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    dynq

    1.2.1 • Public • Published

    DynQ

    DynQ

    AWS DynamoDB datastore library. It makes data access layers based on DynamoDB easier to develop and maintain. Call it "dink" if you like. Amongst other things, this library features:

    • Schemas
    • Queries
    • Mixins
    • Automatic encoding/decoding of DynamoDB typed JSON format
    • Multi-master support

    Installation

    npm install dynq
    

    To use dynq, you need an AWS account. Once signed into AWS, go to IAM Security Credentials section, click on the Access Keys section and get an access key id and a secret access key. Use these credentials to configure and connect dynq to AWS DynamoDB.

    Get Started

    The flexibility of dynq comes from using metadata. A schema model uses table definitions and gets existing table metadata to facilitate more seamless programming.

    var dynq = require("dynq");
     
    // Configure using object or JSON file.
    dynq.config({ accessKeyId: "xxx", secretAccessKey: "yyy", maxRetries: 5, region: "us-east-1" });
     
    // Load a schema of tables from file or folder
    var schema = dynq.connect().schema().require(path.join(__dirname, "model"), { 
        customize: "reuseable model", 
        configuration: "Setting", 
        enableFeature: true 
    });
        
    // Ensure tables exist and are 'active'
    schema.create({ 
        prefix: "TABLE_PREFIX_",
        minReadCapacity: 25,
        minWriteCapacity: 20
    }, (err) => { /* ready! */ });
     
    // Easily backup and restore data
    schema.backup(__dirname + "/directory", (err) => { });
    schema.restore(__dirname + "/directory", (err) => { });

    Connections and tables build on the basic putItem, deleteItem, and updateItem actions to provide a more comprehensive set of record-level mutation methods.

    // Mutation operations
    var table = schema.tables.table;
    table.insert({ id: 1, range: 2 }, err => { ... });
    table.write({ id: 1, range: 2 }, err => { ... });
    table.upsert({ id: 1 range: 2 }, err => { ... });
    table.update({ id: 1 range: 3 }, err => { ... });
    table.delete(1, err => { ... });
     
    // Query operations
    table.exists(1, (err, exists) = > { ... });
    table.get(1, (err, item) => { ... });
    table.getPart(1, [ "range" ], (err, item) => { ... });
     
    // Bulk operations
    table.writeAll([ ... ], err => { ... });
    table.getAll([ ... ], err => { ... });
    table.deleteAll([ ... ], err => { ... });

    Queries

    The most advanced features of mutation operations supported by DyanmoDB are exposed though a series of builder classes exposed by a table.

    // Query keys-only index and project rest of record
    table.query({ id: 1 }).select.all((err, results) => { ... });
     
    // Query and update data
    table.query({ id: 1, range: [ "LT", 10 ] })
        .filter({ field: [ "BEGINS_WITH", "abc" ] })
        .update((edit, cb) => {
            edit.change({ ... }).add({ ... }).remove({ ... }).upsert(cb);
        }).all(err => { ... });
     
    // Query and delete data
    table.query({ id: 1, range: [ "LT", 10 ] })
        .filter({ field: [ "BEGINS_WITH", "abc" ] })
        .delete().all(err => { ... });

    Configuration

    Configure library with standard AWS configuration options.

    • dynq.config(config) – Configure the AWS DynamoDB. Chainable with connect call.
    • dynq.throughputHandler(destination, table, index) – Callback on ProvisionedThroughputExceededException errors
    • dynq.debug – Outputs all Dynamo operations to the logger.
    • dynq.logger – Logger used in conjunction with debug. Defaults to console.log.

    Connections

    // Create a simple connection
    var cxn = new dynq.Connection({ region: "us-east-1" });
     
    // Create a multi-master connection with an array of AWS regions.
    cxn = dynq.connect({ regions: [ "us-east-1", "us-west-1" ], distribute: true });

    Create connections with the builder method or constructor syntax.

    • dynq.connect(options)
    • new dynq.Connection(options)

    Additional Options

    • regions - A string or array of AWS regions (e.g. us-east-1).
    • distribute - A boolean value specifying if reads should be distributed across regions.

    Schemas

    Schemas put a programming model around DynamoDB tables using metadata and definition objects. The easiest way to define a table schema is within a javascript file loaded with the schema.require method.

    Schema Example

    // index.js
    var schema = dynq.connect().schema().require("user.js", { 
        ... /* options */
    }).create({ 
        ... /* options */
    }, (err, schema) => {
        ... /* ready */
    });
     
    // user.js
    module.exports = {
        name: "UsersTable",
        key: { id: "string" },
        read: 5,
        write: 5,
        sort: {
            ByUser: {
                columns: { user: "string" },
                project: "ALL"
            }
        },
        indices: {
            ByTimestamp: {
                columns: { timestamp: "number" },
                read: 5,
                write: 5,
                project: "ALL"
            }
        },
        members: function(table) {
            // These methods will be mixed-in with the table object
            this.foo = function(cb) {
                cb();
            };
        }
    };

    NOTE: The schema.require method uses the file name as the identifier within the programming model (i.e. schema.tables.user).

    The schema.require method may take options, which allows development of reuseable table schema generators, or components. options passed to the schema.require method are available to a schema definition when defined as a function.

    // to expose options use a function
    module.exports = function(options) {
        return { 
            name: "Users",
            key: { id: "string" },
            read: 5,
            write: 5,
            ...
        };
    }

    Because a schema definition can be thought of as a flexible component, the schema.create method also takes options that support customizations like table name prefixes (prefix) and read/write capacities (minReadCapacity and minWriteCapacity).

    Mixins and Behaviors

    A big advantage of schemaless databases like Dynamo is that the data model is readily extensible. Methods added to the table can easily manipulate state, thereby implementing some semantically significant functionality. For example, an articles table might benefit from a publish method.

    Table objects in a schema can be extended through mixins. A mixin takes the form of a function or class which will be initialized with the inheriting table. They are mounted on table definitions using the mixin, members, properties, or methods fields. The mixins field may be used to mount multiple mixins as an array, which is useful in the development and composition of components.

    function(table) { 
        this.sample = cb => { cb(); };
    }
     
    // - or -
     
    class mixin {
        constructor(table) { }
    }

    A behavior is a mixin that also has access to, and may manipulate, the table definition itself. In the example of the articles table and publish method above, this functionality may be enhanced by a global secondary index on a published field. A behavior not only implements the functional logic, but might also add an index or query the existing schema.

    // behavior.js
    exports.module = function(option) {
        // perform some logic based on options
        var indexName = options.indexName;
        return function(definition) {
            // inspect or alter defintion
            defintion.indicies[indexName] = { columns: { id: "text" } };
            return function(table) {
                // add mixin methods
                this.operation = (cb) => {
                    // table exists within this scope
                };
            };
        };
    };
     
    // schema.js
    exports.module = function(options) {
        // behaviors allow composition of table functionality
        return {
            name: "table",
            key: { id: "string" },
            behaviors: require("behavior.js")(options)
        };
    };

    Programming Model

    A dyna.schema provides table creation, modification, and deletion functionality and pares this with table definition and description schemas.

    Tables can be defined with the schema.define and schema.require methods, which merge into the overall schema.definition object. If you have a tables already created, use the schema.load to populate the schema from DynamoDB table descriptions.

    To bring a schema to life, call the schema.create which enumerates through each table in schema.definition. Existing tables are loaded via schema.load and ones that do not are created. All tables can be deleted with schema.drop. The entire schema can be schema.backup'd to and schema.restore'd from a folder of flat files.

    Once a schema has been created, schema.tables contain the dynq.table objects to be read and written.

    var schema = dynq.connect("us-east-1").schema();

    State

    • schema.connection - The underlying connection.
    • schema.tables - A map of loaded tables.
    • schema.definition - A definition of tables to be created or loaded.

    Table Creation, Modification, and Deletion Methods

    • schema.listSomeTables(last, cb) - List a page of tables starting from last.
    • schema.listAllTables(cb) - List all tables (automatically page until end).
    • schema.createTable(definition, cb) - Create a table. Definition is in format of the Schema Example below.
    • schema.deleteTable(table, cb) - Deletes a table.
    • schema.describeTable(table, cb) - Load table metadata.
    • schema.changeThroughput(table, read, write, cb) - Change throughput for a table.
    • schema.changeIndexThroughput(table, index, read, write, cb) - Change throughput for an index.
    • schema.factorThroughput(description, factor, cb) - Factors throughput across the table and its indices.

    Schema Management Methods

    • schema.load(filter, cb) - Load tables with names that match filter.
    • schema.define(definition) - Merge into schema.definition from object.
    • schema.require(filepath, [options]) - Loads a table into schema.definition from a module. If a directory is specified, all modules are loaded.
    • schema.create([options,] cb) - Load tables from schema.definition and create ones that do not exist.
    • schema.drop(cb) - Drop tables from schema.definition that exist.
    • schema.backup(dir, cb) - Saves data from loaded DyanmoDB tables into JSON files.
    • schema.restore(dir, cb) - Load records into DynamoDB tables from JSON files in the given directory.

    Tables

    Tables are accessed through the schema.table object and use DynamoDB table description metadata to provide programming abstrations above the low-level DynamoDB API. With knowledge of the key attributes, a table provide conditional record-level methods like insert, update, and exists. Mass operations like writeAll, deleteAll, and getAll use smart batching logic to gracefully handle DynamoDB operation limitations.

    The table.query and table.edit are builder interfaces for more complicated actions. The edit interface allows for add and remove operations (in addition to change) on individual items. The query interface invokes index queries and table scans, whose data can either be directly returned, or repurposed as keys for a batch select, update, or delete operation.

    table.mixin enables extension of table methods. Only methods with names who do not already exist will be mixed into the table.

    var schema = dynq.connect("us-east-1").schema();
     
    schema.load(/PREFIX_.*/i, function(err) {
        var table = schema.tables["PREFIX_Users"];
        table.mixin(function(table) {
            this.foo = cb => { cb() };
        });
        
        table.foo(cb => { });
    });

    Table-Level Members

    • table.name - The name of the table.
    • table.schema - The schema to which this table belongs.
    • table.description - The metadata from schema.describeTable(name).
    • table.mixin(class) – Initializes a class with this table and mixes in the instance methods.
    • table.changeThroughput(read, write, cb) - Change throughput for a table.
    • table.changeIndexThroughput(index, read, write, cb) - Change throughput for an index.
    • table.factorThroughput(factor, cb) - Factors throughput across the table and its indices.
    • table.drop(cb) - Drops this table.

    File Methods

    • table.backup(filepath, cb) - Save the contents of the DynamoDB table to a file.
    • table.restore(filepath, cb) - Load the contents of a file to the DynamoDB table.

    Record-Level Methods

    • table.write(obj, cb) - Writes a record to the table. If a record with the same key already exists, it is overwritten.
    • table.writeAll(objs, cb) - Writes records to the table. If a record with the same key already exists, it is overwritten.
    • table.insert(obj, cb) - Inserts a record into the table. If a record with the same key already exists, the operation fails.
    • table.delete(key, cb) - Deletes a record from the table with the given key.
    • table.deleteAll(keys, cb) - Deletes records from the table with the given keys.
    • table.deleteIf(key, expect, cb) - Deletes a record from the table with the given key if the expected field values are matched.
    • table.exists(key, cb) - Indicates if a record with the given key exists.
    • table.get(key, cb) - Gets the full record that matches the given key.
    • table.getPart(key, select, cb) - Get part of the record that matches the given key.
    • table.getAll(keys, select, cb) - Get many records.

    Query Interface

    • table.query() - Returns a query interface configured to filter based on an index.
    • table.scan() - Returns a query interface configured to filter on a table scan.
    • query.index(name) - The name of an index to query (if not querying the primary key).
    • query.conditions(conditions) - The conditions on the key and hash of the index.
    • query.filter(filter) - Set filter conditions on non-indexed fields.
    • query.expression(expression) - Set filter expression on non-indexed fields.
    • query.or() - Change filter conditions from "and" to "or".
    • query.select(select) - A list of attributes to select, an attribute qualifier, or a projection expression. If empty, the whole record is projected with a separate getItem operation.
    • query.update(editor) – An update operation to be performed on each item, taking an edit interface object and a cb.
    • query.delete() - Delete the queried records.
    • query.backwards() - Reverse the order in which records are returned.
    • query.direction(direction) - Set the order in which records are returned.
    • query.segment(segment, total) - Segment a scan operation into parts.
    • query.start(start) - Start query from this key.
    • query.limit(count) - Maximum number of records to query.
    • query.first(cb) - Return the first record from the query.
    • query.page(cb) - Return a page of records.
    • query.all(cb) - Return all records (automatically paging until the end).
    • query.debug(cb) - Write the JSON of the query and return it if a cb is supplied.

    Edit Interface

    • table.edit(obj) - Returns an edit interface to alter or insert records.
    • edit.change(values) - Field values to be changed/overwritten. (Fields without a value are set to null; to remove fields, use remove/delete.)
    • edit.put(values) – Alias for edit.change.
    • edit.add(values) - Field values to be added. If numeric, this means atomic addition/subtraction. If a set, this means addition to the set.
    • edit.remove(values) - Field values to be removed. If a set, this means removal from the set. If an array, denotes a list of fields to be removed.
    • edit.delete(values) - Alias for edit.remove.
    • edit.conditions(expected) - Values expected to be found in the record. If not matched, the operation fails.
    • edit.select(select) - A list of fields to select from the record.
    • edit.update(cb) - Updates the record. If a record does not exist, the operation fails.
    • edit.upsert(cb) - Upserts the record. If a record does not exists, one is created.
    • edit.debug(cb) - Write the JSON of the query and return it if a cb is supplied.

    Conditions Composer

    Calls that take a conditions object may build this object using the conditions composer interface by passing a function instead.

    table.where(op => op.field("id").equals(1).and("timestamp").greaterThan(12341234));
    // instead of
    table.where({ id: 1, timestamp: [ "greater than", 12341234 ] });
    • conditions.field(name) - Sets up a new condition on a table attribute.
    • conditions.and(name) - Alias for conditions.field to improve readability. Actual conditional operator set on query interface.
    • conditions.or(name) - Alias for conditions.field. Actual conditional operator set on query interface.
    • conditions.equals(value) - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.notEqual(value) - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.lessThan(value) - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.lessThanOrEqual(value) - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.greaterThan(value) - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.greaterThanOrEqual(value) - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.notNull() - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.isNull() - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.contains(value) - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.doesNotContain(value) - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.beginsWith(value) - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.in(array) - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.between(min, max) - Right hand side of field condition. Should follow a field declaration.
    • conditions.toConditions() - Returns a conditions object that can be used in a call to conditions.

    Expression Composer

    The expression composer interface simplifies DynamoDB expressions by assembling the expression string while simultaneously populating the ExpressionAttributeNames and ExpressionAttributeValues parameters.

    table.query().expression(if => if("id", "=", 1).and("timestamp", "between", 12341234, 23452345).and().exists("somefield").or("size(text)", ">", 2));

    comparator can be "in", "between", "<>", "<", "<=", ">", ">=". operand can be an attribute name, a path, or the "size" function. value2 is only used with the "between" comparator.

    • expression.if(operand, comparator, value, [value2]) - Sets up a new condition on a table attribute.
    • expression.and([operand, comparator, value, [value2]]) - Sets up a new condition on a table attribute.
    • expression.or([operand, comparator, value, [value2]]) - Sets up a new condition on a table attribute.
    • expression.not([operand, comparator, value, [value2]]) - Sets up a new condition on a table attribute.
    • expression.exists(path) - Checks if an attribute or path exists.
    • expression.missing(path) - Checks if an attribute or path does not exist.
    • expression.type(path, type) - Checks if an attribute or path has the given datatype.
    • expression.begins(path, substr) - Checks if an attribute or path begins with a given value.
    • expression.contains(path, value) - Checks if an attribute or path contains a given value.
    • expression.toExpression() - Returns the composed expression string

    Low-Level Connection Interface

    The dynq module supports the logger and debug global configuration operations. The logger defaults to console.log. If debug is set to true, all DynamoDB native operations are logged.

    The Connection class provides access to native DynamoDB operations with multi-master support and throughput handling infrastructure. Some conditional and mass operations like insert and insertAll are build on top of the native calls to support higher-level table operations.

    Configuration
    • cxn.distributeReads – If multiple masters are specified, each read is dispatched to a randomly selected source.
    • cxn.destinations – An array of service interfaces used in a multi-master configuration.
    • cxn.debug – Outputs all connection operations to the logger.
    • cxn.addDestination(options) – Adds an additional destination to the destinations array after construction.
    Methods
    • cxn.write(table, item, cb) – Writes an item.
    • cxn.writeAll(table, items, cb) – Writes multiple items.
    • cxn.insert(table, keyAttr, item, cb) – Inserts an item. If an item with the same key exists, the operation fails.
    • cxn.upsert(table, keyAttr, item, cb) – Upserts an item. If the item exists, the fields are merged with the existing item.
    • cxn.update(table, keyAttr, item, cb) – Updates an item. If an item with the same key does not exist, the operation fails.
    • cxn.exists(table, key, cb) – Returns a boolean value indicating if an item with the given key exists.
    • cxn.get(table, key, cb) – Gets an item with the given key.
    • cxn.getPart(table, key, select, cb) – Gets part of an item.
    • cxn.getAll(table, keys, select, cb) – Gets all items with matching keys.
    • cxn.getMany(map, cb) – Get many items from multple tables. Map has keys corresponding to table names, and values containing keys and select.
    • cxn.delete(table, key, expected, cb) – Deletes a item with the matching key and optionally other expected values.
    • cxn.deleteAll(table, keys, cb) – Deletes all items with matching keys.

    Arguments

    • table - A string specifying the name of a DynamoDB table.
    • keyAttr - A string or array of key attribute names.
    • key - An object specifying the unique key of the item.
    • item - An object representing a table record.
    • select - An projection expression or an array of strings specifying attributes to get.
    • expected - An object representing a set of fields that must be matched for the operation to succeed.
    • cb - Callback with an error and results parameters.

    These methods automatically encode parameters to and decode responses from the DynamoDB typed JSON format.

    Native DynamoDB Operation Proxies

    The returned connections are compatible with the AWS DynamoDB API.

    • cxn.batchGetItem(params, cb)
    • cxn.batchWriteItem(params, cb)
    • cxn.createTable(params, cb)
    • cxn.deleteItem(params, cb)
    • cxn.deleteTable(params, cb)
    • cxn.describeTable(params, cb)
    • cxn.getItem(params, cb)
    • cxn.listTables(params, cb)
    • cxn.putItem(params, cb)
    • cxn.query(params, cb)
    • cxn.scan(params, cb)
    • cxn.updateItem(params, cb)
    • cxn.updateTable(params, cb)
    • cxn.waitFor(event, options, cb)

    Arguments

    • params - An object specifying query parameters according to AWS Dynamo documentation.
    • cb - Callback with an error and results parameters.

    These methods do not automatically decode responses in the DynamoDB typed JSON format.

    Install

    npm i dynq

    DownloadsWeekly Downloads

    8

    Version

    1.2.1

    License

    MIT

    Last publish

    Collaborators

    • triploc