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    0.0.20 • Public • Published

    ⚛️ React Query 🐧

    Hooks for orchestrating, caching and managing asynchronous data in React

    The problem

    Tools for managing async data and client stores/caches are plentiful these days, but most of these tools:

    • Don't dedupe network operations that could be made in a single request
    • Force normalized or object/id-based caching strategies on your data
    • Don't invalidate their cache often enough, don't know when to invalidate, or don't ship with good defaults
    • Don't perform optimistic updates, or require setup to know when to perform them
    • Because of this ☝️, they require imperative interaction to invalidate or manage their caches

    The solution

    React Query contains a set of hooks that attempt to address these issues. Out of the box, React Query:

    • Dedupes similar requests at the application level
    • Caches response data across similar requests
    • Optimistically updates requests in the background
    • Automatically manages query caching, invalidation, and garbage collection
    • Supports retries and exponential/custom back-off delays
    • Provides a declarative API for invalidating and atomically updating cached responses.
    • Built with and for React hooks
    • 3.8kb minzipped

    Hat Tipping

    A big thanks to Draqula for inspiring a lot of React Query's API and documentation. You rock!

    Demos

    Documentation

    Installation

    $ yarn add @tannerlinsley/react-query-temp
    # or
    $ npm i @tannerlinsley/react-query-temp --save

    ReactQueryProvider

    The ReactQueryProvider is a provider component that is necessary to use React Query. Render it at the base of your application like so:

    import { ReactQueryProvider } from '@tannerlinsley/react-query-temp'
    
    function App() {
      return <ReactQueryProvider>...</ReactQueryProvider>
    }

    Optional Configuration

    You may also pass a config object to ReactQueryProvider as well to customize the default behavior of hooks like useQuery and useMutation used within it:

    const config = {
      // These are the default config options for the ReactQueryProvider
      retry: 3,
      retryDelay: attempt =>
        Math.min(attempt > 1 ? 2 ** attempt * 1000 : 1000, 30 * 1000),
      cacheTime: 10 * 1000, // 10 seconds
      invalidCacheTime: 10 * 1000, // 10 seconds
    }
    
    function App() {
      return <ReactQueryProvider config={config}>...</ReactQueryProvider>
    }

    Queries

    Basic queries

    To perform a simple query without any options, simply pass the useQuery hook an asynchronous function (or similar then-able):

    import { useQuery } from '@tannerlinsley/react-query-temp'
    
    import fetchTodoList from './queries/fetchTodoList'
    
    function Todos() {
      const { data, isLoading, error } = useQuery(fetchTodoList)
    
      return (
        <div>
          {isLoading ? (
            <span>Loading...</span>
          ) : error ? (
            <span>Error: {error.message}</span>
          ) : data ? (
            <ul>
              {data.map(todo => (
                <li key={todo.id}>{todo.title}</li>
              ))}
            </ul>
          ) : null}
        </div>
      )
    }

    Query Variables

    Using variables is as easy as passing a variables object to the query configuration:

    const { data, isLoading, error } = useQuery(fetchTodoList, {
      variables: {
        status: 'done',
      },
    })

    Whenever variables are updated, useQuery will automatically refetch and update the query for you:

    function Todos() {
      const [page, setPage] = useState(0)
    
      const { data, isLoading, error } = useQuery(fetchTodoList, {
        variables: { page },
      })
    
      const onNextPage = () => {
        setPage(page => page + 1)
      }
    
      return (
        <>
          {/* ... */}
          <button onClick={onNextPage}>Load next page</button>
        </>
      )
    }

    If the same query (with the same variables) is used anywhere else in your application, it will get optimistically updated with the response

    Hint: Query functions must be declared outside of the component so as to maintain a single instance across your entire application. React Query uses query function equality to detect similar queries and cache responses.

    Caching

    React Query caching is automatic and invalidates data very aggressively. It uses optimistic updates and short-term caching across similar queries to always ensure your query's data is only stored once, quickly available and kept up to date with the server.

    At a glance:

    • Caching is automatic and aggressive by default.
    • The cache is keyed on unique query + variables combinations.
    • You can configure the cacheTime option that determines how long cache data is considered fresh before it is marked as stale
    • You can configure the inactiveCacheTime option that determines how long unused stale cache data is kept around before it is garbage collected
    • Stale queries are optimistically and automatically updated when new instances of that query mount or variables change
    • If stale or unused cache data that has not been garbage collected is available, it will be used as a cold-start cache for queries while they are updated.
    • Data is not normalized or stored outside of the context of its usage.
    • Caching can be turned off either globally or individually for each query

    Did You Know? - Because React Query doesn't use document normalization in its cache (made popular with libraries like Apollo and Redux-Query), it eliminates a whole range of common issues with caching like incorrect data merges, failed cache reads/writes, and imperative maintenance of the cache.

    Here is a more detailed example of the caching lifecycle:

    • A new usage of useQuery(fetchTodoList, { page: 1 }) mounts
      • Since no other queries have been made with this query + variable combination, this query will show a hard loading state and make a network request to fetch the data.
      • It will then cache the data using fetchTodoList and { page: 1 } as the unique identifiers for that cache.
      • A cache expiration is scheduled for later using the cacheTime option as a delay (defaults to 10 * 1000 milliseconds or 10 seconds).
    • A second instance of useQuery(fetchTodoList, { page: 1 }) mounts elsewhere
      • Because this exact data exist in the cache from the first instance of this query, that data is immediately returned from the cache
    • 10 seconds pass since the data came in for the first instance of this query
      • The data for these queries is marked as outdated
    • A third instance of useQuery(fetchTodoList, { page: 1 }) mounts elsewhere
      • Because this exact data exist in the cache from the first and second instances of this query, that data is immediately returned from the cache
      • However, since the data has been marked as outdated, a background request is made to updated the stale data
      • Both this instance and the other first and second instances of this query get optimistically updated with the new data from the background request
      • A new cache expiration is scheduled for later using the cacheTime option as a delay.
    • All 3 instances of the useQuery(fetchTodoList, { page: 1 }) query unmount.
      • Since there are no more active instances to this query combination, a fallback timeout is set using inactiveCacheTime to garbage collect the cache (defaults to 10 * 1000 milliseconds or 10 seconds).
      • If there is an active cache expiration scheduled already, it will be used instead.
    • No more instances of useQuery(fetchTodoList, { page: 1 }) appear within the timeout
      • The cache for the this query is deleted and garbage collected.

    Pagination

    If all you need is page-based pagination, where the previous set of data is replaced with a new one, this section is not applicable to your use-case. For that, you can simply increment the page variable and pass it to your query via variables.

    However, if your app needs to add more data to the list along with existing one (for example, infinite loading), React Query provides you with a way to fetch additional data without deleting the current data. Let's use page-based pagination for simplicity, but assume that we want to append new todo items at the end of the list.

    function Todos() {
      const { data, isLoading, error, refetch, isFetching } = useQuery(
        fetchTodoList,
        {
          page: 1,
        }
      )
    
      const onFetchMore = () => {
        refetch({
          variables: { page: data.pagination.nextPage },
          merge: (prev, next) => ({
            ...next,
            // Merge the new todos with the existing ones
            todos: [...prev.todos, ...next.todos],
          }),
        })
      }
    
      return isLoading ? (
        <span>Loading...</span>
      ) : error ? (
        <span>Error: {error.message}</span>
      ) : data ? (
        <>
          <ul>
            {data.todos.map(todo => (
              <li key={todo.id}>{todo.title}</li>
            ))}
          </ul>
          {data.pagination.hasMore && (
            <button disabled={isFetching} onClick={onFetchMore}>
              {isFetching ? 'Loading more todos...' : 'Load more todos'}
            </button>
          )}
        </>
      ) : null
    }

    To prevent you from managing the loading state of refetch manually (since isLoading will remain false when refetch is called), React Query exposes an isFetching variable. It's the same as isLoading, but only reflects the state of the actual fetch operation for the query.

    Manual Querying

    If you ever want to disable a query from automatically running when the query or variables change, you can use the manual = true option. When manual is set to true:

    • The query will not automatically refetch due to changes to their query function or variables.
    • The query will not included in any refetchQueries options or useRefetchQueries calls. To override this, use the includeManual option in either.
    function Todos() {
      const { data, isLoading, error, refetch, isFetching } = useQuery(
        fetchTodoList,
        {
          manual: true,
        }
      )
    
      return (
        <>
          <button onClick={() => refetch()}>Fetch Todos</button>
    
          {isLoading ? (
            <span>Loading...</span>
          ) : error ? (
            <span>Error: {error.message}</span>
          ) : data ? (
            <>
              <ul>
                {data.map(todo => (
                  <li key={todo.id}>{todo.title}</li>
                ))}
              </ul>
            </>
          ) : null}
        </>
      )
    }

    This can also be useful under circumstances where you don't want your query firing because of unmet required conditions like a missing variable

    function TodosByUser({ userID }) {
      const { data, isLoading, error, refetch, isFetching } = useQuery(
        fetchTodoListByUserID,
        {
          manual: !userID, // Don't auto fetch if there is no userID
          variables: {
            userID,
          },
        }
      )
    
      return isLoading ? (
        <span>Loading...</span>
      ) : error ? (
        <span>Error: {error.message}</span>
      ) : data ? (
        <>
          <ul>
            {data.map(todo => (
              <li key={todo.id}>{todo.title}</li>
            ))}
          </ul>
        </>
      ) : null
    }

    Retries

    When a useQuery query fails (the function throws an error), React Query will automatically retry the query if that query's request has not reached the max number of consecutive retries (defaults to 3).

    You can configure retries both on a global level and an individual query level.

    • Setting retry = false will disable retries
    • Setting retry = 6 will retry failing requests 6 times before showing the final error thrown by the function
    • Setting retry = true will infinitely retry failing requests.
    // Turn off retries for all queries
    const config = {
      retry: false,
    }
    
    function App() {
      return (
        <ReactQueryProvider config={config}>
          <Stuff />
        </ReactQueryProvider>
      )
    }
    
    // Make specific query retry a certain number of times
    const { data, isLoading, error } = useQuery(fetchTodoList, {
      variables: { page: 1 },
      retry: 10, // Will retry failed requests 10 times before displaying an error
    })

    Retry Delay with retryDelay

    By default, retries in React Query do not happen immediately after a request fails. As is standard, a back-off delay is gradually applied to each retry attempt.

    The default retryDelay is set to double (starting at 1000ms) with each attempt, but not exceed 30 seconds:

    // Configure for all queries
    const config = {
      retryDelay: attemptIndex => Math.min(1000 * 2 ** attemptIndex, 30000),
    }
    
    function App() {
      return (
        <ReactQueryProvider config={config}>
          <Stuff />
        </ReactQueryProvider>
      )
    }

    Though it is not recommended, you can obviously override the retryDelay function/integer in both the Provider and individual query options. If set to an integer instead of a function the delay will always be the same amount of time:

    const { data, isLoading, error } = useQuery(fetchTodoList, {
      retryDelay: 10000, // Will always wait 1000ms to retry, regardless of how many retries
    })

    Mutations

    Unlike queries, mutations are typically used to create/update/delete data or perform server side-effects. For this purpose, React Query offers a useMutation hook. Just like queries, remember to define your mutations outside your components to prevent infinite unnecessary rerenders.

    Basic Mutations

    Assuming the server implements a ping mutation, that simply returns "pong" string, here's an example of the most basic mutation:

    // pingMutation is a function that returns a promise
    import pingMutation from '../queries/pingMutation'
    
    const PingPong = () => {
      const [mutate, { data, isLoading, error }] = useMutation(pingMutation)
    
      const onPing = async () => {
        const data = await mutate()
        console.log(data)
        // { ping: 'pong' }
      }
      return <button onClick={onPing}>Ping</button>
    }

    Mutations without variables are not that useful, so let's add some variables to closer match reality.

    Mutation Variables

    Similar to useQuery, useMutation also accepts variables. The only difference is that you pass variables to the mutate function, instead of the useMutation hook:

    import createTodo from '../mutations/createTodo'
    
    const CreateTodo = () => {
      const [title, setTitle] = useState('')
      const [mutate] = useMutation(createTodo)
    
      const onCreateTodo = async e => {
        // Prevent the form from refreshing the page
        e.preventDefault()
    
        try {
          await mutate({ title })
          // Todo was successfully created
        } catch (error) {
          // Uh oh, something went wrong
        }
      }
    
      return (
        <form onSubmit={onCreateTodo}>
          <input
            type="text"
            value={title}
            onChange={e => setTitle(e.target.value)}
          />
          <br />
          <button type="submit">Create Todo</button>
        </form>
      )
    }

    Refetching Queries from Mutations

    When a mutation succeeds, it's likely that other queries in your application need to update. For example, a successful postTodo mutation will likely require that any fetchTodoList queries get updated to show the new todo item.

    Where other libraries that use normalized caches would attempt to update locale queries with the new data imperatively, React Query avoids the pitfalls that come with normalized caches and uses atomic updates instead of partial manipulation of caches.

    To automatically refetch queries after a mutation succeeds, you can use the useMutation hook's refetchQueries option:

    import fetchTodoList from '../queries/fetchTodoList'
    import createTodo from '../mutations/createTodo'
    
    // When this mutation succeeds, any query relying on `fetchTodoList` query will be refetched
    const [mutate] = useMutation(createTodo, { refetchQueries: [fetchTodoList] })
    
    // The 2 queries below will be refetched when the mutation above succeeds
    const { data, isLoading, error } = useQuery(fetchTodoList)
    const { data, isLoading, error } = useQuery(fetchTodoList, {
      variables: { status: 'done' },
    })

    It's easy to refetch multiple queries too:

    import fetchTodoList from '../queries/fetchTodoList'
    import fetchReminders from '../queries/fetchReminders'
    import createTodo from '../mutations/createTodo'
    
    // When this mutation succeeds, any query relying on `fetchTodoList` query will be refetched
    const [mutate] = useMutation(createTodo, {
      refetchQueries: [fetchTodoList, fetchReminders],
    })
    
    // The 2 queries below will be refetched when the mutation above succeeds
    const todoListQuery = useQuery(fetchTodoList)
    const remindersQuery = useQuery(fetchReminders)

    You can even refetch queries with specific variables by passing objects to refetchQueries

    import fetchTodoList from '../queries/fetchTodoList'
    import addTodo from '../mutations/addTodo'
    
    // You can lazily pass invalidation options to the `mutate` function instead
    const [mutate] = useMutation(addTodo, {
      refetchQueries: [
        {
          query: fetchTodoList,
          variables: {
            type: 'done',
          },
        },
      ],
    })
    
    // The query below will be refetched when the mutation above succeeds
    const { data, isLoading, error } = useQuery(fetchTodoList, {
      variables: {
        type: 'done',
      },
    })
    
    // The query below will NOT be refetched when the mutation succeeds
    const { data, isLoading, error } = useQuery(fetchTodoList)

    If you prefer that the promise returned from mutate() only resolves after any refetchQueries have been refetched, you can set waitForRefetchQueries = true:

    const [mutate] = useMutation(addTodo, {
      waitForRefetchQueries: true,
      refetchQueries: [
        {
          query: fetchTodoList,
          variables: {
            type: 'done',
          },
        },
      ],
    })
    
    const run = async () => {
      await mutate(todo)
      console.log('I will only log after all refetchQueries are done refetching!')
    }

    You can also lazily define mutation options with the mutate function:

    const [mutate] = useMutation(addTodo)
    
    // Wait to call the function to define the refetchQueries
    mutate(todo, {
      refetchQueries: [fetchTodoList],
    })

    Query Updates from Mutations

    Normally when dealing with REST calls that update objects on the server, the updated version of that object is returned in the response. Instead of invalidating queries that would return that same object and wasting a network call, we can update query responses that match that exact object query using the updateQueries option:

    NOTE: The updatedQueries option can only be passed to the mutate function. Passing it to useMutation will have no effect

    import fetchTodoByID from '../queries/fetchTodoByID'
    import editTodo from '../mutations/editTodo'
    
    const [mutate] = useMutation(editTodo)
    
    const saveTodo = async todo => {
      await mutate(todo, {
        updateQueries: [
          {
            query: fetchTodoByID,
            variables: {
              id: todo.id,
            },
          },
        ],
      })
    }
    
    saveTodo({
      id: 5,
      name: 'Do the laundry',
    })
    
    // The query below will be updated with the response from the mutation above when it succeeds
    const { data, isLoading, error } = useQuery(fetchTodoList, {
      variables: {
        id: 5,
      },
    })

    API

    ReactQueryProvider

    ReactQueryProvider is required and can optionally define defaults for all instances of useQuery and useMutation through your app

    Options

    Pass options to ReactQueryProvider by pass it a config prop:

    <ReactQueryProvider config={{...}}>
      ...
    </ReactQueryProvider>
    • retry: Boolean | Int
      • If false, failed queries will not retry by default
      • If true, failed queries will retry infinitely
      • If set to an Int, eg. 3, failed queries will retry until the failed query count meets that number
    • retryDelay: Function(retryAttempt: Int) => Int
      • This function receives a retryAttempt integer and returns the delay to apply before the next attempt in milliseconds
      • A function like attempt => Math.min(attempt > 1 ? 2 ** attempt * 1000 : 1000, 30 * 1000) applies exponential backoff
      • A function like attempt => attempt * 1000 applies linear backoff.
    • cacheTime: Int
      • The time in milliseconds that cache data remains fresh. After a successful cache update, that cache data will become stale after this duration
    • invalidCacheTime: Int
      • The time in milliseconds that unused/inactive cache data remains in memory. When a query's cache becomes unused or inactive, that cache data will be garbage collected after this duration.

    useQuery

    Options

    Pass options to useQuery like so:

    useQuery(query, { variables, queryID, manual, retry })
    • query: Function(variables) => Promise(data/error)
      • The function that this query will use to fetch data
      • Must be defined only across your entire app. (or a queryID must be optionally used)
      • Receives the variables object passed to useQuery(query, { variables }) or refetch({ variables })
      • Must return a promise that either resolves data or throws an error
    • variables
      • ...to be continued

    Keywords

    none

    Install

    npm i @tannerlinsley/react-query-temp

    DownloadsWeekly Downloads

    20

    Version

    0.0.20

    License

    MIT

    Unpacked Size

    185 kB

    Total Files

    9

    Last publish

    Collaborators

    • tannerlinsley