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    jsonreststores2

    1.1.48 • Public • Published

    JsonRestStores TWO

    JsonRestStore2 (just JsonRestStores from here on) is a rewrite of JsonRestStores

    Rundown of features:

    • DRY approach. Create complex applications keeping your code short and tight, without repeating yourself.
    • unintrusive. It only does all the things you'd have to repeat over and over again. The "real" stuff (managing data) is in your hands
    • Down-to-earth. It does what developers actually need, using existing technologies.
    • Database-agnostic. When creating a store, all you have to do is write the essential queries to fetch/modify data.
    • Protocol-agnostic. HTTP is only one of the possible protocols.
    • Schema based. Anything coming from the client will be validated and cast to the right type.
    • File uploads. It automatically supports file uploads, where the field will be the file's path
    • API-ready. Every store function can be called via API, which bypass permissions constraints
    • Tons of hooks. You can hook yourself to every step of the store processing process
    • Authentication hooks. Only implement things once, and keep authentication tight and right.
    • Mixin-based. You can add functionality easily.
    • Inheriting stores. You can easily derive a store from another one.
    • Great documentation. (Work in progress after the rewrite)
    • Self documenting. (Work in progress after the rewrite)

    Introduction to (JSON) REST stores

    Here is an introduction on REST, JSON REST, and this module. If you are a veteran of REST stores, you can probably just skim through this.

    Implementing REST stores

    Imagine that you have a web application with bookings, and users connected to each booking, and that you want to make this information available via a JSON Rest API. You would have to define the following routes in your application:

    • GET /bookings/
    • GET /bookings/:bookingId
    • PUT /bookings/:bookingId
    • POST /bookings/
    • DELETE /bookings:/bookingId

    And then to access users for that booking:

    • GET /bookings/:bookingId/users/
    • GET /bookings/:bookingId/users/:userId
    • PUT /bookings/:bookingId/users/:userId
    • POST /bookings/:bookingId/users/
    • DELETE /bookings/:bookingId/users/:userId

    And then -- again -- to get/post data from individual fields with one call:

    • GET /bookings/:bookingId/users/:userId/field1
    • PUT /bookings/:bookingId/users/:userId/field1
    • GET /bookings/:bookingId/users/:userId/field2
    • PUT /bookings/:bookingId/users/:userId/field2
    • GET /bookings/:bookingId/users/:userId/field3
    • PUT /bookings/:bookingId/users/:userId/field3

    It sounds simple enough (although it's only two tables and it already looks rather boring). It gets tricky when you consider that:

    • You need to make sure that permissions are always carefully checked. For example, only users that are part of booking 1234 can GET /bookings/1234/users
    • When implementing GET /bookings/, you need to parse the URL in order to enable data filtering (for example, GET /bookings?dateFrom=1976-01-10&name=Tony will need to filter, on the database, all bookings made after the 10th of January 1976 by Tony).
    • When implementing GET /bookings/, you need to return the right Content-Range HTTP headers in your results so that the clients know what range they are getting.
    • When implementing GET /bookings/, you also need to make sure you take into account any Range header set by the client, which might only want to receive a subset of the data
    • When implementing /bookings/:bookingId/users/:userId, you need to make sure that the bookingId exists
    • With POST and PUT, you need to make sure that data is validated against some kind of schema, and return the appropriate errors if it's not.
    • With PUT, you need to consider the HTTP headers If-match and If-none-match to see if you can//should//must overwrite existing records
    • All unimplemented methods should return a 501 Unimplemented Method server response
    • You need to implement all of the routes for individual fields, and add permissions

    This is only a short list of obvious things: there are many more to consider. The point is, when you make a store you should be focusing on the important parts (the data you gather and manipulate, and permission checking) rather than repetitive, boilerplate code.

    With JsonRestStores, you can create JSON REST stores without ever worrying about any one of those things. You can concentrate on what really matters: your application's data, permissions and logic.

    If you are new to REST and web stores, you will probably benefit by reading a couple of important articles. Understanding the concepts behind REST stores will make your life easier. I suggest you read John Calcote's article about REST, PUT, POST, etc.. It's a fantastic read, and I realised that it was written by John, who is a long term colleague and fellow writer at Free Software Magazine, only after posting this link here!

    Dependencies overview

    Jsonreststores is a module that creates managed routes for you, and integrates very easily with existing ExpressJS applications.

    Here is a list of modules used by JsonRestStores. You should be at least slightly familiar with them.

    • SimpleSchema - Github. This module makes it easy (and I mean, really easy) to define a schema and validate/cast data against it. It's really simple to extend a schema as well. It's a no-fuss module.

    • Allhttperrors. A simple module that creats Error objects for all of the possible HTTP statuses.

    Note that all of these modules are fully unit-tested, and are written and maintained by me.

    Your first Json REST store

    Creating a store with JsonRestStores is very simple. Here is code that can be plugged directtly into an Express application:

    var Store = require('jsonreststores2') // The main JsonRestStores module
    var HTTPMixin = require('jsonreststores2/HTTPMixin') // HTTP Mixin
    var Schema = require('simpleschema2')  // The main schema module
    
    // This is for MySql
    var promisify = require('util').promisify
    var mysql = require('mysql')
    
    // ======= BEGIN: Normally in separate file in production =============
    // Create MySql connection. NOTE: in production this will likely be placed
    // in a separate file, so that `connection` can be required and shared...
    var connection = mysql.createPool({
      host: 'localhost',
      user: 'user',
      password: 'YOUR PASSOWORD',
      database: 'testing',
      port: 3306
    })
    // Promisified versions of the query function for MySql
    connection.queryP = promisify(connection.query)
    // ======= END: Normally in separate file in production =============
    
    // Make up an object that will contain all of the stores
    var stores = {}
    
    // Basic definition of the managers store
    class Managers extends HTTPMixin(Store) {
      static get schema () {
        return new Schema({
          name: { type: 'string', trim: 60 },
          surname: { type: 'string', searchable: true, trim: 60 }
        })
      }
    
      static get storeName () { return 'managers' }
      static get publicURL () { return '/managers/:id' }
    
      static get handlePut () { return true }
      static get handlePost () { return true }
      static get handleGet () { return true }
      static get handleGetQuery () { return true }
      static get handleDelete () { return true }
    
      async implementFetch (request) {
        return (await connection.queryP('SELECT * FROM managers WHERE id = ?', request.params.id))[0]
      }
    
      async implementInsert (request) {
        let insertResults = await connection.queryP('INSERT INTO managers SET ?', request.body)
        let selectResults = await connection.queryP('SELECT * FROM managers WHERE id = ?', insertResults.insertId)
        return selectResults[0] || null
      }
    
      async implementUpdate (request) {
        await connection.queryP('UPDATE managers SET ? WHERE id = ?', [request.body, request.params.id])
        return (await connection.queryP('SELECT * FROM managers WHERE id = ?', request.params.id))[0]
      }
    
      async implementDelete (request) {
        let record = (await connection.queryP('SELECT * FROM managers WHERE id = ?', request.params.id))[0]
        await connection.queryP('DELETE FROM managers WHERE id = ?', [request.params.id])
        return record
      }
    
      async implementQuery (request) {
        var result = await connection.queryP(`SELECT * FROM managers LIMIT ?,?`, [ request.options.ranges.skip, request.options.ranges.limit ])
        var grandTotal = (await connection.queryP(`SELECT COUNT (*) as grandTotal FROM managers`))[0].grandTotal
        return { data: result, grandTotal: grandTotal }
      }
    }
    
    stores.managers = new Managers()
    exports = module.exports = stores
    

    In app.js, after app.use(express.static), you would have:

    var stores = require('./stores.js');
    stores.managers.protocolListenHTTP({app: app});
    

    You will also need to create your MySql table in the 'testing' database:

    CREATE TABLE managers (
      id INT(10) PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
      name VARCHAR(60),
      surname VARCHAR(60)
    );
    

    That's it: this is enough to add, to your Express application, a a full store which will handly properly all of the HTTP calls. Note that the database side of things has no sanity check: that's because sanity checking has already happened at this stage.

    Also note that this setup will query a MySql database; however, anything can be the source of data.

    Note that:

    • Managers is a new constructor function that inherits from Store (the main constructor for JSON REST stores) mixed in with HTTPMixin (which implements protocolListenHTTP()
    • schema is an object of type Schema that will define what's acceptable in a REST call.
    • publicURL is the URL the store is reachable at. The last one ID is the most important one: the last ID in publicURL (in this case it's also the only one: id) defines which field, within your schema, will be used as the record ID when performing a PUT and a GET (both of which require a specific ID to function).
    • storeName (mandatory) needs to be a unique name for your store.
    • handleXXX are attributes which will define how your store will behave. If you have handlePut: false and a client tries to PUT, they will receive an NotImplemented HTTP error.
    • protocolListen( 'HTTP', { app: app } ) creates the right Express routes to receive HTTP connections for the GET, PUT, POST and DELETE methods.

    The store in action

    A bit of testing with curl:

    $ curl -i -XGET  http://localhost:3000/managers/
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    X-Powered-By: Express
    Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
    Content-Length: 2
    ETag: "223132457"
    Date: Mon, 02 Dec 2013 02:20:21 GMT
    Connection: keep-alive
    
    []
    
    curl -i -X POST -d "name=Tony&surname=Mobily"  http://localhost:3000/managers/
    HTTP/1.1 201 Created
    X-Powered-By: Express
    Location: /managers/2
    Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
    Content-Length: 54
    Date: Mon, 02 Dec 2013 02:21:17 GMT
    Connection: keep-alive
    
    {
      "id": 2,
      "name": "Tony",
      "surname": "Mobily"
    }
    
    curl -i -X POST -d "name=Chiara&surname=Mobily"  http://localhost:3000/managers/
    HTTP/1.1 201 Created
    X-Powered-By: Express
    Location: /managers/4
    Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
    Content-Length: 54
    Date: Mon, 02 Dec 2013 02:21:17 GMT
    Connection: keep-alive
    
    {
      "id": 4,
      "name": "Chiara",
      "surname": "Mobily"
    }
    
    $ curl -i -GET  http://localhost:3000/managers/
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    X-Powered-By: Express
    Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
    Content-Length: 136
    ETag: "1058662527"
    Date: Mon, 02 Dec 2013 02:22:29 GMT
    Connection: keep-alive
    
    [
      {
        "id": 2,
        "name": "Tony",
        "surname": "Mobily"
      },
      {
        "id": 4,
        "name": "Chiara",
        "surname": "Mobily"
      }
    ]
    
    
    $ curl -i -X PUT -d "name=Merc&surname=Mobily"  http://localhost:3000/managers/2
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    X-Powered-By: Express
    Location: /managers/2
    Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
    Content-Length: 54
    Date: Mon, 02 Dec 2013 02:23:50 GMT
    Connection: keep-alive
    
    {
      "id": 2,
      "name": "Merc",
      "surname": "Mobily"
    }
    
    $ curl -i -XGET  http://localhost:3000/managers/2
    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    X-Powered-By: Express
    Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
    Content-Length: 54
    ETag: "-264833935"
    Date: Mon, 02 Dec 2013 02:24:58 GMT
    Connection: keep-alive
    
    {
      "id": 2,
      "name": "Merc",
      "surname": "Mobily"
    }
    

    It all works!

    Implementing data-oriented calls

    Data-oriented calls are the bridge between your stores and your actual data. Data can be stored in a database, text files, or even remotely.

    Here is the list of calls that must be implemented -- and which methods need them:

    • implementFetch(request). Required for methods put, get, delete.
    • implementInsert(request). Required for methods post and put (new records)
    • implementUpdate(request). Required for method put (existing records)
    • implementDelete(request. Required for method delete.
    • implementQuery(request). Required for methods getQuery.

    Looking it from a different perspective, here are the implement*** methods you will need to implement for each method to work properly:

    • get: implementFetch().
    • getQuery: implementQuery()
    • put: implementFetch(), implementInsert(), implementUpdate()
    • post: implementInsert()
    • delete: implementFetch(), implementDelete()

    When developing these methods, it's important to make sure that they function exactly as expected.

    implementFetch(request)

    This method is used to fetch a single record from the data source. The attributes taken into consideration in request are:

    • request.remote.
    • request.params. Sets the filter to search for the record to be fetched. For local request, it's acceptable to just match the key in request.params matching self.idProperty. For remote requests, it's best to filter data so that every key in request.params matches the equivalent key in the record. This means that fetching /manager/3/document/44 ought to create a query where managerId is 3 and documentId is 44

    Returning a falsy value implies that the item wasn't found.

    implementInsert(request)

    This method is used to add a single record to the data source. The attributes taken into consideration in request are:

    • request.remote.
    • request.body. The record that will effectively be written onto the database
    • request.options.placement. If set, it can be first (place the record first), last (place the record last) or after (place the record after another one)
    • request.options.placementAfter. If request.options.placement is after, the new record will be placed after the one with ID matching placementAfter.

    The inserted record should be returned by this method.

    implementUpdate(request)

    This method is used to update a single record in the data source. The attributes taken into consideration in request are:

    • request.remote.
    • request.params. Sets the filter to search for the record to be updated. See implementFetch()
    • request.body. The fields to be updated in the data source. Even though it depends on design decisions, generally speaking each field in the schema should be updated
    • request.field. If set, this is a field update. This means that the query is only meant to update one specific field.
    • request.options.placement. If set, it can be first (place the record first), last (place the record last) or after (place the record after another one)
    • request.options.placementAfter. If request.options.placement is after, the new record will be placed after the one with ID matching placementAfter.

    The updated record should be returned by this method.

    implementDelete(request)

    This method is used to delete a single record from the data source. The attributes taken into consideration in request are:

    • request.remote.
    • request.params. Sets the filter to search for the record to be deleted. See implementFetch()

    The deleted record should be returned by this method.

    implementQuery(request)

    This method is used to fetch a set of records from the data source. The attributes taken into consideration in request are:

    • request.remote.
    • request.params. For remote requests, adds filtering restrictions to the query so that only matching records will be fetched. For local request, such extra filtering should be avoided.
    • request.options. The options object that will define what data is to be fetched. Specifically:
      • request.options.conditions: an object specifying key/value criteria to be applied for filtering. The allowed values depend on the store's own searchSchema (see the next section)
      • request.options.sort: an object specifying how sorting should happen. For example { surname: -1, age: 1 }.
      • request.options.range: an object with up to attributes:
        • limit must make sure that only a limited number of records are fetched;
        • skip must make sure that a number of records are skipped.

    The list of returned records (as array) should be returned by this method.

    Custom searchSchema

    In JsonRestStores you actually define what fields are acceptable as filters in implementQuery (specifically, request.options.conditions) with the property searchSchema, which is defined exactly as a schema. So, writing this is equivalent to the code just above:

    // Basic definition of the managers store
    class Managers extends HTTPMixin(Store) {
      static get schema () {
        return new Schema({
          name: { type: 'string', trim: 60 },
          surname: { type: 'string', searchable: true, trim: 60 }
        })
      }
    
      searchSchema: new Schema( {
        surname: { type: 'string', trim: 60 },
      }),
    
      static get storeName () { return 'managers' }
      static get publicURL () { return '/managers/:id' }
    
      static get handlePut () { return true }
      static get handlePost () { return true }
      static get handleGet () { return true }
      static get handleGetQuery () { return true }
      static get handleDelete () { return true }
    
      // ...implement??? functions
    }
    

    If searchSchema is not defined, JsonRestStores will create one based on your main schema by doing a shallow copy, excluding paramIds (which means that, in this case, id is not added automatically to searchSchema, which is most likely what you want).

    If you define your own searchSchema, you are able to decide exactly how you want to filter the values. For example you could define a different default, or trim value, etc. You might also have fields that will create more complex queries. For example:

    // Basic definition of the managers store
    class Managers extends HTTPMixin(Store) {
      static get schema () {
        return new Schema({
          name: { type: 'string', searchable: true, trim: 60 },
          surname: { type: 'string', searchable: true, trim: 60 }
        })
      }
    
      searchSchema: new Schema( {
        surname: { type: 'string', trim: 60 },
        name: { type: 'string', trim: 60 },
        anyField: { type: string, trim: 60 }
      }),
    
      static get storeName () { return 'managers' }
      static get publicURL () { return '/managers/:id' }
    
      static get handlePut () { return true }
      static get handlePost () { return true }
      static get handleGet () { return true }
      static get handleGetQuery () { return true }
      static get handleDelete () { return true }
    
      async implementQuery (request) {
        // request.options.conditions might have 'any', which should generate
        // an SQL query checking both name and surname
      }
    
      // ...implement??? functions
    }
    

    Naming conventions for stores

    It's important to be consistent in naming conventions while creating stores. In this case, code is clearer than a thousand bullet points:

    Naming convertions for simple stores

    var Managers = declare( Store, {
    
      schema: new Schema({
        // ...
      });
    
      publicUrl: '/managers/:id',
    
      storeName: `managers`
      // ...
    }
    var managers = new Managers();
    
    var People = declare( Store, {
    
      schema: new Schema({
        // ...
      });
    
      publicUrl: '/people/:id',
    
      storeName: `people`
      // ...
    }
    var people = new People();
    
    • Store names as string (e.g. storeName) should be lowercase and are plural (they are collections representing multiple entries)
    • Classes (derived from Store) are in capital letters
    • URLs are in non-capital letters (following the stores' names, since everybody knows that /Capital/Urls/Are/Silly)

    Permissions

    Every rest method runs checkPermissions() in order to check permissions. If everything is fine, checkPermissions() returns true; if it returns false, along with a message, it means that permission wasn't granted.

    The checkPermissions() method has the following signature:

    checkPermissions: function( request, method)
    

    Here:

    • request. It is the request object
    • method. It can be post, put, get, getQuery, delete

    Here is an example of a store only allowing deletion only to specific admin users:

    Note that if your store is derived from another one, and you want to preserve the parent store's permission model, you can run super.checkPermissions():

      async checkPermissions (request, method) {
    
        // Run the parent's permission check. If it failed, honour the failure
        let { granted, message } = super.checkPermissions(request, method)
        if (!granted) return { granted: true }
    
        // We are only adding checks for  `put`.
        // In any other case, will go along with the parent's response
        if (method === 'put') return { granted: true }
    
        // User is admin (id: 1 )
        if( request.session.user === 1){ return { granted: true }
        else return { granted: false, message: 'Only admin can do this'}
      },
    

    Please note that checkPermissions() is only run for local requests, with remote set to false. All requests coming from APIs will ignore the method.

    A note on publicURL and paramIds

    When you define a store like this:

    var Managers = declare( Store, {
    
      schema: new Schema({
        name   : { type: 'string', trim: 60 },
        surname: { type: 'string', trim: 60 },
      }),
    
      storeName: 'managers',
      publicURL: '/managers/:id',
    
      handlePut: true,
      handlePost: true,
      handleGet: true,
      handleGetQuery: true,
      handleDelete: true,
    
      hardLimitOnQueries: 50,
    });
    
    managers.protocolListen( 'HTTP', { app: app } );;
    

    The publicURL is used to:

    • Add id: { type: id } to the schema automatically. This is done so that you don't have to do the grunt work of defining id in the schema if they are already in publicURL.
    • Create the paramIds array for the store. In this case, paramIds will be [ 'id' ].

    So, you could reach the same goal without publicURL:

    // Basic definition of the managers store
    class Managers extends HTTPMixin(Store) {
      static get schema () {
        return new Schema({
          id: { type: 'id' },
          name: { type: 'string', searchable: true, trim: 60 },
          surname: { type: 'string', trim: 60 }
        })
      }
    
      static get paramIds () { return [ 'id' ] }
    
      static get storeName () { return 'managers' }
      static get publicURL () { return '/managers/:id' }
    
      static get handlePut () { return true }
      static get handlePost () { return true }
      static get handleGet () { return true }
      static get handleGetQuery () { return true }
      static get handleDelete () { return true }
      // ...implement??? functions
    }
    

    Note that:

    • The id parameter had to be defined in the schema
    • The paramIds array had to be defined by hand
    • managers.protocolListenHTTP({ app: app } ); can't be used as the public URL is not there

    In any case, the property idProperty is set as last element of paramIds; in this example, it is id.

    File uploads

    File upload is something that happens at HTTP level. So, it's implemented in HTTPMixin.

    // Basic definition of the managers store
    class Managers extends HTTPMixin(Store) {
      static get schema () {
        return new Schema({
          name: { type: 'string', trim: 60 },
          surname: { type: 'string', searchable: true, trim: 60 }
          picture: { default: '', type: 'string', trim: 128 },
        })
      }
    
      static get storeName () { return 'managers' }
      static get publicURL () { return '/managers/:id' }
    
      static get handlePut () { return true }
      static get handlePost () { return true }
      static get handleGet () { return true }
      static get handleGetQuery () { return true }
      static get handleDelete () { return true }
    
      static get uploadFields () { return {
        picture: {
          destination: '/home/www/files',
        },  
      }}
    
      // ...implement??? functions
    }
    

    In this store:

    • The store has an uploadFields attribute, which lists the fields that will represent file paths resulting from the successful upload
    • The field is populated with the fill path to the uploaded file

    For this to happen, effectively HTTPMixin will:

    • add a middleware in stores with uploadFields, adding the ability to parse multipart/formdata input from the client
    • save the files in the required location
    • set req.body.picture as the file's path, and req.bodyComputed.picture to true.

    JsonRestStores will simply see values in req.body, blissfully unaware of the work done to parse the requests' input and the work to automatically populate req.body with the form values as well as the file paths.

    The fact that the fields are protected meand that you are not forced to re-upload files every time you submit the form: if the values are set (thanks to an upload), they will change; if they are not set, they will be left "as is".

    On the backend, JsonRestStores uses multer, a powerful multipart-parsing module. However, this is basically transparent to JsonRestStores and to developers, except some familiarity with the configuration functions.

    Configuring file uploads

    The store above only covers a limited use case. Remembering that the file object has the following fields:

    • fieldname - Field name specified in the form
    • originalname - Name of the file on the user's computer
    • encoding - Encoding type of the file
    • mimetype - Mime type of the file
    • size - Size of the file in bytes
    • destination - The folder to which the file has been saved
    • filename - The name of the file within the destination
    • path - The full path to the uploaded file

    In order to configure file uploads, you can set three static get attributes you can set when you declare you store:

    • uploadFilter -- to filter incoming files based on their names or fieldName
    • uploadLimits -- to set some upload limits, after which JsonRestStores will throw a UnprocessableEntity error.
    • uploadFields -- it can have two properties: destination and fileName.

    Here are these options in detail:

    uploadFilter

    This allows you to filter files based on their names and fieldNames. You only have limited amount of information for each file:

    { fieldname: 'fileName',
      originalname: 'test.mp4',
      encoding: '7bit',
      mimetype: 'video/mp4' }
    

    This is especially useful if you want to check for swearwords in the file name, or the file type. You can throw and error if the file type doesn't correspond to what you were expecting:

    uploadFilter: function( req, file, cb ){
      if( file.mimetype != 'video/mp4') return cb( null, false );
      cb( null, true );
    }
    

    Note that because this code run in the context of multer, it uses callback-style,

    uploadLimits

    This allows you to set specific download limits. The list comes straight from busbuy, on which JsonRestStores is based:

    • fieldNameSize -- Max field name size (in bytes) (Default: 100 bytes).
    • fieldSize -- Max field value size (in bytes) (Default: 1MB).
    • fields -- Max number of non-file fields (Default: Infinity).
    • fileSize -- For multipart forms, the max file size (in bytes) (Default: Infinity).
    • files -- For multipart forms, the max number of file fields (Default: Infinity).
    • parts -- For multipart forms, the max number of parts (fields + files) (Default: Infinity).
    • headerPairs -- For multipart forms, the max number of header key=>value pairs to parse Default: 2000 (same as node's http).

    For example, the most typical use case would be:

    static get uploadLimits () { return {
      fileSize: 50000000 // 50 Mb
    }}
    

    uploadFields

    This is the heart of the upload abilities of JsonRestStores.

    It accepts two parameters:

    destination

    This parameter is mandatory, and defines where the files connected to that field will be stored. It can either be a string, or a function with the following signature: function( req, file, cb ). It will need to call the callback cb with cb( null, FULL_PATH ). For example:

    static get uploadFields () { return {
      picture: {
        destination: function (req, file, cb) {
          // This can depend on req, or file's attribute
          cb( null, '/tmp/my-uploads');
        }
      }
    }
    

    fileName

    It's a function that will determine the file name. By default, it will be a function that works out the file name from the field. By default, if you don't define a fileName function, it will be the equivalent of writing:

    If you don't set it, it will be:

    static get uploadFields () { return {
      picture: {
        destination: function (req, file, cb) {
          // This can depend on req, or file's attribute
          cb( null, '/tmp/my-uploads');
        },
    
        // If the ID is there (that's the case with a PUT), then use it. Otherwise,
        // simply generate a random string
        fileName: function( req, file, cb ){
          var id = req.params[ this.idProperty ];
          if( ! id ) id = crypto.randomBytes( 20 ).toString( 'hex' );
    
          // That's it
          return cb( null, file.fieldname + '_' + id ); // ._
        }
      }
    },
    

    The default function works fine in most cases. However, you may want to change it.

    uploadErrorProcessor

    By default, when there is an error, the file upload module multer will throw and error. It's much better to encapsulate those errors in HTTP errors. This is what uploadErrorProcessor does. By default, it's defined as follow (although you can definitely change it if needed):

    uploadErrorProcessor: function( err, next ){
      var ReturnedError = new this.UnprocessableEntityError( (err.field ? err.field : '' ) + ": " + err.message );
      ReturnedError.OriginalError = err;
      return next( ReturnedError );
    },
    

    NOTE: DOCUMENTATION UPDATED TO THIS POINT

    Inheriting a store from another one

    Self-documetation

    This feature hasn't yet been ported from Jsonreststores

    Errors returned and error management

    JsonRestStores has very careful error management.

    The error objects

    This is the comprehensive list of errors the class can create:

    • BadRequestError Like this: new BadRequestError( { errors: errors } )
    • UnauthorizedError
    • ForbiddenError
    • NotFoundError
    • PreconditionFailedError
    • UnprocessableEntityError Like this: UnprocessableEntityError( { errors: errors } )
    • NotImplementedError
    • ServiceUnavailableError. Like this: ServiceUnavailableError( { originalErr: error } )

    These error constructors are borrowed from the Allhttperrors module -- you should its short and concise documentation. The short version is that errorObject.status and errorObject.httpError will be set as the error number, and the constructor can have either a string or an object as parameters.

    The error objects are all pretty standard. However:

    • ServiceUnavailableError errors will be created with an originalErr parameter containing the original error object. For example if the database server goes down, the module will return a ServiceUnavailableError error object which will include the original MongoDB error in its originalErr parameter.

    • UnprocessableEntityError and BadRequestError are both created when field validation fails. They error objects will always have an errors attribute, which will represent an array of errors as they were returned by SimpleSchema. For example:

      [ { field: 'nameOfFieldsWithProblems', message: 'Message to the user for this field' }, { field: 'nameOfAnotherField', message: 'Message to the user for this other field' }, ]

    JsonRestStores only ever throws (generic) Javascript errors if the class constructor was called incorrectly, or if an element in paramIds is not found within the schema. So, it will only ever happen if you use the module incorrectly. Any other case is chained through.

    Error management

    At some point in your program, one of your callbacks might have the dreaded err first parameter set to an error rather than null. This might happen with your database driver (for example your MongoDB process dies), or within your own module (validation after a PUT fails).

    JsonRestStores allows you to decide what to do when this happens.

    chainErrors

    You can control what happens when an error occurs with the chainErrors attribute. There are three options:

    all

    If you have chainErrors: all in your class definition: JsonRestStores will simply call next( error ) where error is the error object. This means that it will be up to another Express middleware to deal with the problem.

    none

    If you have chainErrors: none in your class definition: if there is a problem, JsonRestStores will not call the next() callback at all: it will respond to the client directly, after formatting it with the object's self.formatErrorResponse() method (see below).

    Do this if you basically want to make absolute sure that every single request will end right there, whether it went well or not. If you do this, you might want to define your own self.formatErrorResponse() method for your store classes, so that the output is what you want it to be.

    nonhttp

    If you have chainErrors: nonhttp in your class definition, JsonRestStores will only call next( err ) for non-HTTP errors -- any other problem (like your MongoDB server going down) will be handled by the next Express error management middleware. Use this if you want the server to respond directly in case of an HTTP problem (again using self.formatErrorResponse() to send a response to the client), but then you want to manage other problems (for example a MongoDB problem) with Express.

    self.formatErrorResponse()

    In those cases where you decide to send a response to the client directly (with chainErrors being none or nonhttp), the server will send a response to the client directly. The body of the response will depend on what you want to send back.

    The stock self.formatErrorResponse() method will simply return a Json representation of the error message and, if present, the errors array within the error.

    self.logError()

    Whenever an error happens, JsonRestStore will run self.logError(). This happens regardless of what self.chainErrors contains (that is, whether the error is chained up to Express or it's managed internally). Note that there is no callback parameter to this method: since it's only a logging method, if it fails, it fails.

    The response

    The reponse is delivered by JsonRestStores using the function protocolSendHTTP for HTTP transport, and protocolSendXXX for XXX transport. At the moment, only HTTP is implemented via the HTTPMixin mixin. protocolSendXXX has the following signature:

    protocolSendXXX( request, method, data, status, cb )
    

    Response in case everything went well

    In case there was no error, the parameters are as follows:

    • request: the request object
    • method: the method being handled; it can be get, getQuery, put, post, delete,
    • data: the data being delivered.
    • status: the status set by JsonRestStores. For non-errors, the status is set as:
      • get: 200.
      • getQuery: 200
      • put: 201 for newly created records, and 200 for overwriting of existing records
      • post: 201
      • delete: 204

    Response in case of error

    In case there was an error, the store will only send data if chainError is set to none or nonhttp (and the error isn't an HTTP error). Otherwise, it will simply call the callback with the error as its first parameter, as per normal in node (it will be up to your application to manage the error, which is simply pussed up the callback chain).

    If chaining is off, and a response is to be sent to the client, then protocolSendXXX will be used. In this case, the data argument of protocolSendXXX will be set as the error itself, with two properties added to it:

    • formattedErrorResponse (the formatted error response, formatted thanks to the store's formatErrorResponse() method)
    • originalMethod (the method that triggered the error).

    Also, status will be set to the HTTP status code.

    protocolSendXXX() is always passed an HTTP error. In case the error was caused by something else (for example, the connection to the database dropped), the error will be set as 503, and the error object will also have a originalErr attribute which represents the original error that triggered the 503 HTTP error.

    Receiving HTTP requests and sending HTTP responses: HTTPMixin

    Store APIs

    JsonRestStores allows you to run store methods from within your programs, rather than accessing them via URL. This is especially useful if you have a store and want to simulate an HTTP request within your own programs. Note that for database-backed methods you should use SimpleDbLaye methods (you can access the SimpleDbLayer table object in your store via store.dbLayer).

    The API is really simple:

    • Store.apiGet( id, options, next( err, doc ) {})
    • Store.apiGetQuery( options, next( err, queryDocs ){} )
    • Store.apiPut( body, options, next( err, doc ){} )
    • Store.apiPost( body, options, next( err, doc ){} )
    • Store.apiDelete( id, options, next( err, doc ){} )

    The next() call is the callback called at the end.

    When using the API, the options object is especially important, as it defines how the API will work. When a request comes from a remote operation, the options object is populated depending on the requested URL and HTTP headers. When using the API, you need to popuate options manually in order to obtain what you desire. options is especially important while querying, as that's where you define what you filter and order the results by.

    Since there is no HTTP connection to extrapolate options from, the options parameter in every API call is assigned directly to request.options. For all of the available options, refer to the The options object section in this guide.

    All normal hooks are called when using these functions. However:

    • Any check on paramIds is turned off: you are free to query a store without any pre-set automatic filtering imposed by paramIds. If your store has a publicURL of /workspaces/:workspaceId/users/:id, and you request GET /workspaces/10/user/11, in remote requests the user data source will be looked up based on both workspaceId and id. In API (non-remote) requests, the lookup will only happen on id.
    • request.params is automatically set to a hash object where the idProperty attribute matches the passed object's ID property. For example, for { id: 10, colour: 'red' }, the request.params object is automatically set to { id: 10 }. (This is true for all methods except getQuery and post, which don't accept objects with IDs). Note that you can pass options.apiParams to force request.params to whatever you like.
    • All store.handleXXX properties are ignored: all methods will work
    • The request.remote variable is set to false
    • Permissions checking methods are not called at all: permission is always granted
    • When the request is done, rather than ending data through using the transport of choice (for example HTTP), the next() callback is called with the results.

    Conclusion

    TODO: Document HTTPMixin, explaining how each header is transformed into an option

    Install

    npm i jsonreststores2

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