@aws-cdk-containers/ecs-service-extensions
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    1.134.0 • Public • Published

    CDK Construct library for building ECS services


    cdk-constructs: Stable


    This library provides a high level, extensible pattern for constructing services deployed using Amazon ECS.

    The Service construct provided by this module can be extended with optional ServiceExtension classes that add supplemental ECS features including:

    The ServiceExtension class is an abstract class which you can also implement in order to build your own custom service extensions for modifying your service, or attaching your own custom resources or sidecars.

    Example

    import { AppMeshExtension, CloudwatchAgentExtension, Container, Environment, FireLensExtension, HttpLoadBalancerExtension, Service, ServiceDescription, XRayExtension } from 'ecs-service-builder';
    
    // Create an environment to deploy a service in.
    const environment = new Environment(stack, 'production');
    
    // Build out the service description
    const nameDescription = new ServiceDescription();
    nameDescription.add(new Container({
      cpu: 1024,
      memoryMiB: 2048,
      trafficPort: 80,
      image: ContainerImage.fromRegistry('nathanpeck/name'),
      environment: {
        PORT: '80',
      },
    }));
    nameDescription.add(new AppMeshExtension({ mesh }));
    nameDescription.add(new FireLensExtension());
    nameDescription.add(new XRayExtension());
    nameDescription.add(new CloudwatchAgentExtension());
    nameDescription.add(new HttpLoadBalancerExtension());
    
    // Implement the service description as a real service inside
    // an environment.
    const nameService = new Service(stack, 'name', {
      environment: environment,
      serviceDescription: nameDescription,
    });

    Creating an Environment

    An Environment is a place to deploy your services. You can have multiple environments on a single AWS account. For example, you could create a test environment as well as a production environment so you have a place to verify that your application works as intended before you deploy it to a live environment.

    Each environment is isolated from other environments. In other words, when you create an environment, by default the construct supplies its own VPC, ECS Cluster, and any other required resources for the environment:

    const environment = new Environment(stack, 'production');

    However, you can also choose to build an environment out of a pre-existing VPC or ECS Cluster:

    const vpc = new ec2.Vpc(stack, 'VPC');
    const cluster = new ecs.Cluster(stack, 'Cluster', { vpc });
    
    const environment = new Environment(stack, 'production', {
      vpc,
      cluster,
    });

    Defining your ServiceDescription

    The ServiceDescription defines what application you want the service to run and what optional extensions you want to add to the service. The most basic form of a ServiceDescription looks like this:

    const nameDescription = new ServiceDescription();
    nameDescription.add(new Container({
      cpu: 1024,
      memoryMiB: 2048,
      trafficPort: 80,
      image: ContainerImage.fromRegistry('nathanpeck/name'),
      environment: {
        PORT: '80',
      },
    }));

    Every ServiceDescription requires at minimum that you add a Container extension which defines the main application (essential) container to run for the service.

    After that, you can optionally enable additional features for the service using the ServiceDescription.add() method:

    nameDescription.add(new AppMeshExtension({ mesh }));
    nameDescription.add(new FireLensExtension());
    nameDescription.add(new XRayExtension());
    nameDescription.add(new CloudwatchAgentExtension());
    nameDescription.add(new HttpLoadBalancerExtension());
    nameDescription.add(new AssignPublicIpExtension());

    Launching the ServiceDescription as a Service

    Once the service description is defined, you can launch it as a service:

    const nameService = new Service(stack, 'name', {
      environment: environment,
      serviceDescription: nameDescription,
    });

    At this point, all the service resources will be created. This includes the ECS Task Definition, Service, as well as any other attached resources, such as App Mesh Virtual Node or an Application Load Balancer.

    Creating your own taskRole

    Sometimes the taskRole should be defined outside of the service so that you can create strict resource policies (ie. S3 bucket policies) that are restricted to a given taskRole:

    const taskRole = new iam.Role(stack, 'CustomTaskRole', {
          assumedBy: new iam.ServicePrincipal('ecs-tasks.amazonaws.com'),
    });
    
    // Use taskRole in any CDK resource policies
    // new s3.BucketPolicy(this, 'BucketPolicy, {});
    
    const nameService = new Service(stack, 'name', {
      environment: environment,
      serviceDescription: nameDescription,
      taskRole,
    });

    Task Auto-Scaling

    You can configure the task count of a service to match demand. The recommended way of achieving this is to configure target tracking policies for your service which scales in and out in order to keep metrics around target values.

    You need to configure an auto scaling target for the service by setting the minTaskCount (defaults to 1) and maxTaskCount in the Service construct. Then you can specify target values for "CPU Utilization" or "Memory Utilization" across all tasks in your service. Note that the desiredCount value will be set to undefined if the auto scaling target is configured.

    If you want to configure auto-scaling policies based on resources like Application Load Balancer or SQS Queues, you can set the corresponding resource-specific fields in the extension. For example, you can enable target tracking scaling based on Application Load Balancer request count as follows:

    const stack = new cdk.Stack();
    const environment = new Environment(stack, 'production');
    const serviceDescription = new ServiceDescription();
    
    serviceDescription.add(new Container({
      cpu: 256,
      memoryMiB: 512,
      trafficPort: 80,
      image: ecs.ContainerImage.fromRegistry('my-alb'),
    }));
    
    // Add the extension with target `requestsPerTarget` value set
    serviceDescription.add(new HttpLoadBalancerExtension({ requestsPerTarget: 10 }));
    
    // Configure the auto scaling target
    new Service(stack, 'my-service', {
      environment,
      serviceDescription,
      desiredCount: 5,
      // Task auto-scaling constuct for the service
      autoScaleTaskCount: {
        maxTaskCount: 10,
        targetCpuUtilization: 70,
        targetMemoryUtilization: 50,
      },
    });

    You can also define your own service extensions for other auto-scaling policies for your service by making use of the scalableTaskCount attribute of the Service class.

    Creating your own custom ServiceExtension

    In addition to using the default service extensions that come with this module, you can choose to implement your own custom service extensions. The ServiceExtension class is an abstract class you can implement yourself. The following example implements a custom service extension that could be added to a service in order to autoscale it based on scaling intervals of SQS Queue size:

    export class MyCustomAutoscaling extends ServiceExtension {
      constructor() {
        super('my-custom-autoscaling');
        // Scaling intervals for the step scaling policy
        this.scalingSteps = [{ upper: 0, change: -1 }, { lower: 100, change: +1 }, { lower: 500, change: +5 }];
        this.sqsQueue = new sqs.Queue(this.scope, 'my-queue');
      }
    
      // This hook utilizes the resulting service construct
      // once it is created
      public useService(service: ecs.Ec2Service | ecs.FargateService) {
        this.parentService.scalableTaskCount.scaleOnMetric('QueueMessagesVisibleScaling', {
          metric: this.sqsQueue.metricApproximateNumberOfMessagesVisible(),
          scalingSteps: this.scalingSteps,
        });
      }
    }

    This ServiceExtension can now be reused and added to any number of different service descriptions. This allows you to develop reusable bits of configuration, attach them to many different services, and centrally manage them. Updating the ServiceExtension in one place would update all services that use it, instead of requiring decentralized updates to many different services.

    Every ServiceExtension can implement the following hooks to modify the properties of constructs, or make use of the resulting constructs:

    • addHooks() - This hook is called after all the extensions are added to a ServiceDescription, but before any of the other extension hooks have been run. It gives each extension a chance to do some inspection of the overall ServiceDescription and see what other extensions have been added. Some extensions may want to register hooks on the other extensions to modify them. For example, the Firelens extension wants to be able to modify the settings of the application container to route logs through Firelens.
    • modifyTaskDefinitionProps() - This is hook is passed the proposed ecs.TaskDefinitionProps for a TaskDefinition that is about to be created. This allows the extension to make modifications to the task definition props before the TaskDefinition is created. For example, the App Mesh extension modifies the proxy settings for the task.
    • useTaskDefinition() - After the TaskDefinition is created, this hook is passed the actual TaskDefinition construct that was created. This allows the extension to add containers to the task, modify the task definition's IAM role, etc.
    • resolveContainerDependencies() - Once all extensions have added their containers, each extension is given a chance to modify its container's dependsOn settings. Extensions need to check and see what other extensions were enabled and decide whether their container needs to wait on another container to start first.
    • modifyServiceProps() - Before an Ec2Service or FargateService is created, this hook is passed a draft version of the service props to change. Each extension adds its own modifications to the service properties. For example, the App Mesh extension needs to modify the service settings to enable CloudMap service discovery.
    • useService() - After the service is created, this hook is given a chance to utilize that service. This is used by extensions like the load balancer or App Mesh extension, which create and link other AWS resources to the ECS extension.
    • connectToService() - This hook is called when a user wants to connect one service to another service. It allows an extension to implement logic about how to allow connections from one service to another. For example, the App Mesh extension implements this method in order to easily connect one service mesh service to another, which allows the service's Envoy proxy sidecars to route traffic to each other.

    Connecting services

    One of the hooks that a ServiceExtension can implement is a hook for connection logic. This is utilized when connecting one service to another service, e.g. connecting a user facing web service with a backend API. Usage looks like this:

    const frontend = new Service(stack, 'frontend', {
      environment,
      serviceDescription: frontendDescription
    });
    const backend = new Service(stack, 'backend', {
      environment,
      serviceDescription: backendDescription
    });
    
    frontend.connectTo(backend);

    The address that a service will use to talk to another service depends on the type of ingress that has been created by the extension that did the connecting. For example, if an App Mesh extension has been used, then the service is accessible at a DNS address of <service name>.<environment name>. For example:

    const environment = new Environment(stack, 'production');
    
    // Define the frontend tier
    const frontendDescription = new ServiceDescription();
    frontendDescription.add(new Container({
      cpu: 1024,
      memoryMiB: 2048,
      trafficPort: 80,
      image: ContainerImage.fromRegistry('my-frontend-service'),
      environment: {
        BACKEND_URL: 'http://backend.production'
      },
    }));
    const frontend = new Service(stack, 'frontend', {
      environment,
      serviceDescription: frontendDescription
    });
    
    // Define the backend tier
    const backendDescription = new ServiceDescription();
    backendDescription.add(new Container({
      cpu: 1024,
      memoryMiB: 2048,
      trafficPort: 80,
      image: ContainerImage.fromRegistry('my-backend-service'),
      environment: {
        FRONTEND_URL: 'http://frontend.production'
      },
    }));
    const backend = new Service(stack, 'backend', {
      environment,
      serviceDescription: backendDescription
    });
    
    // Connect the two tiers to each other
    frontend.connectTo(backend);

    The above code uses the well-known service discovery name for each service, and passes it as an environment variable to the container so that the container knows what address to use when communicating to the other service.

    Importing a pre-existing cluster

    To create an environment with a pre-existing cluster, you must import the cluster first, then use Environment.fromEnvironmentAttributes(). When a cluster is imported into an environment, the cluster is treated as immutable. As a result, no extension may modify the cluster to change a setting.

    const cluster = ecs.Cluster.fromClusterAttributes(stack, 'Cluster', {
      ...
    });
    
    const environment = Environment.fromEnvironmentAttributes(stack, 'Environment', {
      capacityType: EnvironmentCapacityType.EC2, // or `FARGATE`
      cluster,
    });

    Injecter Extension

    This service extension accepts a list of Injectable resources. It grants access to these resources and adds the necessary environment variables to the tasks that are part of the service.

    For example, an InjectableTopic is an SNS Topic that grants permission to the task role and adds the topic ARN as an environment variable to the task definition.

    Publishing to SNS Topics

    You can use this extension to set up publishing permissions for SNS Topics.

    nameDescription.add(new InjecterExtension({
      injectables: [new InjectableTopic({
        // SNS Topic the service will publish to
        topic: new sns.Topic(stack, 'my-topic'),
      })],
    }));

    Queue Extension

    This service extension creates a default SQS Queue eventsQueue for the service (if not provided) and optionally also accepts list of ISubscribable objects that the eventsQueue can subscribe to. The service extension creates the subscriptions and sets up permissions for the service to consume messages from the SQS Queue.

    Setting up SNS Topic Subscriptions for SQS Queues

    You can use this extension to set up SNS Topic subscriptions for the eventsQueue. To do this, create a new object of type TopicSubscription for every SNS Topic you want the eventsQueue to subscribe to and provide it as input to the service extension.

    const myServiceDescription = nameDescription.add(new QueueExtension({
      // Provide list of topic subscriptions that you want the `eventsQueue` to subscribe to
      subscriptions: [new TopicSubscription({
        topic: new sns.Topic(stack, 'my-topic'),
      }],
    }));
    
    // To access the `eventsQueue` for the service, use the `eventsQueue` getter for the extension
    const myQueueExtension = myServiceDescription.extensions.queue as QueueExtension;
    const myEventsQueue = myQueueExtension.eventsQueue;

    For setting up a topic-specific queue subscription, you can provide a custom queue in the TopicSubscription object along with the SNS Topic. The extension will set up a topic subscription for the provided queue instead of the default eventsQueue of the service.

    nameDescription.add(new QueueExtension({
      queue: myEventsQueue,
      subscriptions: [new TopicSubscription({
        topic: new sns.Topic(stack, 'my-topic'),
        // `myTopicQueue` will subscribe to the `my-topic` instead of `eventsQueue`
        queue: myTopicQueue,
      }],
    }));

    Publish/Subscribe Service Pattern

    The Publish/Subscribe Service Pattern is used for implementing asynchronous communication between services. It involves 'publisher' services emitting events to SNS Topics, which are passed to subscribed SQS queues and then consumed by 'worker' services.

    The following example adds the InjecterExtension to a Publisher Service which can publish events to an SNS Topic and adds the QueueExtension to a Worker Service which can poll its eventsQueue to consume messages populated by the topic.

    const environment = new Environment(stack, 'production');
    
    const pubServiceDescription = new ServiceDescription();
    pubServiceDescription.add(new Container({
      cpu: 256,
      memoryMiB: 512,
      trafficPort: 80,
      image: ecs.ContainerImage.fromRegistry('sns-publish'),
    }));
    
    const myTopic = new sns.Topic(stack, 'myTopic');
    
    // Add the `InjecterExtension` to the service description to allow publishing events to `myTopic`
    pubServiceDescription.add(new InjecterExtension({
      injectables: [new InjectableTopic({
        topic: myTopic,
      }],
    }));
    
    // Create the `Publisher` Service
    new Service(stack, 'Publisher', {
      environment: environment,
      serviceDescription: pubServiceDescription,
    });
    
    const subServiceDescription = new ServiceDescription();
    subServiceDescription.add(new Container({
      cpu: 256,
      memoryMiB: 512,
      trafficPort: 80,
      image: ecs.ContainerImage.fromRegistry('sqs-reader'),
    }));
    
    // Add the `QueueExtension` to the service description to subscribe to `myTopic`
    subServiceDescription.add(new QueueExtension({
      subscriptions: [new TopicSubscription({
        topic: myTopic,
      }],
    }));
    
    // Create the `Worker` Service
    new Service(stack, 'Worker', {
      environment: environment,
      serviceDescription: subServiceDescription,
    });

    Community Extensions

    We encourage the development of Community Service Extensions that support advanced features. Here are some useful extensions that we have reviewed:

    Please submit a pull request so that we can review your service extension and list it here.

    Install

    npm i @aws-cdk-containers/ecs-service-extensions

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    Version

    1.134.0

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