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    0.9.3 • Public • Published

    A node.js implementation of the Paillier cryptosystem

    THIS PROJECT IS NO LONGER MAINTAINED. Consider switching to paillier-bigint that it is a pure JS native implementation and will work with both Node.js and Browsers, and not just Node.js.

    This is a node.js implementation relying on the BigInteger.js library by Peter Olson.

    The Paillier cryptosystem, named after and invented by Pascal Paillier in 1999, is a probabilistic asymmetric algorithm for public key cryptography. A notable feature of the Paillier cryptosystem is its homomorphic properties.

    Homomorphic properties

    Homomorphic addition of plaintexts

    The product of two ciphertexts will decrypt to the sum of their corresponding plaintexts,

    D( E(m1) · E(m2) ) mod n^2 = m1 + m2 mod n

    The product of a ciphertext with a plaintext raising g will decrypt to the sum of the corresponding plaintexts,

    D( E(m1) · g^(m2) ) mod n^2 = m1 + m2 mod n

    (pseudo-)homomorphic multiplication of plaintexts

    An encrypted plaintext raised to the power of another plaintext will decrypt to the product of the two plaintexts,

    D( E(m1)^(m2) mod n^2 ) = m1 · m2 mod n,

    D( E(m2)^(m1) mod n^2 ) = m1 · m2 mod n.

    More generally, an encrypted plaintext raised to a constant k will decrypt to the product of the plaintext and the constant,

    D( E(m1)^k mod n^2 ) = k · m1 mod n.

    However, given the Paillier encryptions of two messages there is no known way to compute an encryption of the product of these messages without knowing the private key.

    Key generation

    1. Define the bit length of the modulus n, or keyLength in bits.

    2. Choose two large prime numbers p and q randomly and independently of each other such that gcd( p·q, (p-1)(q-1) )=1 and n=p·q has a key length of keyLength. For instance:

      1. Generate a random prime p with a bit length of keyLength/2.

      2. Generate a random prime q with a bit length of keyLength/2.

      3. Repeat until satisfy: p != q and n with a bit length of keyLength.

    3. Compute λ = lcm(p-1, q-1) with lcm(a,b) = a·b/gcd(a, b).

    4. Select generator g where in Z* de n^2. g can be computed as follows (there are other ways):

      • Generate randoms λ and β in Z* of n (i.e. 0<λ<n and 0<β<n).

      • Compute g = ( λ·n + 1 ) β^n mod n^2

    5. Compute the following modular multiplicative inverse

      μ = ( L( g^λ mod n^2 ) )^{-1} mod n

      where L(x) = (x-1)/n

    The public (encryption) key is (n, g).

    The private (decryption) key is (λ, μ).


    Let m in Z* of n be the clear-text message,

    1. Select random r in Z* of n

    2. Compute ciphertext as: c = g^m · r^n mod n^2


    Let c be the ciphertext to decrypt, where c in Z* of n^2

    1. Compute the plaintext message as: m = L( c^λ mod n^2 ) · μ mod n


    Every input number should be a string in base 10, an integer, or a BigInteger. All the output numbers are instances of BigInteger.

    // import paillier
    const paillier = require('paillier.js');
    // create random keys
    const {publicKey, privateKey} = paillier.generateRandomKeys(2048);
    // optionally, you can create your public/private keys from known parameters
    const publicKey = new paillier.PublicKey(n, g);
    const privateKey = new paillier.PrivateKey(lambda, mu, p, q, publicKey);
    // encrypt m
    let c = publicKey.encrypt(m);
    // decrypt c
    let d = privateKey.decrypt(c);
    // homomorphic addition of two chipertexts (encrypted numbers)
    let c1 = publicKey.encrypt(m1);
    let c2 = publicKey.encrypt(m2);
    let encryptedSum = publicKey.addition(c1, c2);
    let sum = privateKey.decrypt(encryptedSum); // m1 + m2
    // multiplication by k
    let c1 = publicKey.encrypt(m1);
    let encryptedMul = publicKey.multiply(c1, k);
    let mul = privateKey.decrypt(encryptedMul); // k · m1

    See usage examples in example.js.


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