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noble

A Node.js BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) central library.

noble

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A Node.js BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) central module.

Want to implement a peripheral? Checkout bleno

Note: macOS / Mac OS X, Linux, FreeBSD and Windows are currently the only supported OSes. Other platforms may be developed later on.

Prerequisites

OS X

Linux

  • Kernel version 3.6 or above
  • libbluetooth-dev

Ubuntu/Debian/Raspbian

sudo apt-get install bluetooth bluez libbluetooth-dev libudev-dev

Make sure node is on your path, if it's not, some options:

Fedora / Other-RPM based

sudo yum install bluez bluez-libs bluez-libs-devel

Intel Edison

See Configure Intel Edison for Bluetooth LE (Smart) Development

FreeBSD

Make sure you have GNU Make:

sudo pkg install gmake

Disable automatic loading of the default Bluetooth stack by putting no-ubt.conf into /usr/local/etc/devd/no-ubt.conf and restarting devd (sudo service devd restart).

Unload ng_ubt kernel module if already loaded:

sudo kldunload ng_ubt

Make sure you have read and write permissions on the /dev/usb/* device that corresponds to your Bluetooth adapter.

Windows

See @don's set up guide on Bluetooth LE with Node.js and Noble on Windows.

Notes

Maximum simultaneous connections

This limit is imposed upon by the Bluetooth adapter hardware as well as it's firmware.

Platform
OS X 10.11 (El Capitan) 6
Linux/Windows - Adapter dependent 5 (CSR based adapter)

Adapter specific known issues

Some BLE adapters like Sena UD-100 (Cambridge Silicon Radio, Ltd Bluetooth Dongle (HCI mode)) cannot connect to a peripheral while they are scanning. You will get the following message when trying to connect :

Error: Command disallowed

You need to stop scanning before trying to connect in order to solve this issue.

Install

npm install noble

Usage

var noble = require('noble');

Actions

Start scanning

noble.startScanning(); // any service UUID, no duplicates 
 
 
noble.startScanning([], true); // any service UUID, allow duplicates 
 
 
var serviceUUIDs = ["<service UUID 1>", ...]; // default: [] => all 
var allowDuplicates = <false|true>; // default: false 
 
noble.startScanning(serviceUUIDs, allowDuplicates[, callback(error)]); // particular UUID's 

NOTE: noble.state must be poweredOn before scanning is started. noble.on('stateChange', callback(state)); can be used register for state change events.

Stop scanning

noble.stopScanning();

Peripheral

Connect
peripheral.connect([callback(error)]);
Disconnect or cancel pending connection
peripheral.disconnect([callback(error)]);
Update RSSI
peripheral.updateRssi([callback(error, rssi)]);
Discover services
peripheral.discoverServices(); // any service UUID 
 
var serviceUUIDs = ["<service UUID 1>", ...];
peripheral.discoverServices(serviceUUIDs[, callback(error, services)]); // particular UUID's 
Discover all services and characteristics
peripheral.discoverAllServicesAndCharacteristics([callback(error, services, characteristics));
Discover some services and characteristics
var serviceUUIDs = ["<service UUID 1>", ...];
var characteristicUUIDs = ["<characteristic UUID 1>", ...];
peripheral.discoverSomeServicesAndCharacteristics(serviceUUIDs, characteristicUUIDs, [callback(error, services, characteristics));

Service

Discover included services
service.discoverIncludedServices(); // any service UUID 
 
var serviceUUIDs = ["<service UUID 1>", ...];
service.discoverIncludedServices(serviceUUIDs[, callback(error, includedServiceUuids)]); // particular UUID's 
Discover characteristics
service.discoverCharacteristics() // any characteristic UUID 
 
var characteristicUUIDs = ["<characteristic UUID 1>", ...];
service.discoverCharacteristics(characteristicUUIDs[, callback(error, characteristics)]); // particular UUID's 

Characteristic

Read
characteristic.read([callback(error, data)]);
Write
characteristic.write(data, withoutResponse[, callback(error)]); // data is a buffer, withoutResponse is true|false 
  • withoutResponse:
    • false: send a write request, used with "write" characteristic property
    • true: send a write command, used with "write without response" characteristic property
Broadcast
characteristic.broadcast(broadcast[, callback(error)]); // broadcast is true|false 
Subscribe
characteristic.subscribe([callback(error)]);
  • subscribe to a characteristic, triggers 'data' events when peripheral sends an notification or indication
  • use for characteristics with notify or indicate properties
Unsubscribe
characteristic.unsubscribe([callback(error)]);
  • unsubscribe to a characteristic
  • use for characteristics with notify or indicate properties
Discover descriptors
characteristic.discoverDescriptors([callback(error, descriptors)]);
Read value
descriptor.readValue([callback(error, data)]);
Write value
descriptor.writeValue(data[, callback(error)]); // data is a buffer 

Handle

Read
peripheral.readHandle(handle, callback(error, data));
Write
peripheral.writeHandle(handle, data, withoutResponse, callback(error));

Events

See Node.js EventEmitter docs for more info. on API's.

Adapter state change

state = <"unknown" | "resetting" | "unsupported" | "unauthorized" | "poweredOff" | "poweredOn">
 
noble.on('stateChange', callback(state));

Scan started:

noble.on('scanStart', callback);

The event is emitted when scanning is started or if another application enables scanning or changes scanning settings.

Scan stopped

noble.on('scanStop', callback);

The event is emitted when scanning is stopped or if another application stops scanning.

Peripheral discovered

peripheral = {
  id: "<id>",
  address: "<BT address">, // Bluetooth Address of device, or 'unknown' if not known 
  addressType: "<BT address type>", // Bluetooth Address type (public, random), or 'unknown' if not known 
  connectable: <connectable>, // true or false, or undefined if not known 
  advertisement: {
    localName: "<name>",
    txPowerLevel: <int>,
    serviceUuids: ["<service UUID>", ...],
    serviceSolicitationUuid: ["<service solicitation UUID>", ...],
    manufacturerData: <Buffer>,
    serviceData: [
        {
            uuid: "<service UUID>"
            data: <Buffer>
        },
        ...
    ]
  },
  rssi: <rssi>
};
 
noble.on('discover', callback(peripheral));

Note: on OS X the address will be set to 'unknown' if the device has not been connected previously.

Warnings

noble.on('warning', callback(message));

Peripheral

Connected
peripheral.once('connect', callback);
Disconnected:
peripheral.once('disconnect', callback);
RSSI update
peripheral.once('rssiUpdate', callback(rssi));
Services discovered
peripheral.once('servicesDiscover', callback(services));

Service

Included services discovered
service.once('includedServicesDiscover', callback(includedServiceUuids));
Characteristics discovered
characteristic = {
  uuid: "<uuid>",
   // properties: 'broadcast', 'read', 'writeWithoutResponse', 'write', 'notify', 'indicate', 'authenticatedSignedWrites', 'extendedProperties' 
  properties: [...]
};
 
service.once('characteristicsDiscover', callback(characteristics));

Characteristic

Data

Emitted when characteristic read has completed, result of characteristic.read(...) or characteristic value has been updated by peripheral via notification or indication - after having been enabled with notify(true[, callback(error)]).

characteristic.on('data', callback(data, isNotification));
 
characteristic.once('read', callback(data, isNotification)); // legacy 
Write

Emitted when characteristic write has completed, result of characteristic.write(...).

characteristic.once('write', withoutResponse, callback());
Broadcast

Emitted when characteristic broadcast state changes, result of characteristic.broadcast(...).

characteristic.once('broadcast', callback(state));
Notify

Emitted when characteristic notification state changes, result of characteristic.notify(...).

characteristic.once('notify', callback(state));
Descriptors discovered
descriptor = {
  uuid: '<uuid>'
};
 
characteristic.once('descriptorsDiscover', callback(descriptors));

Descriptor

Value read
descriptor.once('valueRead', data);
Value write
descriptor.once('valueWrite');

Running on Linux

Running without root/sudo

Run the following command:

sudo setcap cap_net_raw+eip $(eval readlink -f `which node`)

This grants the node binary cap_net_raw privileges, so it can start/stop BLE advertising.

Note: The above command requires setcap to be installed, it can be installed using the following:

  • apt: sudo apt-get install libcap2-bin
  • yum: su -c \'yum install libcap2-bin\'

Multiple Adapters

hci0 is used by default to override set the NOBLE_HCI_DEVICE_ID environment variable to the interface number.

Example, specify hci1:

sudo NOBLE_HCI_DEVICE_ID=1 node <your file>.js

Reporting all HCI events

By default noble waits for both the advertisement data and scan response data for each Bluetooth address. If your device does not use scan response the following environment variable can be used to bypass it.

sudo NOBLE_REPORT_ALL_HCI_EVENTS=1 node <your file>.js

bleno compatibility

By default noble will respond with an error whenever a GATT request message is received. If your intention is to use bleno in tandem with noble, the following environment variable can be used to bypass this functionality. Note: this requires a Bluetooth 4.1 adapter.

sudo NOBLE_MULTI_ROLE=1 node <your file>.js

Advanced usage

Override default bindings

By default, noble will select bindings to communicate with Bluetooth devices depending on your platform. If you prefer to specify what bindings noble should use:

var noble = require('noble/with-bindings')(require('./my-custom-bindings'));

Backers

Support us with a monthly donation and help us continue our activities. [Become a backer]

Sponsors

Become a sponsor and get your logo on our README on Github with a link to your site. [Become a sponsor]

Useful Links

License

Copyright (C) 2015 Sandeep Mistry sandeep.mistry@gmail.com

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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