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jsonschema

1.4.0 • Public • Published

Build Status

jsonschema

JSON schema validator, which is designed to be fast and simple to use. The latest IETF published draft is v6, this library is mostly v4 compatible.

Contributing & bugs

Please fork the repository, make the changes in your fork and include tests. Once you're done making changes, send in a pull request.

Bug reports

Please include a test which shows why the code fails.

Usage

Simple

Simple object validation using JSON schemas.

var Validator = require('jsonschema').Validator;
var v = new Validator();
var instance = 4;
var schema = {"type": "number"};
console.log(v.validate(instance, schema));

Even simpler

var validate = require('jsonschema').validate;
console.log(validate(4, {"type": "number"}));

Complex example, with split schemas and references

var Validator = require('jsonschema').Validator;
var v = new Validator();
 
// Address, to be embedded on Person
var addressSchema = {
  "id": "/SimpleAddress",
  "type": "object",
  "properties": {
    "lines": {
      "type": "array",
      "items": {"type": "string"}
    },
    "zip": {"type": "string"},
    "city": {"type": "string"},
    "country": {"type": "string"}
  },
  "required": ["country"]
};
 
// Person
var schema = {
  "id": "/SimplePerson",
  "type": "object",
  "properties": {
    "name": {"type": "string"},
    "address": {"$ref": "/SimpleAddress"},
    "votes": {"type": "integer", "minimum": 1}
  }
};
 
var p = {
  "name": "Barack Obama",
  "address": {
    "lines": [ "1600 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest" ],
    "zip": "DC 20500",
    "city": "Washington",
    "country": "USA"
  },
  "votes": "lots"
};
 
v.addSchema(addressSchema, '/SimpleAddress');
console.log(v.validate(p, schema));

Example for Array schema

var arraySchema = {
        "type": "array",
        "items": {
            "properties": {
                "name": { "type": "string" },
                "lastname": { "type": "string" }
            },
            "required": ["name", "lastname"]
        }
    }

For a comprehensive, annotated example illustrating all possible validation options, see examples/all.js

Features

Definitions

All schema definitions are supported, $schema is ignored.

Types

All types are supported

Handling undefined

undefined is not a value known to JSON, and by default, the validator treats it as if it is not invalid. i.e., it will return valid.

var res = validate(undefined, {type: 'string'});
res.valid // true

This behavior may be changed with the "required" option:

var res = validate(undefined, {type: 'string'}, {required: true});
res.valid // false

Formats

Disabling the format keyword.

You may disable format validation by providing disableFormat: true to the validator options.

String Formats

All formats are supported, phone numbers are expected to follow the E.123 standard.

Custom Formats

You may add your own custom format functions. Format functions accept the input being validated and return a boolean value. If the returned value is true, then validation succeeds. If the returned value is false, then validation fails.

  • Formats added to Validator.prototype.customFormats do not affect previously instantiated Validators. This is to prevent validator instances from being altered once created. It is conceivable that multiple validators may be created to handle multiple schemas with different formats in a program.
  • Formats added to validator.customFormats affect only that Validator instance.

Here is an example that uses custom formats:

Validator.prototype.customFormats.myFormat = function(input) {
  return input === 'myFormat';
};
 
var validator = new Validator();
validator.validate('myFormat', {type: 'string', format: 'myFormat'}).valid; // true
validator.validate('foo', {type: 'string', format: 'myFormat'}).valid; // false

Results

By default, results will be returned in a ValidatorResult object with the following properties:

  • instance: any.
  • schema: Schema.
  • errors: ValidationError[].
  • valid: boolean.

Each item in errors is a ValidationError with the following properties:

  • path: array. An array of property keys or array offsets, indicating where inside objects or arrays the instance was found.
  • property: string. Describes the property path. Starts with instance, and is delimited with a dot (.).
  • message: string. A human-readable message for debugging use. Provided in English and subject to change.
  • schema: object. The schema containing the keyword that failed
  • instance: any. The instance that failed
  • name: string. The keyword within the schema that failed.
  • argument: any. Provides information about the keyword that failed.

The validator can be configured to throw in the event of a validation error:

  • If the throwFirst option is set, the validator will terminate validation at the first encountered error and throw a ValidatorResultError object.

  • If the throwAll option is set, the validator will throw a ValidatorResultError object after the entire instance has been validated.

  • If the throwError option is set, it will throw at the first encountered validation error (like throwFirst), but the ValidationError object itself will be thrown. Note that, despite the name, this does not inherit from Error like ValidatorResultError does.

The ValidatorResultError object has the same properties as ValidatorResult and additionally inherits from Error.

"nestedErrors" option

When oneOf or anyOf validations fail, errors that caused any of the sub-schemas referenced therein to fail are normally suppressed, because it is not necessary to fix all of them. And in the case of oneOf, it would itself be an error to fix all of the listed errors.

This behavior may be configured with options.nestedErrors. If truthy, it will emit all the errors from the subschemas. This option may be useful when troubleshooting validation errors in complex schemas:

var schema = {
  oneOf: [
    { type: 'string', minLength: 32, maxLength: 32 },
    { type: 'string', maxLength: 16 },
    { type: 'number' },
  ]
};
var validator = new Validator();
var result = validator.validate('This string is 28 chars long', schema, {nestedErrors: true});
 
// result.toString() reads out:
// 0: instance does not meet minimum length of 32
// 1: instance does not meet maximum length of 16
// 2: instance is not of a type(s) number
// 3: instance is not exactly one from [subschema 0],[subschema 1],[subschema 2]

Localizing Error Messages

To provide localized, human-readable errors, use the name string as a translation key. Feel free to open an issue for support relating to localizing error messages. For example:

var localized = result.errors.map(function(err){
  return localeService.translate(err.name);
});

Custom keywords

Specify your own JSON Schema keywords with the validator.attributes property:

validator.attributes.contains = function validateContains(instance, schema, options, ctx) {
  if(typeof instance !== 'string') return;
  if(typeof schema.contains !== 'string') throw new jsonschema.SchemaError('"contains" expects a string', schema);
  if(instance.indexOf(schema.contains)<0){
    return 'does not contain the string ' + JSON.stringify(schema.contains);
  }
}
var result = validator.validate("I am an instance", { type:"string", contains: "I am" });
// result.valid === true;

The instance passes validation if the function returns nothing. A single validation error is produced if the function returns a string. Any number of errors (maybe none at all) may be returned by passing a ValidatorResult object, which may be used like so:

  var result = new ValidatorResult(instance, schema, options, ctx);
  while(someErrorCondition()){
    result.addError('fails some validation test');
  }
  return result;

Dereferencing schemas

Sometimes you may want to download schemas from remote sources, like a database, or over HTTP. When importing a schema, unknown references are inserted into the validator.unresolvedRefs Array. Asynchronously shift elements off this array and import them:

var Validator = require('jsonschema').Validator;
var v = new Validator();
v.addSchema(initialSchema);
function importNextSchema(){
  var nextSchema = v.unresolvedRefs.shift();
  if(!nextSchema){ done(); return; }
  databaseGet(nextSchema, function(schema){
    v.addSchema(schema);
    importNextSchema();
  });
}
importNextSchema();

Default base URI

Schemas should typically have an id with an absolute, full URI. However if the schema you are using contains only relative URI references, the base option will be used to resolve these.

This following example would throw a SchemaError if the base option were unset:

var result = validate(["Name"], {
  id: "/schema.json",
  type: "array",
  items: { $ref: "http://example.com/schema.json#/definitions/item" },
  definitions: {
    item: { type: "string" },
  },
}, { base: 'http://example.com/' });

Rewrite Hook

The rewrite option lets you change the value of an instance after it has successfully been validated. This will mutate the instance passed to the validate function. This can be useful for unmarshalling data and parsing it into native instances, such as changing a string to a Date instance.

The rewrite option accepts a function with the following arguments:

  • instance: any
  • schema: object
  • options: object
  • ctx: object
  • return value: any new value for the instance

The value may be removed by returning undefined. If you don't want to change the value, call return instance.

Here is an example that can convert a property expecting a date into a Date instance:

const schema = {
  properties: {
    date: {id: 'http://example.com/date', type: 'string'},
  },
};
 
const value = {
  date: '2020-09-30T23:39:27.060Z',
};
 
function unmarshall(instance, schema){
  if(schema.id === 'http://example.com/date'){
    return new Date(instance);
  }
  return instance;
}
 
const v = new Validator();
const res = v.validate(value, schema, {rewrite: unmarshall});
 
assert(res.instance.date instanceof Date);

Pre-Property Validation Hook

If some processing of properties is required prior to validation a function may be passed via the options parameter of the validate function. For example, say you needed to perform type coercion for some properties:

// See examples/coercion.js
function preValidateProperty(object, key, schema, options, ctx) {
  var value = object[key];
  if (typeof value === 'undefined') return;
 
  // Test if the schema declares a type, but the type keyword fails validation
  if (schema.type && validator.attributes.type.call(validator, value, schema, options, ctx.makeChild(schema, key))) {
    // If the type is "number" but the instance is not a number, cast it
    if(schema.type==='number' && typeof value!=='number'){
      object[key] = parseFloat(value);
      return;
    }
    // If the type is "string" but the instance is not a string, cast it
    if(schema.type==='string' && typeof value!=='string'){
      object[key] = String(value).toString();
      return;
    }
  }
};
 
// And now, to actually perform validation with the coercion hook!
v.validate(instance, schema, { preValidateProperty });

Skip validation of certain keywords

Use the "skipAttributes" option to skip validation of certain keywords. Provide an array of keywords to ignore.

For skipping the "format" keyword, see the disableFormat option.

Fail on unknown keywords

By default, JSON Schema is supposed to ignore unknown schema keywords.

You can change this behavior to require that all keywords used in a schema have a defined behavior, by using setting the "allowUnknownAttributes" option to false.

This example will throw a SchemaError:

var schema = {
  type: "string",
  format: "email",
  example: "foo",
};
var result = validate("Name", schema, { allowUnknownAttributes: false });

Tests

Uses JSON Schema Test Suite as well as our own tests. You'll need to update and init the git submodules:

git submodule update --init
npm test

Contributions

This library would not be possible without the valuable contributions by:

  • Austin Wright

... and many others!

License

jsonschema is licensed under MIT license.

Copyright (C) 2012-2019 Tom de Grunt <tom@degrunt.nl>

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of
this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in
the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to
use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies
of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do
so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
SOFTWARE.

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