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Simple, declarative generator control.

gg: Generator General

gg manages generator execution in a simple, declarative manner that allows for both serial and parallel execution of asynchronous requests.

gg has the same requirements as co:

When using node 0.11.x or greater, you must use the --harmony-generators flag or just --harmony to get access to generators.

When using node 0.10.x and lower or browsers without generator support, you must use gnode and/or regenerator.

When using node 0.8.x and lower or browsers without setImmediate, you must include a setImmediate polyfill.

npm install gg
git clone git://
cd gg
npm install

These examples are adapted from test/gg.js, which you can run via

npm test
function* foo(value) {
  return value;

function* main() {
  var result;
  // use gg.wait() to wait for a single generator
  result = yield gg.wait(foo('test'));
  // use gg.waitAll() to wait for several generators (in parallel)
  result = yield gg.waitAll(foo('baz'), foo('frob'));
  expect(result).to.deep.equal(['baz', 'frob']);
  // you can also just pass an Array to gg.waitAll()
  result = yield gg.waitAll([foo('baz'), foo('frob')]);
  expect(result).to.deep.equal(['baz', 'frob']);

  return true;
}, function(err, result) {
function* bar(msg) {
  // just throw an error as you would normally
  throw new Error(msg);

function* main() {
  var threwException = false;
  try {
    var result = yield gg.wait(bar('zow'));
  } catch (err) {
    // exceptions are thrown into the waiting generator
    threwException = true;
  yield gg.wait(bar('biff'));
});, function(err, result) {
  // collects any uncaught exceptions
var fs = require('fs'),
    Q = require('q');

function sizeThunk(file) {
  return function(fn){
    fs.stat(file, function(err, stat){
      if (err) return fn(err);
      fn(null, stat.size);

function size(file, fn) {
  fs.stat(file, function(err, stat) {
    if (err) return fn(err);
    fn(null, stat.size);
var sizePromise = Q.denodeify(size);

function* main() {
  // you can also wait on thunks or promises
  var result = yield gg.waitAll(

In pseudocode, the core loop of gg looks like this:

while (!main.isFinished()) {    // the same main passed to
  dispatch();                   // see below
  runOneStep();                 // run everything we can

gg.onDispatch() allows you to attach your own functions to be called during that dispatch() step.

Why would you want to do this? Suppose you're building a web page, and you need to fetch a bunch of users:

function* navbar(req) {
  var user = yield gg.wait(fetchUser(uid1));
  // ...

function* feed(req) {
  var users = yield gg.waitAll([uid2, uid3, uid4].map(fetchUser));
  // ...

function* home(req) {
  var parts = yield gg.waitAll(navbar(req), feed(req)); 
  return combinePartsIntoPage(parts);

Ideally, we'd fetch uid1, ..., uid4 in one database query. dispatch() allows you to do exactly that, by providing a hook for batched operations to execute during the core loop:

var Users = {
  _idsToFetch: {},
  _cache: {},
  gen: function*(id) {
    if (!(id in cache)) {
      this._idsToFetch[id] = true;
    return this._cache[id];
  dispatch: function(done) {
    var ids = Object.keys(this._idsToFetch);
    if (ids.length === 0) return done();
    DB.getUsers(ids, function(err, results) {
      if (err) return done(err);
      ids.forEach(function(id) {
        this._cache[id] = results[id];

var fetchUser = Users.gen;

The control flow is as follows:

  • all fetchUser(uid) calls hit gg.wait() and pause;
  • on the next iteration of the core loop, Users.dispatch() is called;
  • Users.dispatch() performs a batched DB fetch, and stores the results in Users._cache;
  • the fetchUser(uid) calls resume, and read their return values from Users._cache.

In this way, all fetchUser calls across all generators can be batched into a single DB request.

This is extremely powerful! Now that all our user fetching is centralized, we can add caching, logging, etc. to Users without changing the fetchUser() callsites.

For another example of batched access operations in gg, see DT in test/gg.js.