can trust that they were really were made by your account.

Generate the GPG keys

If you already have a GPG public and private key you can skip this step and go to the Get the GPG keys ID and the public key content step.

Download and install the GPG command line tools for your operating system.

Create a GPG key

$ gpg --full-generate-key

At the prompt select the RSA and RSA king of key, enter 4096 for the keysize, specify how long the key should be valid, enter yout name, the email associated with your Git hosted account and finally set a long and hard to guess passphrase.

Get the GPG keys ID and the public key content

Use the gpg --list-secret-keys --keyid-format LONG command to list your GPG keys. From the list, copy the GPG key ID you just created.

$ gpg --list-secret-keys --keyid-format LONG
sec   rsa4096/XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 2017-12-01 [SC]
uid                 <your_name> <your_email>
ssb   rsa4096/YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY 2017-12-01 [E]

the GPG key ID if 16 character string, on the on the sec line, after rsa4096. In this example, the GPG key ID is XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX.

Export the public key (replace XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX with your key ID):

$ gpg --armor --export XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

Copy your GPG key, beginning with -----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- and ending with -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

Add the GPG key to your Git hosted account

Add the GPG key to GitHub

In GitHub Settings, click on SSH and GPG keys in the sidebar, then on the New GPG Key button.

Paste the entire GPG key export previously and click the Add GPG Key button.

See Adding a new GPG key to your GitHub account for more details.

Use the GPG key to sign commit and tags locally

If you want to use this GPG to also sign the commits and tags you create on your local machine you can follow the instruction at Git Tools - Signing Your Work This step is optional and unrelated to Semantic-release.

Add the GPG keys to your CI environment

Make the public and private GPG key available on the CI environment. Encrypt the keys, commit it to your repository and configure the CI environment to decrypt it.

Add the GPG keys to Travis CI

Install the Travis CLI:

$ gem install travis

Login to Travis with the CLI:

$ travis login

Add the following environment variables to Travis:

$ travis env set GPG_PASSPHRASE <gpg_passphrase>
$ travis env set GIT_EMAIL <your_email>
$ travis env set GIT_USERNAME <your_name>

From your repository root export your public and private GPG keys in the git_gpg_keys.asc (replace XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX with your key ID):

$ gpg --export -a XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX > git_gpg_keys.asc
$ gpg --export-secret-key -a XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX >> git_gpg_keys.asc

Encrypt the git_gpg_keys.asc (public and private key) using a symmetric encryption (AES-256), and store the secret in a secure environment variable in the Travis environment:

$ travis encrypt-file git_gpg_keys.asc

The travis encrypt-file will encrypt the keys into the git_gpg_keys.asc.enc file and output in the console the command to add to your .travis.yml file. It should look like openssl aes-256-cbc -K $encrypted_AAAAAAAAAAAA_key -iv $encrypted_BBBBBBBBBBBB_iv -in git_gpg_keys.asc.enc -out git_gpg_keys.asc -d.

Copy this command to your .travis.yml file in the before_install step. Change the output path to write the unencrypted key in /tmp: -out git_gpg_keys.asc => /tmp/git_gpg_keys.asc. This will avoid to commit / modify / delete the unencrypted keys by mistake on the CI. Then add the commands to decrypt the GPG keys and make it available to git:

  # Decrypt the git_gpg_keys.asc.enc key into /tmp/git_gpg_keys.asc
  - openssl aes-256-cbc -K $encrypted_AAAAAAAAAAAA_key -iv $encrypted_BBBBBBBBBBBB_iv -in git_gpg_keys.asc.enc -out /tmp/git_gpg_keys.asc -d
  # Make sure only the current user can read the keys
  - chmod 600 /tmp/git_gpg_keys.asc
  # Import the gpg key
  - gpg --batch --yes --import /tmp/git_gpg_keys.asc
  # Create a script that pass the passphrase to the gpg CLI called by git
  - echo '/usr/bin/gpg2 --passphrase ${GPG_PASSPHRASE} --batch --no-tty "$@"' > /tmp/gpg-with-passphrase && chmod +x /tmp/gpg-with-passphrase
  # Configure git to use the script that passes the passphrase
  - git config gpg.program "/tmp/gpg-with-passphrase"
  # Configure git to sign the commits and tags
  - git config commit.gpgsign true
  # Configure git to use your GPG key
  - git config --global user.signingkey ${GPG_KEY_ID}

See Encrypting Files for more details.

Delete the local keys as it won't be used anymore:

$ rm git_gpg_keys.asc

Commit the encrypted keys and the .travis.yml file to your repository:

$ git add git_gpg_keys.asc.enc .travis.yml
$ git commit -m "ci(travis): Add the encrypted GPG keys"
$ git push

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npm i @semantic-release/git

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