Narcissistic Passion Minified
Have opinions about JavaScript? We want to hear them. Take the 2018 JavaScript Ecosystem Survey »


0.8.0 • Public • Published

GraphQL Koa Middleware

NPM version Build Status Test coverage Dependency Status

Create a GraphQL HTTP server with Koa.

Port from express-graphql


npm install --save koa-graphql


Mount koa-graphql as a route handler:

const Koa = require('koa');
const mount = require('koa-mount');
const graphqlHTTP = require('koa-graphql');
const app = new Koa();
app.use(mount('/graphql', graphqlHTTP({
  schema: MyGraphQLSchema,
  graphiql: true

With koa-router@7

const Koa = require('koa');
const Router = require('koa-router'); // koa-router@7.x
const graphqlHTTP = require('koa-graphql');
const app = new Koa();
const router = new Router();
router.all('/graphql', graphqlHTTP({
  schema: MyGraphQLSchema,
  graphiql: true

For Koa 1, use koa-convert to convert the middleware:

const koa = require('koa');
const mount = require('koa-mount'); // koa-mount@1.x
const convert = require('koa-convert');
const graphqlHTTP = require('koa-graphql');
const app = koa();
app.use(mount('/graphql', convert.back(graphqlHTTP({
  schema: MyGraphQLSchema,
  graphiql: true

NOTE: Below is a copy from express-graphql's README. In this time I implemented almost same api, but it may be changed as time goes on.


The graphqlHTTP function accepts the following options:

  • schema: A GraphQLSchema instance from graphql-js. A schema must be provided.

  • graphiql: If true, presents GraphiQL when the route with a /graphiql appended is loaded in a browser. We recommend that you set graphiql to true when your app is in development, because it's quite useful. You may or may not want it in production.

  • rootValue: A value to pass as the rootValue to the graphql() function from graphql-js/src/execute.js.

  • context: A value to pass as the context to the graphql() function from graphql-js/src/execute.js. If context is not provided, the ctx object is passed as the context.

  • pretty: If true, any JSON response will be pretty-printed.

  • formatError: An optional function which will be used to format any errors produced by fulfilling a GraphQL operation. If no function is provided, GraphQL's default spec-compliant formatError function will be used.

  • extensions: An optional function for adding additional metadata to the GraphQL response as a key-value object. The result will be added to "extensions" field in the resulting JSON. This is often a useful place to add development time metadata such as the runtime of a query or the amount of resources consumed. This may be an async function. The function is given one object as an argument: { document, variables, operationName, result, context }.

  • validationRules: Optional additional validation rules queries must satisfy in addition to those defined by the GraphQL spec.

  • fieldResolver

HTTP Usage

Once installed at a path, koa-graphql will accept requests with the parameters:

  • query: A string GraphQL document to be executed.

  • variables: The runtime values to use for any GraphQL query variables as a JSON object.

  • operationName: If the provided query contains multiple named operations, this specifies which operation should be executed. If not provided, a 400 error will be returned if the query contains multiple named operations.

  • raw: If the graphiql option is enabled and the raw parameter is provided raw JSON will always be returned instead of GraphiQL even when loaded from a browser.

GraphQL will first look for each parameter in the URL's query-string:


If not found in the query-string, it will look in the POST request body.

If a previous middleware has already parsed the POST body, the request.body value will be used. Use multer or a similar middleware to add support for multipart/form-data content, which may be useful for GraphQL mutations involving uploading files. See an example using multer.

If the POST body has not yet been parsed, koa-graphql will interpret it depending on the provided Content-Type header.

  • application/json: the POST body will be parsed as a JSON object of parameters.

  • application/x-www-form-urlencoded: this POST body will be parsed as a url-encoded string of key-value pairs.

  • application/graphql: The POST body will be parsed as GraphQL query string, which provides the query parameter.

Combining with Other koa Middleware

By default, the koa request is passed as the GraphQL context. Since most koa middleware operates by adding extra data to the request object, this means you can use most koa middleware just by inserting it before graphqlHTTP is mounted. This covers scenarios such as authenticating the user, handling file uploads, or mounting GraphQL on a dynamic endpoint.

This example uses koa-session to provide GraphQL with the currently logged-in session.

const Koa = require('koa');
const mount = require('koa-mount');
const session = require('koa-session');
const graphqlHTTP = require('koa-graphql');
const app = new Koa();
app.keys = [ 'some secret hurr' ];
app.use(function *(next) { = 'me';
  yield next;
app.use(mount('/graphql', graphqlHTTP({
  schema: MySessionAwareGraphQLSchema,
  graphiql: true

Then in your type definitions, you can access the ctx via the third "context" argument in your resolve function:

new GraphQLObjectType({
  name: 'MyType',
  fields: {
    myField: {
      type: GraphQLString,
      resolve(parentValue, args, ctx) {
        // use `ctx.session` here

Providing Extensions

The GraphQL response allows for adding additional information in a response to a GraphQL query via a field in the response called "extensions". This is added by providing an extensions function when using graphqlHTTP. The function must return a JSON-serializable Object.

When called, this is provided an argument which you can use to get information about the GraphQL request:

{ document, variables, operationName, result, context }

This example illustrates adding the amount of time consumed by running the provided query, which could perhaps be used by your development tools.

const graphqlHTTP = require('koa-graphql');
const app = new Koa();
app.keys = [ 'some secret hurr' ];
const extensions = ({ document, variables, operationName, result, context }) => {
  return {
    runTime: - context.startTime,
app.use(mount('/graphql', graphqlHTTP(request => {
  return {
    schema: MyGraphQLSchema,
    context: { startTime: },
    graphiql: true,

When querying this endpoint, it would include this information in the result, for example:

  "data": { ... }
  "extensions": {
    "runTime": 135

Additional Validation Rules

GraphQL's validation phase checks the query to ensure that it can be successfully executed against the schema. The validationRules option allows for additional rules to be run during this phase. Rules are applied to each node in an AST representing the query using the Visitor pattern.

A validation rule is a function which returns a visitor for one or more node Types. Below is an example of a validation preventing the specific fieldname metadata from being queried. For more examples see the specifiedRules in the graphql-js package.

import { GraphQLError } from 'graphql';
export function DisallowMetadataQueries(context) {
  return {
    Field(node) {
      const fieldName =;
      if (fieldName === "metadata") {
          new GraphQLError(
            `Validation: Requesting the field ${fieldName} is not allowed`,

Debugging Tips

During development, it's useful to get more information from errors, such as stack traces. Providing a function to formatError enables this:

formatError: (error, ctx) => ({
  message: error.message,
  locations: error.locations,
  stack: error.stack ? error.stack.split('\n') : [],
  path: error.path


Other relevant projects

Please checkout awesome-graphql.


Welcome pull requests!




npm i koa-graphql

Downloadsweekly downloads









last publish


  • avatar
  • avatar
Report a vulnerability