reshape-state
    TypeScript icon, indicating that this package has built-in type declarations

    1.4.0 • Public • Published

    reshape-state

    A small state management library. Use a reshaper to manage acquiring data for a state object from multiple asynchronous sources.

    An example application that uses reshape-state is available at codesandbox.io.

    Install

    yarn add reshape-state

    Usage

    Create

    Create a reshaper that will manage state change actions, manipulating state, and notifying subscribers when it changes.

    import { create } from "reshape-state";
    
    const reshaper = create<State>();

    Provide the current state

    The reshaper does not maintain state, it updates state. The reshaper also is agnostic about the type of state, it could be an object, string, number, etc. To provide the current state to the reshaper - which it will pass to the handler functions - provide a function to the reshaper which when invoked returns the current state.

    let currentState: unknown;
    reshaper.setGetState(() => currentState);

    Listen for state changes

    Add an OnChange callback to be notified when state changes.

    let currentState: unknown;
    reshaper.addOnChange(state => currentState = state));

    Dispatch actions to handlers

    When state needs to be changed use dispatch with one or more tasks as parameters. Any Action tasks have one required property id which can be a string or number; the optional payload contains information used to update state. Inline handlers can also be dispatched.

    reshaper.dispatch({ id: "name", payload: "Alice" }, { id: "age", payload: 30 });

    Update state with handler functions

    Add handler functions to change state.

    reshaper.addHandlers([
      (state, action) => {
        if (action.id === "name") {
          state.name = action.payload;
          return [state, true];
        }
    
        return [state];
      },
      (state, action) => {
        if (action.id === "family-name") {
          state.familyName = action.payload;
          return [state, true];
        }
    
        return [state];
      },
    ]);

    The handler functions must be synchronous and return at least a state object but they can start asynchronous code and dispatch a task when they finish (i.e they can have "side-effects"). In fact handlers don't have to react to an action, they can do something based on the current shape of the state. In the example below once state contains a name the address associated with that name will be fetched. The idea is that changing one piece of state can cause another one to be updated without requiring an intermediate action.

    reshaper.addHandlers([
      (state, _, dispatch) => {
        if (state.name && !state.address) {
          fetch(`${address_url}?name=${state.name}`).then(response =>
            dispatch({ id: "address", payload: response })
          );
        }
    
        return [state];
      },
      (state, action) => {
        if (action.id === "address") {
          state.address = action.payload;
          return [state, true];
        }
    
        return [state];
      },
    ]);

    You may have noticed state can be mutated - or not - it's up to you. State change is indicated by the optional second element in the return array not by object equality. If the second element is not provided the default is that state has not changed.

    Dispatch inline handlers

    Typically after starting asynchronous code in a handler the convention is to dispatch another Action which will inform all handlers of the asynchronous code's completion and one or more of the handlers will use the action to update state. Sometimes there is no no need to inform all the handlers about the asynchronous result but simply to update state with the result. In this case an InlineHandler can be dispatched which will be invoked with the current state. Like other handler functions it must synchronously return a state object and an indication if the state has changed.

    reshaper.addHandlers([
      (state, action, dispatch) => {
        if (action.id === "address") {
          fetch(`${address_url}?name=${state.name}`).then(response =>
            // Dispatch an InlineHandler that will update state with the
            // asynchronous result when it is invoked.
            dispatch(currentState => {
              currentState.address = response;
              return [currentState, true];
            });
          );
        }
    
        return [state];
      },
    ]);

    Changing state without an action

    There may be situations where you'd like a change to state to trigger further changes to state in a different handler. This could be accomplished using a "chain" of dispatched actions however if it's possible to determine what updates to state are needed based on the current state you can configure the reshaper to iterate over all the handlers you provide until state does not change.

    To enable this mode pass the loopUntilSettled property as an option to the create function.

    import { create } from "reshape-state";
    
    const reshaper = create<State>({ loopUntilSettled: true });

    Now when an action is dispatched - or an inline handler is invoked - that results in a change to state every handler will be called again with a special action. This action will have its id set to null and will not include a payload.

    For example this would be useful if you knew that after fetching data from a remote service and updating state that subsequent requests to another service must be made for more information.

    Remove listeners and handlers

    If the reshaper is no longer needed the OnChange callback and handlers should be removed.

    reshaper.removeHandlers(handlers);
    reshaper.removeOnChange(handleChange);

    Tips

    Create handler functions using a factory function

    There are several reasons for using a factory function:

    • Move handlers into separate, domain specific module files.
    • Create a scope for data that is only needed by, and private to, the handler functions.

    The reshaper's addHandlers function accepts an array of handlers so your factory function must return an array. Eventually you will probably want to pass data to your handlers that they need while they are processing state, or you may need to define variables for the handlers that are only needed by the handlers. During development there may be a variety of variables that change based on the environment your code is deployed to, like "dev," "staging," or "production" so a fairly common pattern I use looks like the following example:

    /**
     * auth-handlers.ts
     */
    
    // This exported function can be called to generate an array of handler
    // functions to pass to the reshaper.
    export function createAuthHandlers(protocol: "http" | "https", domain: string, port?: number){
      // Parts of the service URL that the application needs to talk to may change,
      // so they are passed to the handlers as arguments to the factory function.
      const serviceUrl = new URL(`${protocol}://${domain}${port ? `:${port}` : ""}`);
    
      // We'll use this flag to prevent multiple asynchronous requests to read the
      // user from being started. Since this variable is only needed by the
      // `readUser` function we create it inside the factory function.
      let readUserStatus: "active" | "inactive" = "inactive";
    
      const readUser: ActionHandler<State, User> = (state, action, dispatch) => {
        if (action.type !== "read-user"){
          return [state];
        }
    
        // If we're already in a read operation the do not start another one.
        if (readUserState === "active"){
          return [state];
        }
    
        // Not currently reading the user, set the flag so we know not to start
        // another user read.
        readUserStatus = "active";
    
        fetch(serviceUrl)
          .then(response => {
            // If none of our other handlers need to know that the read is complete
            // then an inline handler can be used to simplify updating state.
            dispatch(inlineState => [{...inlineState, userResponse: response}, true]);
    
            // Now we're ready to process another request for user data so update
            // the flag's value.
            readUserStatus = "inactive";
          });
    
        return [state];
      };
    
      // Return an array of ActionHandlers.
      return [readUser];
    }
    
    /**
     * auth.ts
     * The file that creates the reshaper.
     */
    
    // Import the factory function
    import { create } from "reshape-state";
    import { createAuthHandlers } from "./auth-handlers.ts";
    
    // Create the reshaper then invoke the factory function from auth-handlers.ts
    // to generate the handlers.
    const reshaper = create<State>();
    reshaper.addHandlers(createAuthHandlers(process.env.protocol, process.env.domain, +process.env.port));

    This pattern can be extended so that handlers for specific business functions or domains can be organized in different files.

    /**
     * app.ts
     * The file that creates the reshaper.
     */
    
    // Import the factory function
    import { create } from "reshape-state";
    import { createAuthHandlers } from "./auth-handlers.ts";
    import { createMenuHandlers } from "./menu-handlers.ts";
    import { createOrderHandlers } from "./order-handlers.ts";
    
    // Here the results of multiple handler factory functions are being passed to the reshaper.
    const reshaper = create<State>();
    reshaper.addHandlers([
      ...createAuthHandlers(process.env.auth_protocol, process.env.auth_domain, +process.env.auth_port),
      ...createMenuHandlers(process.env.protocol, process.env.domain, +process.env.port),
      ...createOrderHandlers(process.env.protocol, process.env.domain, +process.env.port)
    ]);

    React integration

    One way to integrate reshape-state into React is to use Context with components for state management. Several key points are:

    • Use an OnChange handler in the Context's Provider to store state in the value of a useState hook.
    • Update state through functions on properties of the Context value. In turn those functions will use dispatch to update state.

    Commonly this implementation is enhanced through the use of custom hooks to split up changes to context data values (which change) from context function values (which usually don't change). The custom hooks can also use selector functions to reduce the number of rerenders that changes to state might cause.

    Also since different Contexts can be provided at different locations through the React component tree it's possible to have a unique reshaper instance in each different Context as needed.

    /**
     * context.ts
     */
    export const Context = createContext();
    
    export Provider ({children, reshaper}: Props) {
      const [data, setData] = useState<unknown>();
    
      // When state is changed by the reshaper all of its OnChange handlers will be
      // invoked. Set the state value passed to the OnChange handler into a
      // `useState` hook.
      useEffect(() => {
        function handleChange (nextState: unknown) {
          // Remember, the reshaper doesn't determine if state has changed based on
          // a value comparison, the developer indicates if it has changed. React
          // however uses a value comparison to determine when the value set on a
          // `useState` hook has changed. Here the `nextState` value is spread to
          // create a new object instance which will trigger a React update cycle
          // to begin.
          setData(...nextState);
        }
    
        reshaper.addOnChange(handleChange);
    
        return () => {
          reshaper.removeOnChange(handleChange);
        };
      }, [reshaper]);
    
      // Provide a function to the reshaper that returns the current value of state
      // to the reshaper. Note that this is done in a separate hook because the
      // GetState function needs to be updated with the current state every time
      // state changes.  
      useEffect(() => {
        reshaper.setGetState(() => data);
      }, [reshaper, data]);
    
      // Create the value that is passed through Context. This includes the state
      // (data) as well as a function to update the name field that will dispatch
      // an action to the reshaper.
      const value = {
        ...data,
        setName: (name: string) => reshaper.dispatch({ payload: name, type: "UPDATE_NAME" });
      };
    
      return <Context.Provider value={value}>{children}</Context.Provider>;
    }
    /**
     * A component that uses the data and function values provided through Context.
     */
    
    export function MyComponent() {
      // Extract the value that we need from Context
      const { name, setName } = useContext(Context);
    
      // When the user types the name will be updated in state.
      function handleInput(evt) {
        setName(evt.target.value);
      }
    
      return <input onInput={handleInput} value={name} />
    }

    Install

    npm i reshape-state

    DownloadsWeekly Downloads

    646

    Version

    1.4.0

    License

    MIT

    Unpacked Size

    40.8 kB

    Total Files

    9

    Last publish

    Collaborators

    • rlmcneary2