1.4.1 • Public • Published

CDS database service for Postgres

Welcome to the new Postgres database service for SAP Cloud Application Programming Model Node.js, based on new, streamlined database architecture and pg driver .


In general, all you need to do is to install one of the database packages, as follows:

npm add @cap-js/postgres

Learn more about setup and usage in the respective database guide.


This project is open to feature requests/suggestions, bug reports etc. via GitHub issues.


Contribution and feedback are encouraged and always welcome. For more information about how to contribute, the project structure, as well as additional contribution information, see our Contribution Guidelines.


This library follows Semantic Versioning. All notable changes are documented in CHANGELOG.md.

Code of Conduct

We as members, contributors, and leaders pledge to make participation in our community a harassment-free experience for everyone. By participating in this project, you agree to abide by its Code of Conduct at all times.


Copyright 2023 SAP SE or an SAP affiliate company and cds-dbs contributors. Please see our LICENSE for copyright and license information. Detailed information including third-party components and their licensing/copyright information is available via the REUSE tool.

migration guide from cds-pg to @cap-js/postgres

@cap-js/postgres works as a drop-in replacement for cds-pg.
However, some preliminary checks and cleanups help:

  • for using the BTP Postgres Hyperscaler as database,
    • know that the credentials are picked up automatically by from the enviornment (VCAP_SERVICES.postgres)
    • the service binding label is postgresql-db
    • cds-dbm is replaced by a hand-crafted "db-deployer" app → see below
  • your local package.json: you can safely remove the entry cds.requires.postgres previously mandatory for cds-pg
  • recommendation: set the env var DEBUG=sql during local development to see DB-level output from PostgreSQL

schema migration

@cap-js/postgres brings the same schema evolution capabilities to PostgreSQL known from HANA and SQLite.
Enabling schema migration in an existing cds-pg-based project consists of generating and deploying a "csn-snapshot" of your database structure.

local development

First, set a basis for the evolution $> cds deploy --model-only
→ this will create the table cds_model laying the foundation for the schema migration

Subsequent deployments can then re-use the standard deploy mechanism via $> cds deploy

On BTP, Cloud Foundry environment

The above "csn-snapshots" can be implemented via the mtar-based approach. At the same time, the same mtar can be used for subsequent PostgreSQL deployments (with schema evolution).

Two major steps in addition to enabling the schema evolution are included in this mtar.

  1. create local folder deployer (any name works)
  2. in deployer, create a package.json containing
"//npm run migrate": "only one-time!",
"migrate": "cds deploy --model-only",
"//npm run deploy": "subsequent deployments",
"deploy": "cds deploy"
  1. add a section to your /mta.yaml denoting the deployer directory as a standalone application that runs one-time
- name: pg-db-deployer
    type: custom
    path: deployer
      buildpacks: nodejs_buildpack
      no-route: true
      no-start: true
      disk-quota: 2GB
      memory: 512MB
      - name: migrate
        command: npm run migrate
      # # for subsequent deployments
      # - name: deploy
      #  command: npm run deploy
        disk-quota: 2GB
        memory: 512MB
        - npm i
        # generate the "csn-snapshot" - only necessary for one-time migration,
        # can be commented out on subsequent deployments
        - cds compile '*' -2 json > deployer/schema.csn
      ignore: ["node_modules/"]
      - name: pg-database

  - name: pg-database
      path: ./pg-options.json
      service: postgresql-db
      service-plan: trial # change to yours!
        parameters: true
        - plain
    type: org.cloudfoundry.managed-service

migration points to consider

mixed-case identifiers

even though column names that are not double-quoted are folded to lowercase in PostgreSQL (yourName -> yourname, "yourName" -> yourName),
you can use the mixed case definitions from your .cds files to reference them.

example: brewery_id on DB level -> brewery_ID on CDS level

formerly w/ cds-pg you had to follow the DB level: SELECT.from(Beers).columns('brewery_id').groupBy('brewery_id')
now, re-use the CDS definitions: SELECT.from(Beers).columns('brewery_ID').groupBy('brewery_ID')

So please adjust your CQL statements accordingly.

timezones (potential BREAKING CHANGE)

any date- + time-type will get stored in UTC without any timezone identifier in the actual data field.
CAP's inbound- and outbound adapters take care of converting incoming and outgoing data from/to the desired time zones.
So when a dateime comes in being in an ISO 8601 compatible format
2009-01-01T15:00:00+01:00 (15:00:00 on January 1 2009 in Vienna (CEST))
will get stored as
2009-01-01T13:00:00 (13:00:00 on January 1 2009 in UTC).

Please be aware of that concept and rely on the client to parse UTC in your desired timezone (format).

cds.DatabaseService consumption

InsertResult now does only return the affected rows and their IDs.

const entries = [
  { name: 'Beer1', /* ... */ },
  { name: 'Beer2', /* ... */ },
  { name: 'Beer3', /* ... */ }
const insertResult = await cds.run(INSERT.into(Beers).entries(entries))
const beers = [...insertResult] //> this calls the [Symbol.iterator] method of the insert result
// beers:
// [ 
//   { ID: "f81d7ee5-922b-48a1-a12a-a899b8594c99" }, 
//   { ID: "ddda7f8e-e26b-430f-a80c-ac2c7df29510" },
//   { ID: "7228c40f-0046-4f53-8a2b-3d55ad825f59" }
// ]

In cds-pg, we additionally surfaced the entire inserted dataset.

// continuing after the insert of the above example:
// const insertResult = await cds.run(INSERT.into(Beers).entries(entries))

// this works NO MORE - see above
const beers = insertResult.results

So please adjust your runtime coding accordingly.



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