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webium
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0.6.6 • Public • Published

Webium

A minimal web framework for microservice with middleware and routes. 中文

This module adds additional properties and methods to the corresponding req and res objects in a http server, and enhance abilities of the program. The program for enhancement has been separated as an individual module enhance-req-res, which will work with other frameworks or the internal Node.js http/https/http2 server, you can check it out if you want.

This module has both express style and koa style, but only keeps very few and useful methods. It is compatible to most well-known connect and express middleware, so you can use them instead.

Since version 0.3.5, Webium is compatible to Node.js internal HTTP2 server.

Since version 0.4.2, Webium supports implementing hot-reloading.

Since version 0.5.0, Webium supports Flask (a Python framework) style of binding routes, that means no next() needed, and directly returning values from the handler function to the client is allowed.

Install

npm install webium

Example

const { App, Router } = require("./");

var app = new App();

// Webium supports dynamic routing, you can start listening before binding 
// routes.
app.listen(80);

// Typical Express style
app.get("/", (req, res) => {
    res.send("<h1>Welcome to your first webium app!</h1>");
}).get("/user/:id", (req, res) => {
    console.log("UID:", req.params.id);
    res.send({
        id: req.params.id,
        name: "Luna",
        origin: "Webium"
    });
}).post("/user", (req, res) => {
    console.log("Body:", req.body);
    res.send(req.body);
});

// Koa style: The route handler contains many features: using async/await, 
// calling next() before doing stuffs, returning value from a handler function 
// and catching errors across the request life cycle.
app.get("/async", async (req, res, next) => {
    try {
        var result = await next();
        res.send(result); // Hello, Webium!
    } catch (e) {
        res.send(e instanceof Error ? e.message : e);
    }
}).get("/async", async (req, res) => {
    return "Hello, Webium!";
});

// Flask (Python) style: without next(). If the function returns something, it 
// will be sent automatically. If nothing returned, the next function will be 
// automatically invoked until the last one is called. This rule applys to both 
// ordinary function and async functions (or any function returns promise).
app.get("/send-returning", async () => {
    return "Hello, Webium!"; // the returning value will be sent automatically
});
app.get("/no-next", async (req) => {
    req.myVar = "Hello, Webium";
}).get("/no-next", (req) => {
    return req.myVar;
});

// Combine rules with an individual router.
var router = new Router();

router.get("/another-router", (req, res)=>{
    res.send("This is another router.");
});

app.use(router);

// Bind regular expression directly
app.get(/\S+\.html$/, () => {
    return "request an HTML file.";
});

// This route will match any URL
app.get("*", () => {
    return "Unknown route.";
});

API

webium

A namespace that contains classes App, Router and Cookie, while the Cookie comes from sfn-cookie, and the App inherited Router.

const webium = require("webium");

// recommended:
const { App, Router, Cookie } = require("webium");

Cookie

  • new Cookie(name: string, value: string, options?: object) All options include:
    • maxAge: number How many seconds that this cookie should last.
    • expires: number|string|Date: Keep alive to a specified date or time.
    • sameSite: Honor same-site principle, could be either Strict or Lax.
    • domain: Set cookie for a specified domain name.
    • path: Set cookie for a specified pathname.
    • httpOnly: Only HTTP, not JavaScript, can access this cookie.
    • secure: This cookie won't be sent if not using HTTPS protocol.
  • new Cookie(cookieStr: string)
  • new Cookie(options: object)
  • cookie.toString() Gets the serialized cookie string of the current instance.
var cookie1 = new Cookie("username=Luna"),
    cookie2 = new Cookie("username=Luna; Max-Age=120; HttpOnly"),
    cookie3 = new Cookie("username", "Luna"),
    cookie4 = new Cookie("username", "Luna", { maxAge: 120, httpOnly: true }),
    cookie4 = new Cookie({ name: "username", value: "Luna", maxAge: 120, httpOnly: true });

Router

new Router(caseSensitive?: boolean)

Creates a new router that can be used by the App. If caseSensitive is true, when analyzing URL, the program will check it case-sensitively.

const { App, Router } = require("webium");

var app = new App,
    router = new Router;

// ...

app.use(router);

router.use()

Adds a handler function as a middleware, or concatenate another router.

signatures:

  • use(handler: RouteHandler): this
  • use(router: Router): this

The type RouteHandler is a function with this signature:

  • (req: Request, res: Response: next(thisObj: any) => Promise<any>) => any
router.use((req, res, next) => {
    // ...
    next();
});

var router2 = new Router;
router2.use(router);

Be aware, if you use another router when the current one has same routes, only their handlers will be merged. If the routes in that router don't exist in the current one, then references will be created, that means if you modified the routes of that router, the current one will also be affected.

Middleware are called before all routes, and when concatenating two routes, middleware are always merged.

method(name: string, path: string, handler: RouteHandler, unique?: boolean): this

Adds a handler function to a specified method and path.

router.method("GET", "/", (req, res, next) => {
    // ...
    next();
}).method("GET", "/user/:name", (req, res, next) => {
    // GET /user/luna
    console.log(req.params); // { name: 'luna' }
    // ...
});

The path in express style, will be parsed by path-to-regexp module, you can learn more details in its documentation.

If the argument unique is provided, that means the route should contain only one handler, and the new one will replace the old one.

delete(path: string, handler: RouteHandler, unique?: boolean): this

Short-hand for router.method("DELETE", path, handler, unique).

get(path: string, handler: RouteHandler, unique?: boolean): this

Short-hand for router.method("GET", path, handler, unique).

head(path: string, handler: RouteHandler, unique?: boolean): this

Short-hand for router.method("HEAD", path, handler, unique).

patch(path: string, handler: RouteHandler, unique?: boolean): this

Short-hand for router.method("PATCH", path, handler, unique).

post(path: string, handler: RouteHandler, unique?: boolean): this

Short-hand for router.method("POST", path, handler, unique).

put(path: string, handler: RouteHandler, unique?: boolean): this

Short-hand for router.method("PUT", path, handler, unique).

all(path: string, handler: RouteHandler, unique?: boolean): this

Adds a handler function to the all methods.

alias:

  • any()

contains(method: string, path: string, handler?: RouteHandler): boolean

Checks if the router contains corresponding route and handler.

methods(path: string): string[]

Returns all methods bound to the path.

App

The App class inherited from Router.

new App(options?: AppOptions)

Interface AppOptions includes:

  • domain Set a domain name (or multiple ones in an array) for the program to find out the subdomain.
  • useProxy If true, when access properties like req.ip and req.host, will firstly try to get info from proxy, default: false.
  • capitalize Auto-capitalize response headers when setting, default: true.
  • cookieSecret A secret key to sign/unsign cookie values.
  • jsonp Set a query name for jsonp callback if needed. If true is set, then the query name will be jsonp. In the query string, using the style jsonp=callback to request jsonp response.
  • caseSensitive Set the routes to be case-sensitive.

This module also automatically parses request body if the Content-Type is application/x-www-form-urlencoded or application/json by using body-parser module, so other options worked with body-parser can also be set to options.

var app = new App();

// Or:
var app = new App({
    domain: "example.com",
    useProxy: true
});

app.get("/", (req, res, next) => {
    // ...
    next();
});

listen()

Please check http.listen().

close()

Closes the server started by app.listen().

handler or listener

Returns the handler function for http/https/http2 server, you can use it with https and/or http2.

HTTPS

const { createServer } = require("https");

createServer(app.listener).listen(443);

HTTP/2

const { createSecureServer } = require("http2");

createSecureServer(tlsOptions, app.listener).listen(443);

onerror(err: any, req: Request, res: Response)

If any error occurred, this method will be called, you can override this method to make it satisfied to your needs.

var app = new App();

// If the default function doesn't fulfill your needs, you can simply just 
// overwrite it.
app.onerror = function (err, req, res) {
    // ...
};

Request

The Request interface extends IncomingMessage/Http2ServerRequest with more properties and methods.

Some of these properties are read-only for security reasons, that means you won't be able to modified them.

  • stream The Http2Stream object backing the request (only for http2).
  • urlObj An object parsed by url6 module that contains URL information. Be aware of urlObj.auth, which is actually sent by http Basic Authendication.
  • time Request time, not really connection time, but the moment this module performs actions.
  • proxy If the client requested via a proxy server, this property will be set, otherwise it's null. If available, it may contain these properties:
    • protocol The client's real request protocol (x-forwarded-proto).
    • host The real host that client trying to request (x-forwarded-host).
    • ip The real IP of client (ips[0]).
    • ips An array carries all IP addresses, includes client IP and proxy server IPs (x-forwarded-for).
  • auth Authentication of the client, it could be null, or an object carries { username, password }.
  • protocol Either http or https, if useProxy is true, then trying to use proxy's protocol first.
  • secure If protocol is https, then true, otherwise false.
  • host The requested host address (including hostname and port), if useProxy is true, then try to use proxy's host first.
  • hostname The requested host name (without port).
  • port The requested port.
  • domainName The request domain name.
  • subdomain Unlike express or koa's subdomains, this property is calculated by setting the domain option.
  • path Full requested path (with search).
  • pathname Directory part of requested path (without search).
  • search The requested URL search string, with a leading ?.
  • query Parsed URL query object.
  • href Full requested URL string (without hash, which is not sent by the client).
  • referer Equivalent to headers.referer.
  • origin Reference to headers.origin or urlObj.origin.
  • type The Content-Type of requested body (without charset).
  • charset The requested body's charset, or the first accepted charset (charsets[0]), assume they both use a same charset. Unlike other properties, If you set this one to a valid charset, it will be used to decode request body.
  • charsets An array carries all Accept-Charsets, ordered by qualities.
  • length The Content-Length of requested body.
  • xhr Whether the request fires with X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest.
  • cookies An object carries all parsed cookies sent by the client.
  • params The URL parameters.
  • body An object carries requested body parsed by body-parser. Remember, only json and x-www-form-urlencoded are parsed by default.
  • ip The real client IP, if useProxy is true, then trying to use proxy's ip first.
  • ips An array carries all IP addresses, includes client IP and proxy server IPs. Unlike proxy.ips, which may be undefined, while this will always be available.
  • accept The first accepted response content type (accepts[0]).
  • accepts An array carries all Accepts types, ordered by qualities.
  • lang The first accepted response language (accepts[0]).
  • langs An array carries all Accept-Languages, ordered by qualities.
  • encoding The first accepted response encoding (encodings[0]).
  • encodings An array carries all Accept-Encodings, ordered by sequence.
  • cache Cache-Control sent by the client, it could be null (no-cache), a number of seconds (max-age), or a string like private, public, etc.
  • keepAlive Whether the request fires with Connection: keep-alive.
  • get(field) Gets a request header field's (case insensitive) value.
  • is(...types) Checks if the request Content-Type matches the given types, available of using short-hand words, like html indicates text/html. If pass, returns the first matched type.
console.log(req.urlObj);
console.log(req.ip);
console.log(req.host);
console.log(req.subdomain);
console.log(req.query);
console.log(req.lang);
// ...

Response

The Response interface extends ServerResponse/Http2ServerResponse with more properties and methods.

Most of its properties are setters/getters, if you assign a new value to them, that will actually mean something.

stream - The Http2Stream object backing the response (only for http2)

This property is read-only.

res.stream.push("some thing");

code - Sets/Gets status code.

res.code = 200;
console.log(res.code); // => 200

message - Sets/Gets status message.

res.message = "OK";
console.log(res.message); // => OK

status - Sets/Gets both status code and message.

res.status = 200;
console.log(res.status); // => 200 OK

res.status = "200 Everything works fine.";
console.log(res.status); // => 200 Everything works fine.
console.log(res.code); // => 200
console.log(res.message); // => Everything works fine.

type - Sets/Gets Content-Type without charset part.

res.type = "text/html";
res.type = "html"; // Will auto lookup to text/html.
console.log(res.type); // => text/html

charset - Sets/Gets Content-Type only with charset part.

res.charset = "UTF-8";
console.log(res.charset); // => UTF-8

length Sets/Gets Content-Length.

res.length = 12;
console.log(res.length); // => 12

encoding Sets/Gets Content-Encoding.

res.encoding = "gzip";
console.log(res.encoding); // => gzip

date - Sets/Gets Date.

res.date = new Date(); // You can set a date string or Date instance.
console.log(res.date); // => Fri, 15 Dec 2017 04:13:17 GMT

etag Sets/Gets - Etag.

This properties is internally used when calling res.send(), if you don't use res.send(), you can call it manually.

const etag = require("etag");

var body = "Hello, World!";
res.etag = etag(body);
console.log(res.etag); // => d-CgqfKmdylCVXq1NV12r0Qvj2XgE

lastModified - Sets/Gets Last-Modified.

res.lastModified = new Date(2017); // You can set a date string or Date instance.
console.log(res.lastModified); // => Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:00:02 GMT

location - Sets/Gets Location.

res.location = "/login";
console.log(res.location); // => /login

refresh - Sets/Gets Refresh in a number of seconds.

res.refresh = 3; // The page will auto-refresh in 3 seconds.
res.refresh = "3; URL=/logout"; // Auto-redirect to /logout in 3 seconds.
console.log(res.refresh); // => 3; URL=/logout

attachment - Sets/Gets Content-Disposition with a filename.

res.attachment = "example.txt";
console.log(res.attchment); // => attachment; filename="example.txt"

cahce - Sets/Gets Cache-Control.

res.cache = null; // no-cache
res.cache = 0; // max-age=0
res.cache = 3600; // max-age=3600
res.cache = "private";
console.log(res.cache); // private

vary - Sets/Gets Vary.

res.vary = "Content-Type";
res.vary = ["Content-Type", "Content-Length"]; // Set multiple fields.
console.log(res.vary); // => [Content-Type, Content-Length]

keepAlive - Sets/Gets Connection.

res.keepAlive = true; // Connection: keep-alive
console.log(res.keepAlive); // => true

modified - Whether the response has been modified.

This property is read-only, and only works after res.atag and res.lastModified are set (whether explicitly or implicitly).

res.send("Hello, World!");

if (res.modified) {
    console.log("A new response has been sent to the client.");
} else {
    console.log("A '304 Not Modified' response has been sent to the client");
}

headers - Sets/Gets response headers.

This property is a Proxy instance, you can only manipulate its properties to set headers.

res.headers["x-powered-by"] = "Node.js/8.9.3";
console.log(res.headers); // => { "x-powered-by": "Node.js/8.9.3" }

// If you want to delete a heder, just call:
delete res.headers["x-powered-by"];

cookies - Sets/Gets response cookies.

This property is a Proxy instance, you can only manipulate its properties to set cookies.

res.cookies.username = "Luna";
res.cookies.username = "Luna; Max-Age=3600"; // Set both value and max-age

// Another way to set a cookie is using the Cookie class:
const { Cookie } = require("webium");
res.cookies.username = new Cookie({ value: "Luna", maxAge: 3600 });

console.log(res.cookies); // => { username: "Luna" }

// If you want to delete a cookie, just call:
delete res.cookies.username;
// Or this may be more convinient if you just wnat it to expire:
res.cookies.username = null;

get(field) - Gets a response header field's value.

var type = res.get("Content-Type");
// equivalent to 
var type = req.headers["content-type"];

set(field, value) - Sets a response header field's value.

res.set("Content-Type", "text/html");
// equivalent to:
res.headers["content-type"] = "text/html";

append(field, value) - Appends a value to a response header field.

res.append("Set-Cookie", "username=Luna");
res.append("Set-Cookie", "email=luna@example.com");
// equivalent to:
res.set("Set-Cookie", ["username=Luna", "email=luna@example.com"]);

remove(field) - Removes a response header field.

res.remove("Set-Cookie");
// equivalent to:
delete res.headers["set-cookie"];

cookie(name) - Gets a response cookie.

var name = res.cookie("username");
// equivalent to:
var name = res.cookies.username;

cookie(name, value, options?: object) - Sets a response cookie.

res.cookie("username", "Luna");
// equivalent to:
res.cookies.username = "Luna";

// you can set additinal options:
res.cookie("username", "Luna", { maxAge: 3600 });
// equivalent to:
res.cookies.username = new Cookie({ value: "Luna" , maxAge: 3600 });

Be aware, you cannot set value as Luna; Max-Age=3600 with res.cookie(), it will always be treated as cookie value.

auth() - Makes an HTTP basic authentication.

if(!req.auth){ // Require authendication if haven't.
    res.auth();
}else{
    // ...
}

unauth() - Clears authentication.

Since browsers clear authentication while respond 401 Unauthorized, so this method is exactly the same as res.auth(), only more readable.

redirect(url, code?: 301 | 302) - Redirects the request to a specified URL.

res.redirect("/login"); // code is 302 by default.
// If you want to go back to the previous page, just pass url -1.
res.redirect(-1);

send(data) - Sends contents to the client.

This method will automatically perform type checking, If data is a buffer, the res.type will be set to application/octet-stream; if data is an object (or array), res.type will be set to application/json; if data is a string, the program will detect if it's text/plain, text/html, application/xml, or application/json.

This method also check if a response body has been modified since the last time, if res.modified is false, a 304 Not Modified with no body will be sent.

res.send("Hello, World!"); // text/plain
res.send("<p>Hello, World!</p>"); // text/html
res.send("<Text>Hello, World!</Text>"); // application/xml
res.send(`["Hello", "World!"]`); // application/json
res.send(["Hello", "World!"]); // application/json
res.send(Buffer.from("Hello, World!")); // application/octet-stream

This method could send jsonp response as well, if res.jsonp is set, or options.jsonp for the application is set and the query matches, a jsonp response will be sent, and the res.type will be set to application/javascript.

res.jsonp = "callback";
res.send(["Hello", "World!"]); // will result as callback(["Hello", "World!"])

sendFile(filename, cb?: (err)=>void) - Sends a file as response body.

This method also performs type checking.

res.sendFile("example.txt");
// if you provide a callback function, then it will be called after the 
// response has been sent, or failed.
res.sendFile("example.txt", (err)=>{
    console.log(err ? `Fail due to: ${err.message}`: "Success!");
});

download(filename, newName?: string) Performs a file download function.

This method uses res.sendFile() to transfer the file, but instead of displaying on the page, the browser will download it to disk.

res.download("example.txt");
// You can set a new name if the original one is inconvenient.
res.download("1a79a4d60de6718e8e5b326e338ae533.txt", "example.txt");

Other forms:

  • download(filename, cb:? (err)=>void)
  • download(filename, newName, cb:? (err)=>void)

The callback function, will be called after the response has been sent, or failed.

Other than downloading a real file, you can perform downloading a string as a text file by using res.attachment and res.send().

// This content will be downloaded using the name 'example.html':
res.attachment = "example.html";
res.send("<p>Hello, World!</p>");

Worth mentioned, if you use res.send() to send a buffer, most browsers will download the buffer as a file, so it's always better to set res.attachment when you are sending buffers.

About the next()

The function next returns a wrapper of the next handler, when it is called, the returning value (if any) of the handler will be returned (in a resolved promise since v0.6). This module will try to match as many routes as it can as long as you continue calling the next() function, so you must not call it unless you know what you're doing.

If you pass the thisObj to next(), then in the next handler function scope, the pseudo-variable this will be pointed to thisObj, except in an arrow function, which always uses the origin this at where the function is defined. If no thisObj passed, then the default this is the App instance.

Allowing you pass thisObj is meant to allow you bind a class method to the route, which always requires the this context available. Please see the following example:

class Controller {
    constructor() {
        this.text = "Hello, World!";
    }

    index(req, res) {
        res.send(this.text);
    }
}

var app = new App;

app.get("/", (req, res, next) => {
    var ctrl = new Controller;
    ctrl.text = "<h1>Response comes from a controller.</h1>";
    next(ctrl);
}).get("/", Controller.prototype.index);

If you calling Controller.prototype.index(...args) directly, nothing will be sent because there is no this.text at all. But using the mechanism of Controller.prototype.index.call(new Controller, ...args), it will work fine. The next(new Controller) is just doing the same thing for you internally.

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License

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