commander

the complete solution for node.js command-line programs

Commander.js

The complete solution for node.js command-line interfaces, inspired by Ruby's commander.
API documentation

$ npm install commander

Options with commander are defined with the .option() method, also serving as documentation for the options. The example below parses args and options from process.argv, leaving remaining args as the program.args array which were not consumed by options.

#!/usr/bin/env node
 
/**
 * Module dependencies.
 */
 
var program = require('commander');
 
program
  .version('0.0.1')
  .option('-p, --peppers', 'Add peppers')
  .option('-P, --pineapple', 'Add pineapple')
  .option('-b, --bbq-sauce', 'Add bbq sauce')
  .option('-c, --cheese [type]', 'Add the specified type of cheese [marble]', 'marble')
  .parse(process.argv);
 
console.log('you ordered a pizza with:');
if (program.peppers) console.log('  - peppers');
if (program.pineapple) console.log('  - pineapple');
if (program.bbqSauce) console.log('  - bbq');
console.log('  - %s cheese', program.cheese);

Short flags may be passed as a single arg, for example -abc is equivalent to -a -b -c. Multi-word options such as "--template-engine" are camel-cased, becoming program.templateEngine etc.

function range(val) {
  return val.split('..').map(Number);
}
 
function list(val) {
  return val.split(',');
}
 
function collect(valmemo) {
  memo.push(val);
  return memo;
}
 
function increaseVerbosity(vtotal) {
  return total + 1;
}
 
program
  .version('0.0.1')
  .usage('[options] <file ...>')
  .option('-i, --integer <n>', 'An integer argument', parseInt)
  .option('-f, --float <n>', 'A float argument', parseFloat)
  .option('-r, --range <a>..<b>', 'A range', range)
  .option('-l, --list <items>', 'A list', list)
  .option('-o, --optional [value]', 'An optional value')
  .option('-c, --collect [value]', 'A repeatable value', collect, [])
  .option('-v, --verbose', 'A value that can be increased', increaseVerbosity, 0)
  .parse(process.argv);
 
console.log(' int: %j', program.integer);
console.log(' float: %j', program.float);
console.log(' optional: %j', program.optional);
program.range = program.range || [];
console.log(' range: %j..%j', program.range[0], program.range[1]);
console.log(' list: %j', program.list);
console.log(' collect: %j', program.collect);
console.log(' verbosity: %j', program.verbose);
console.log(' args: %j', program.args);
program
  .version('0.0.1')
  .option('-s --size <size>', 'Pizza size', /^(large|medium|small)$/i, 'medium')
  .option('-d --drink [drink]', 'Drink', /^(coke|pepsi|izze)$/i)
  .parse(process.argv);
  
console.log(' size: %j', program.size);
console.log(' drink: %j', program.drink);

The last argument of a command can be variadic, and only the last argument. To make an argument variadic you have to append ... to the argument name. Here is an example:

#!/usr/bin/env node
 
/**
 * Module dependencies.
 */
 
var program = require('commander');
 
program
  .version('0.0.1')
  .command('rmdir <dir> [otherDirs...]')
  .action(function (dirotherDirs) {
    console.log('rmdir %s', dir);
    if (otherDirs) {
      otherDirs.forEach(function (oDir) {
        console.log('rmdir %s', oDir);
      });
    }
  });
 
program.parse(process.argv);

An Array is used for the value of a variadic argument. This applies to program.args as well as the argument passed to your action as demonstrated above.

#!/usr/bin/env node
 
var program = require('../');
 
program
  .version('0.0.1')
  .arguments('<cmd> [env]')
  .action(function (cmdenv) {
     cmdValue = cmd;
     envValue = env;
  });
 
program.parse(process.argv);
 
if (typeof cmdValue === 'undefined') {
   console.error('no command given!');
   process.exit(1);
}
console.log('command:', cmdValue);
console.log('environment:', envValue || "no environment given");
// file: ./examples/pm 
var program = require('..');
 
program
  .version('0.0.1')
  .command('install [name]', 'install one or more packages')
  .command('search [query]', 'search with optional query')
  .command('list', 'list packages installed')
  .parse(process.argv);

When .command() is invoked with a description argument, no .action(callback) should be called to handle sub-commands, otherwise there will be an error. This tells commander that you're going to use separate executables for sub-commands, much like git(1) and other popular tools.
The commander will try to search the executables in the directory of the entry script (like ./examples/pm) with the name program-command, like pm-install, pm-search.

If the program is designed to be installed globally, make sure the executables have proper modes, like 755.

You can enable --harmony option in two ways:

  • Use #! /usr/bin/env node --harmony in the sub-commands scripts. Note some os version don’t support this pattern.
  • Use the --harmony option when call the command, like node --harmony examples/pm publish. The --harmony option will be preserved when spawning sub-command process.

The help information is auto-generated based on the information commander already knows about your program, so the following --help info is for free:

 $ ./examples/pizza --help
 
   Usage: pizza [options]
 
   An application for pizzas ordering
 
   Options:
 
     -h, --help           output usage information
     -V, --version        output the version number
     -p, --peppers        Add peppers
     -P, --pineapple      Add pineapple
     -b, --bbq            Add bbq sauce
     -c, --cheese <type>  Add the specified type of cheese [marble]
     -C, --no-cheese      You do not want any cheese
 

You can display arbitrary -h, --help information by listening for "--help". Commander will automatically exit once you are done so that the remainder of your program does not execute causing undesired behaviours, for example in the following executable "stuff" will not output when --help is used.

#!/usr/bin/env node
 
/**
 * Module dependencies.
 */
 
var program = require('commander');
 
program
  .version('0.0.1')
  .option('-f, --foo', 'enable some foo')
  .option('-b, --bar', 'enable some bar')
  .option('-B, --baz', 'enable some baz');
 
// must be before .parse() since 
// node's emit() is immediate 
 
program.on('--help', function(){
  console.log('  Examples:');
  console.log('');
  console.log('    $ custom-help --help');
  console.log('    $ custom-help -h');
  console.log('');
});
 
program.parse(process.argv);
 
console.log('stuff');

Yields the following help output when node script-name.js -h or node script-name.js --help are run:

 
Usage: custom-help [options]
 
Options:
 
  -h, --help     output usage information
  -V, --version  output the version number
  -f, --foo      enable some foo
  -b, --bar      enable some bar
  -B, --baz      enable some baz
 
Examples:
 
  $ custom-help --help
  $ custom-help -h
 

Output help information without exiting.

If you want to display help by default (e.g. if no command was provided), you can use something like:

var program = require('commander');
 
program
  .version('0.0.1')
  .command('getstream [url]', 'get stream URL')
  .parse(process.argv);
 
  if (!process.argv.slice(2).length) {
    program.outputHelp();
  }

Output help information and exit immediately.

var program = require('commander');
 
program
  .version('0.0.1')
  .option('-C, --chdir <path>', 'change the working directory')
  .option('-c, --config <path>', 'set config path. defaults to ./deploy.conf')
  .option('-T, --no-tests', 'ignore test hook')
 
program
  .command('setup [env]')
  .description('run setup commands for all envs')
  .option("-s, --setup_mode [mode]", "Which setup mode to use")
  .action(function(envoptions){
    var mode = options.setup_mode || "normal";
    env = env || 'all';
    console.log('setup for %s env(s) with %s mode', env, mode);
  });
 
program
  .command('exec <cmd>')
  .alias('ex')
  .description('execute the given remote cmd')
  .option("-e, --exec_mode <mode>", "Which exec mode to use")
  .action(function(cmdoptions){
    console.log('exec "%s" using %s mode', cmd, options.exec_mode);
  }).on('--help', function() {
    console.log('  Examples:');
    console.log();
    console.log('    $ deploy exec sequential');
    console.log('    $ deploy exec async');
    console.log();
  });
 
program
  .command('*')
  .action(function(env){
    console.log('deploying "%s"', env);
  });
 
program.parse(process.argv);

More Demos can be found in the examples directory.

MIT