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styled-jsx

styled-jsx

Build Status XO code style styled with prettier Slack Channel

Full, scoped and component-friendly CSS support for JSX (rendered on the server or the client).

Code and docs are for v2 which we highly recommend you to try. Looking for styled-jsx v1? Switch to the v1 branch.

Usage

Firstly, install the package:

npm install --save styled-jsx

Next, add styled-jsx/babel to plugins in your babel configuration:

{
  "plugins": [
    "styled-jsx/babel"
  ]
}

Now add <style jsx> to your code and fill it with CSS:

export default () => (
  <div>
    <p>only this paragraph will get the style :)</p>
 
    { /* you can include <Component />s here that include
         other <p>s that don't get unexpected styles! */ }
 
    <style jsx>{`
      p {
        color: red;
      }
    `}</style>
  </div>
)

Configuration

The following are optional settings for the babel plugin.

optimizeForSpeed

Blazing fast and optimized CSS rules injection system based on the CSSOM APIs.

{
  "plugins": [
    ["styled-jsx/babel", { "optimizeForSpeed": true }]
  ]
}

When in production* this mode is automatically enabled.
Beware that when using this option source maps cannot be generated and styles cannot be edited via the devtools.

* process.env.NODE_ENV === 'production'

sourceMaps

Generates source maps (default: false)

vendorPrefixes

Turn on/off automatic vendor prefixing (default: true)

Features

  • Full CSS support, no tradeoffs in power
  • Runtime size of just 3kb (gzipped, from 12kb)
  • Complete isolation: Selectors, animations, keyframes
  • Built-in CSS vendor prefixing
  • Very fast, minimal and efficient transpilation (see below)
  • High-performance runtime-CSS-injection when not server-rendering
  • Future-proof: Equivalent to server-renderable "Shadow CSS"
  • Source maps support
  • Dynamic styles and themes support *new
  • CSS Preprocessing via Plugins *new

How It Works

The example above transpiles to the following:

import _JSXStyle from 'styled-jsx/style'
 
export default () => (
  <div className='jsx-123'>
    <p className='jsx-123'>only this paragraph will get the style :)</p>
    <_JSXStyle styleId='123' css={`p.jsx-123 {color: red;}`} />
  </div>
)

Why It Works Like This

Unique classnames give us style encapsulation and _JSXStyle is heavily optimized for:

  • Injecting styles upon render
  • Only injecting a certain component's style once (even if the component is included multiple times)
  • Removing unused styles
  • Keeping track of styles for server-side rendering

Keeping CSS in separate files

Styles can be defined in separate JavaScript modules by tagging with css any template literal that contain CSS.

css must be imported from styled-jsx/css:

/* styles.js */
import css from 'styled-jsx/css'
 
export const button = css`button { color: hotpink; }`
export default css`div { color: green; }`

imported as regular strings:

import styles, { button } from './styles'
 
export default () => (
  <div>
    <button>styled-jsx</button>
    <style jsx>{styles}</style>
    <style jsx>{button}</style>
  </div>
)

Styles are automatically scoped but you can also be consumed as globals.

N.B. We support CommonJS exports but you can only export one string per module:

module.exports = css`div { color: green; }`
 
// the following won't work
// module.exports = { styles: css`div { color: green; }` }

Targeting The Root

Notice that the parent <div> from the example above also gets a jsx-123 classname. We do this so that you can target the "root" element, in the same manner that :host works with Shadow DOM.

If you want to target only the host, we suggest you use a class:

export default () => (
  <div className="root">
    <style jsx>{`
      .root {
        color: green;
      }
    `}</style>
  </div>
)

Global styles

To skip scoping entirely, you can make the global-ness of your styles explicit by adding global.

export default () => (
  <div>
    <style jsx global>{`
      body {
        background: red
      }
    `}</style>
  </div>
)

The advantage of using this over <style> is twofold: no need to use dangerouslySetInnerHTML to avoid escaping issues with CSS and take advantage of styled-jsx's de-duping system to avoid the global styles being inserted multiple times.

Global selectors

Sometimes it's useful to skip prefixing. We support :global(), inspired by css-modules.

This is very useful in order to, for example, generate an unprefixed class that you can pass to 3rd-party components. For example, to style react-select which supports passing a custom class via optionClassName:

import Select from 'react-select'
export default () => (
  <div>
    <Select optionClassName="react-select" />
 
    <style jsx>{`
      /* "div" will be prefixed, but ".react-select" won't */
 
      div :global(.react-select) {
        color: red
      }
    `}</style>
  </div>
)

Dynamic styles

To make a component's visual representation customizable from the outside world there are three options.

Via interpolated dynamic props

Any value that comes from the component's render method scope is treated as dynamic. This makes it possible to use props and state for example.

const Button = (props) => (
  <button>
     { props.children }
     <style jsx>{`
        button {
          padding: ${ 'large' in props ? '50' : '20' }px;
          background: ${props.theme.background};
          color: #999;
          display: inline-block;
          font-size: 1em;
        }
     `}</style>
  </button>
)

New styles' injection is optimized to perform well at runtime.

That said when your CSS is mostly static we recommend to split it up in static and dynamic styles and use two separate style tags so that, when changing, only the dynamic parts are recomputed/rendered.

const Button = (props) => (
  <button>
     { props.children }
     <style jsx>{`
        button {
          color: #999;
          display: inline-block;
          font-size: 2em;
        }
     `}</style>
     <style jsx>{`
        button {
          padding: ${ 'large' in props ? '50' : '20' }px;
          background: ${props.theme.background};
        }
     `}</style>
  </button>
)

Via className toggling

The second option is to pass properties that toggle class names.

const Button = (props) => (
  <button className={ 'large' in props && 'large' }>
     { props.children }
     <style jsx>{`
        button {
          padding: 20px;
          background: #eee;
          color: #999
        }
        .large {
          padding: 50px
        }
     `}</style>
  </button>
)

Then you would use this component as either <Button>Hi</Button> or <Button large>Big</Button>.

Via inline style

*best for animations

Imagine that you wanted to make the padding in the button above completely customizable. You can override the CSS you configure via inline-styles:

const Button = ({ padding, children }) => (
  <button style={{ padding }}>
     { children }
     <style jsx>{`
        button {
          padding: 20px;
          background: #eee;
          color: #999
        }
     `}</style>
  </button>
)

In this example, the padding defaults to the one set in <style> (20), but the user can pass a custom one via <Button padding={30}>.

Constants

It is possible to use constants like so:

import { colors, spacing } from '../theme'
import { invertColor } from '../theme/utils'
 
const Button = ({ children }) => (
  <button>
     { children }
     <style jsx>{`
        button {
          padding: ${ spacing.medium };
          background: ${ colors.primary };
          color: ${ invertColor(colors.primary) };
        }
     `}</style>
  </button>
)

Please keep in mind that constants defined outside of the component scope are treated as static styles.

Server-Side Rendering

styled-jsx/server

The main export flushes your styles to an array of React.Element:

import React from 'react'
import ReactDOM from 'react-dom/server'
import flush from 'styled-jsx/server'
import App from './app'
 
export default (req, res) => {
  const app = ReactDOM.renderToString(<App />)
  const styles = flush()
  const html = ReactDOM.renderToStaticMarkup(<html>
    <head>{ styles }</head>
    <body>
      <div id="root" dangerouslySetInnerHTML={{__html: app}} />
    </body>
  </html>)
  res.end('<!doctype html>' + html)
}

We also expose flushToHTML to return generated HTML:

import React from 'react'
import ReactDOM from 'react-dom/server'
import { flushToHTML } from 'styled-jsx/server'
import App from './app'
 
export default (req, res) => {
  const app = ReactDOM.renderToString(<App />)
  const styles = flushToHTML()
  const html = `<!doctype html>
    <html>
      <head>${styles}</head>
      <body>
        <div id="root">${app}</div>
      </body>
    </html>`
  res.end(html)
}

It's paramount that you use one of these two functions so that the generated styles can be diffed when the client loads and duplicate styles are avoided.

CSS Preprocessing via Plugins

Styles can be preprocessed via plugins.

Plugins are regular JavaScript modules that export a simple function with the following signature:

(css: string, options: Object) => string

Basically they accept a CSS string in input, optionally modify it and finally return it.

Plugins make it possible to use popular preprocessors like SASS, Less, Stylus, PostCSS or apply custom transformations to the styles at compile time.

To register a plugin add an option plugins for styled-jsx/babel to your .babelrc. plugins must be an array of module names or full paths for local plugins.

{
  "plugins": [
    [
      "styled-jsx/babel",
      { "plugins": ["my-styled-jsx-plugin-package", "/full/path/to/local/plugin"] }
    ]
  ]
}
Instructions to integrate with Next.js In order to register styled-jsx plugins in a Next.js app you need to create a custom .babelrc file:
{
  "presets": [
    [
      "next/babel",
      {
        "styled-jsx": {
          "plugins": [
            "styled-jsx-plugin-postcss"
          ]
        }
      }
    ]
  ]
}

This is a fairly new feature so make sure that you using a version of Next.js that supports passing options to styled-jsx.


Plugins are applied in definition order left to right before styles are scoped.

In order to resolve local plugins paths you can use NodeJS' require.resolve.

N.B. when applying the plugins styled-jsx replaces template literals expressions with placeholders because otherwise CSS parsers would get invalid CSS E.g.

/* `ExprNumber` is a number */
%%styled-jsx-placeholder-ExprNumber%%

Plugins won't transform expressions (eg. dynamic styles).

When publishing a plugin you may want to add the keywords: styled-jsx and styled-jsx-plugin. We also encourage you to use the following naming convention for your plugins:

styled-jsx-plugin-<your-plugin-name>

Plugin options

Users can set plugin options by registering a plugin as an array that contains the plugin path and an options object.

{
  "plugins": [
    [
      "styled-jsx/babel",
      {
        "plugins": [
          ["my-styled-jsx-plugin-package", { "exampleOption":  true }]
        ],
        "sourceMaps": true
      }
    ]
  ]
}

Each plugin receives a options object as second argument which contains the babel and user options:

(css, options) => { /* ... */ }

The options object has the following shape:

{
  // user options go here
  // eg. exampleOption: true
 
  // babel options
  babel: {
    sourceMaps: boolean,
    vendorPrefixes: boolean,
    isGlobal: boolean,
    filename: ?string, // defined only when styled-jsx/babel is used via Babel CLI,
    location: { // the original location of the CSS block in the JavaScript file
      start: {
        line: number,
        column: number,
      },
      end: {
        line: number,
        column: number,
      }
    }
  }
}

Example plugins

The following plugins are proof of concepts/sample:

Syntax Highlighting

When working with template literals a common drawback is missing syntax highlighting. The following editors currently have support for highlighting CSS inside <style jsx> elements.

If you have a solution for an editor not on the list please open a PR and let us now.

Atom

The language-babel package for the Atom editor has an option to extend the grammar for JavaScript tagged template literals.

After installing the package add the code below to the appropriate settings entry. In a few moments you should be blessed with proper CSS syntax highlighting. (source)

"(?<=<style jsx>{)|(?<=<style jsx global>{)":source.css.styled

babel-language settings entry

Webstorm/Idea

The IDE let you inject any language in place with Inject language or reference in an Intention Actions (default alt+enter). Simply perform the action in the string template and select CSS. You get full CSS highlighting and autocompletion and it will last until you close the IDE.

Additionally you can use language injection comments to enable all the IDE language features indefinitely using the language comment style:

import { colors, spacing } from '../theme'
import { invertColor } from '../theme/utils'
 
const Button = ({ children }) => (
  <button>
     { children }
 
     { /*language=CSS*/ }
     <style jsx>{`
        button {
          padding: ${ spacing.medium };
          background: ${ colors.primary };
          color: ${ invertColor(colors.primary) };
        }
     `}</style>
  </button>
)

Emmet

If you're using Emmet you can add the following snippet to ~/emmet/snippets-styledjsx.json This will allow you to expand style-jsx to a styled-jsx block.

{
 "html": {
   "snippets": {
     "style-jsx": "<style jsx>{`\n\t$1\n`}</style>"
   }
 }
}

Visual Studio Code Extension

Launch VS Code Quick Open (⌘+P), paste the following command, and press enter.

ext install vscode-styled-jsx

Autocomplete

By now, this extension doesn't support autocomplete. However, you can install ES6 Template Literal Editor extension to edit styles in another pane, and you will get full feature of css language service provided by VS Code.

Vim

Install vim-styled-jsx with your plugin manager of choice.

ESLint

If you're using eslint-plugin-import, the css import will generate errors, being that it's a "magic" import (not listed in package.json). To avoid these, simply add the following line to your eslint configuration:

"settings": {"import/core-modules": ["styled-jsx/css"] }

Credits

  • Pedram Emrouznejad (rijs) suggested attribute selectors over my initial class prefixing idea.
  • Sunil Pai (glamor) inspired the use of murmurhash2 (minimal and fast hashing) and an efficient style injection logic.
  • Sultan Tarimo built stylis.js, a super fast and tiny CSS parser and compiler.
  • Max Stoiber (styled-components) proved the value of retaining the familiarity of CSS syntax and pointed me to the very efficient stylis compiler (which we forked to very efficiently append attribute selectors to the user's css)
  • Yehuda Katz (ember) convinced me on Twitter to transpile CSS as an alternative to CSS-in-JS.
  • Evan You (vuejs) discussed his Vue.js CSS transformation with me.
  • Henry Zhu (babel) helpfully pointed me to some important areas of the babel plugin API.

Authors