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LOWESS
Locallyweighted polynomial regression via the LOWESS algorithm.
Installation
npm install @stdlib/statslowess
Usage
var lowess = require( '@stdlib/statslowess' );
lowess( x, y[, opts] )
For input arrays and/or typed arrays x
and y
, the function returns an object holding the ordered input values x
and smoothed values for y
.
var x = [
4, 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 12, 12, 12, 12, 13, 13, 13, 13, 14,
14, 14, 14, 15, 15, 15, 16, 16, 17, 17, 17, 18, 18, 18, 18, 19, 19, 19, 20,
20, 20, 20, 20, 22, 23, 24, 24, 24, 24, 25
];
var y = [
2, 10, 4, 22, 16, 10, 18, 26, 34, 17, 28, 14, 20, 24, 28, 26, 34, 34, 46,
26, 36, 60, 80, 20, 26, 54, 32, 40, 32, 40, 50, 42, 56, 76, 84, 36, 46, 68,
32, 48, 52, 56, 64, 66, 54, 70, 92, 93, 120, 85
];
var out = lowess( x, y );
/* returns
{
'x': [
4,
4,
7,
7,
...,
24,
24,
24,
25
],
'y': [
~4.857,
~4.857,
~13.1037,
~13.1037,
...,
~79.102,
~79.102,
~79.102,
~84.825
]
}
*/
The function accepts the following options
:

f: positive
number
specifying the smoothing span, i.e., the proportion of points which influence smoothing at each value. Larger values correspond to more smoothing. Default:2/3
. 
nsteps:
number
of iterations in the robust fit (fewer iterations translates to faster function execution). If set to zero, the nonrobust fit is returned. Default:3
. 
delta: nonnegative
number
which may be used to reduce the number of computations. Default: 1/100th of the range ofx
. 
sorted:
boolean
indicating if the input arrayx
is sorted. Default:false
.
By default, smoothing at each value is determined by 2/3
of all other points. To choose a different smoothing span, set the f
option.
var x = [
4, 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 12, 12, 12, 12, 13, 13, 13, 13, 14,
14, 14, 14, 15, 15, 15, 16, 16, 17, 17, 17, 18, 18, 18, 18, 19, 19, 19, 20,
20, 20, 20, 20, 22, 23, 24, 24, 24, 24, 25
];
var y = [
2, 10, 4, 22, 16, 10, 18, 26, 34, 17, 28, 14, 20, 24, 28, 26, 34, 34, 46,
26, 36, 60, 80, 20, 26, 54, 32, 40, 32, 40, 50, 42, 56, 76, 84, 36, 46, 68,
32, 48, 52, 56, 64, 66, 54, 70, 92, 93, 120, 85
];
var out = lowess( x, y, {
'f': 0.2
});
/* returns
{
'x': [
4,
4,
7,
...,
24,
24,
25
],
'y': [
~6.03,
~6.03,
~12.68,
...,
~82.575,
~82.575,
~93.028
]
}
*/
By default, three iterations of locally weighted regression fits are calculated after the initial fit. To set a different number of iterations for the robust fit, set the nsteps
option.
var x = [
4, 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 12, 12, 12, 12, 13, 13, 13, 13, 14,
14, 14, 14, 15, 15, 15, 16, 16, 17, 17, 17, 18, 18, 18, 18, 19, 19, 19, 20,
20, 20, 20, 20, 22, 23, 24, 24, 24, 24, 25
];
var y = [
2, 10, 4, 22, 16, 10, 18, 26, 34, 17, 28, 14, 20, 24, 28, 26, 34, 34, 46,
26, 36, 60, 80, 20, 26, 54, 32, 40, 32, 40, 50, 42, 56, 76, 84, 36, 46, 68,
32, 48, 52, 56, 64, 66, 54, 70, 92, 93, 120, 85
];
var out = lowess( x, y, {
'nsteps': 20
});
/* returns
{
'x': [
4,
...,
25
],
'y': [
~4.857,
...,
~84.825
]
}
*/
To save computations, set the delta
option. For cases where one has a large number of (x,y)pairs, carrying out regression calculations for all points is not likely to be necessary. By default, delta
is set to 1/100th of the range of the values in x
. In this case, if the values in x
were uniformly scattered over the entire range, the locally weighted regression would be calculated at approximately 100 points. On the other hand, for small data sets with less than 100 observations, one can safely set the option to zero so calculations are made for each data point.
var x = [
4, 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 12, 12, 12, 12, 13, 13, 13, 13, 14,
14, 14, 14, 15, 15, 15, 16, 16, 17, 17, 17, 18, 18, 18, 18, 19, 19, 19, 20,
20, 20, 20, 20, 22, 23, 24, 24, 24, 24, 25
];
var y = [
2, 10, 4, 22, 16, 10, 18, 26, 34, 17, 28, 14, 20, 24, 28, 26, 34, 34, 46,
26, 36, 60, 80, 20, 26, 54, 32, 40, 32, 40, 50, 42, 56, 76, 84, 36, 46, 68,
32, 48, 52, 56, 64, 66, 54, 70, 92, 93, 120, 85
];
var out = lowess( x, y, {
'delta': 0.0
});
/* returns
{
'x': [
4,
...,
25
],
'y': [
~4.857,
...,
~84.825
]
}
*/
If the elements of x
are sorted in ascending order, set the sorted
option to true
.
var x = [
4, 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 12, 12, 12, 12, 13, 13, 13, 13, 14,
14, 14, 14, 15, 15, 15, 16, 16, 17, 17, 17, 18, 18, 18, 18, 19, 19, 19, 20,
20, 20, 20, 20, 22, 23, 24, 24, 24, 24, 25
];
var y = [
2, 10, 4, 22, 16, 10, 18, 26, 34, 17, 28, 14, 20, 24, 28, 26, 34, 34, 46,
26, 36, 60, 80, 20, 26, 54, 32, 40, 32, 40, 50, 42, 56, 76, 84, 36, 46, 68,
32, 48, 52, 56, 64, 66, 54, 70, 92, 93, 120, 85
];
var out = lowess( x, y, {
'sorted': true
});
/* returns
{
'x': [
4,
...,
25
],
'y': [
~4.857,
...,
~84.825
]
}
*/
Examples
var randn = require( '@stdlib/randombaserandn' );
var Float64Array = require( '@stdlib/arrayfloat64' );
var plot = require( '@stdlib/plotctor' );
var lowess = require( '@stdlib/statslowess' );
var x;
var y;
var i;
// Create some data...
x = new Float64Array( 100 );
y = new Float64Array( x.length );
for ( i = 0; i < x.length; i++ ) {
x[ i ] = i;
y[ i ] = ( 0.5*i ) + ( 10.0*randn() );
}
var opts = {
'delta': 0
};
var out = lowess( x, y, opts );
var h = plot( [ x, out.x ], [ y, out.y ] );
h.lineStyle = [ 'none', '' ];
h.symbols = [ 'closedcircle', 'none' ];
h.view( 'stdout' );
References
 Cleveland, William S. 1979. "Robust Locally and Smoothing Weighted Regression Scatterplots." Journal of the American Statistical Association 74 (368): 829–36. doi:10.1080/01621459.1979.10481038.
 Cleveland, William S. 1981. "Lowess: A program for smoothing scatterplots by robust locally weighted regression." American Statistician 35 (1): 54–55. doi:10.2307/2683591.
Notice
This package is part of stdlib, a standard library for JavaScript and Node.js, with an emphasis on numerical and scientific computing. The library provides a collection of robust, high performance libraries for mathematics, statistics, streams, utilities, and more.
For more information on the project, filing bug reports and feature requests, and guidance on how to develop stdlib, see the main project repository.
Community
License
See LICENSE.
Copyright
Copyright © 20162023. The Stdlib Authors.