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micro MVC framework for single-page AJAX/html5 apps


AJMax is a micro MVC framework, which simplifies the development of one-page Ajax/HTML5 applications with node.js.

It has a light-weight HTML-template engine, which performs data-binding on the client side very efficiently.

It effectively enforces MVC architecture, where Model is JSON-based REST API, View is HTML templates, and Controller is written in JavaScript and/or JSON, running either on the client side or the server side (or both).

It allows developers to describe data-binding instructions (DBI) and UI-binding instructions (UBI) in JSON instead of JavaScript, which simplifies the development, and also makes it possible to describe those instructions on the server side and send them to the client to be executed.

In other words, AJMax finally enables the "code-on-demand" (the holy grail of REST defined by Roy T. Fielding. without sending raw JavaScript code from the server to the client.

Data-binding Instructions (DBI)

For example, the following code (which runs either on the client side or the server side) fetches the JSON data that describes 'me' using Facebook Graph API, and binds it with the HTML template named 'hello', and inserts the generated HTML at the location specified by the JQuery selector '#message'.

FB.api('/me', { fields:'name' }, function(result) {
  ctx.exec({ cmd:'html', params:{ data:result, template:'hello', selector:'#message' }});

If the 'result' is { name:"John Smith" } and the template 'hello' is "<p>Hello, {{name}}!</p>", this instruction will generate

"<p>Hello, John Smith!</p>"

and set it as the innerHTML of the DOM element specified by '#message'. It effectively performs

$('#message').html("<p>Hello, John Smith!</p>");

Since this instruction is written in JSON (not in JavaScript), it allows the server to send it to the client and modify the DOM remotely.

It is also possible to describe the UI behaviors by binding DBIs to UI-event. For example,

FB.api('/me/friends', function(result) {
    { cmd:'html', params:{ template:'friends', selector:'#contents' }}, // (1)
    { cmd:'html', params:{, template:'friend', selector:'#friends', // (2)
        { selector:'.friend', on:'click', actions:[ // (3)
          { cmd:'hide', params: { selector:'#contents' } }, // (4)
          { cmd:'emit', params: { event:'friend_selected', target:'client' } } // (5)

will fetch the list of Facebook friends of the current user, then perform following actions.

  1. insert the HTML template named 'friends' at the DOM element specified by the selector '#contents' (no data binding)
  2. bind the list of friends ( with the HTML template named 'friend', and insert it at the DOM element specified by the selector '#friends'
  3. then, find all the DOM element specified by the selector '.friends', and bind the 'click' event with actions described in (4) and (5)
  4. hide the DOM element specified by the selector '#contents' (extended command)
  5. emit the event 'friend_selected' to the client-side of JavaScript


Because of this symmetry (the data binding instruction are portable across server and client) gives maximum flexibility to the developer. It enables three variation of MVC architectures.

  1. Server is a pure REST API server (Model), and all controlloing logics (Controller) are written on the client side.
  2. Along with the REST API (Model), all the controlling logics (Controller) are described on the server side, and the client simply interprets those instructions sent from the server side, and route appropriate events (such as 'click' events) back to the server.
  3. Controlling logics that involves data access are written on the server side, but the rest of controlling logics (mostly pure UI behaviors) are written on the client side.

Template Mechanism

Template is a JSON object, which is a dictionary of HTML-templates. For example,

  morning: "<p>Good morning, {{name}}!</p>",
  evening: "<p>Good evening, {{name}}!</p>"

has two templates, "morning" and "evening".

The template machanism has only three rules.

  1. {{foo}} will be replaced by the value of property "foo" (escaped)
  2. {{{foo}}} will be replaced by the value of property "foo" (unescaped)
  3. {{$index}} will be replaced by the index of the row (when the data object is an array)

When a template is applied to an array of objects, the template will be applied to each object in the array and the results wil be concatinated.

The template needs to be loaded by executing DBI command 'template'.

API (client side, ajmaxc.js)

When ajmaxc.js is loaded, it create a AJMax object and assign it to the global variable AJ. It has two methods:

  1. on(event, callback) - specify the event listner (callback function receives a Context object as the only parameter)
  2. context() - create a new Context object
  3. extend(extension) - add application specific command extensions (to be executed by UBI)

Context object has one method and a property.

  1. exec(dbi) - execute the data-bind istruction(s)
  2. params - parameters to the event, which is specified when the event has emitted via DBI

Command Extension

Command extension is a set of command-name, function pairs. The example below adds 'show' and 'hide' commands.

  show: function(params) {
  hide: function(params) {

API (server side, ajmax.js)

The node module ajmax has one exported method

  1. createServer() - it creates a Server object and returns it

The Server object has one method

  1. serve(request, response) - checks if the request is a AJMax event and emits an event if it is and return true. Otherwise, it returns false.

The Server object is an EventEmitter and emit events. Events are all application specific.

DBI syntax

DBI is either an DBI object or an array of DBI objects.

DBI object must have 'cmd' property and 'params' property.

The value of 'cmd' property (command) must be one of 'html', 'template', 'emit', 'alert' or one of application specific commands specified in the command extension (specified by calling AJ.extend() method).

The meaning of 'params' property depends on the command.

'html' -- data-bind the data object with the specified view template and insert it at the specified DOM element
  'data': data object to be bound with the specified template (optional)
  'template': the name of template (required)
  'selector': jQuery selector (required)
  'bindings': UI binding instructions (optional)
'template' -- load a template set from the specified URL and merge them into the current set
  'url': the URL to load the template from (required)
  'event': the event name needs to be emitted after loading the template (required)
  'target': 'client' or 'server' (optional, the default is 'server')

'emit' -- emit an event
  'event': name of the event (required)
  'target': 'client' or 'server' (optional, the default is 'server')
  'params': event parameters (optional)
'alert' - display the browser alert
  'data': data object to be bound with the specified template (optional)
  'template': the name of template (required)

UBI syntax

A UI-Binding instruction (optional property of DBI 'html' command) bind DBI instructions to UI events, and has following properties.

'selector': specifies the JQuery selector (required, scope is the target element of the parent 'html' command)
'on': specifies the event (optional, the default is 'click')
'actions' : specifies DBIs to be executed when the specified event happens (required)