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1.0.4 • Public • Published


A JavaScript library for anonymous voting on Ethereum blockchain using zero-knowledge proof.

The library is based on the source code of Tornado Cash. The most essential component of TC is a Merkle tree where users can deposit ethers with a random commitment, that can be withdrawn with a nullifier. The nullifier is assigned to the commitment, but nobody knows which commitment is assigned to which nullifier, because the link between them is the zero-knowledge. This method can be also used for anonymous voting, where the voter sends a commitment in the registration phase, and a nullifier when she votes. This method ensures that one voter can vote only once.

For more info, please read my article on Medium about the library.


Create your own voting contract that is inherited from zk-merkle-tree/contracts/ZKTree.sol.

Implement the _commit and _nullify methods.

A simple implementation of the ZKTree contract looks like this (from the zktree-vote project):

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.17;

import "zk-merkle-tree/contracts/ZKTree.sol";

contract ZKTreeVote is ZKTree {
    address public owner;
    mapping(address => bool) public validators;
    mapping(uint256 => bool) uniqueHashes;
    uint numOptions;
    mapping(uint => uint) optionCounter;

        uint32 _levels,
        IHasher _hasher,
        IVerifier _verifier,
        uint _numOptions
    ) ZKTree(_levels, _hasher, _verifier) {
        owner = msg.sender;
        numOptions = _numOptions;
        for (uint i = 0; i <= numOptions; i++) optionCounter[i] = 0;

    function registerValidator(address _validator) external {
        require(msg.sender == owner, "Only owner can add validator!");
        validators[_validator] = true;

    function registerCommitment(
        uint256 _uniqueHash,
        uint256 _commitment
    ) external {
        require(validators[msg.sender], "Only validator can commit!");
            "This unique hash is already used!"
        uniqueHashes[_uniqueHash] = true;

    function vote(
        uint _option,
        uint256 _nullifier,
        uint256 _root,
        uint[2] memory _proof_a,
        uint[2][2] memory _proof_b,
        uint[2] memory _proof_c
    ) external {
        require(_option <= numOptions, "Invalid option!");
        optionCounter[_option] = optionCounter[_option] + 1;

    function getOptionCounter(uint _option) external view returns (uint) {
        return optionCounter[_option];

The constructor has 4 parameters:

  • _levels is the levels of the Merkle tree. It has to be 20 if you use the default Verifier. If you want to use different number of levels, you have to implement your own Verifier circuit.
  • _hasher is the address of the MiMC sponge smart contract. (Check the test folder for the MiMC sponge generator code.)
  • _verifier is the address of the Verifier contract. It is generated from the Verifier (circuits/Verifier.circom) circuit by the prepare script (scripts/preapre.sh).
  • _numOptions is the number of options.

The registerCommitment method implements the _commit method. It has 2 parameters:

  • _uniqueHash is a unique hash of the voter (ex.: the hash of the ID card). It ensures that one voter is registered only once.
  • _commitment is the commitment of the user.

The vote method implements the _nullify method. It has 6 parameters:

  • _option is the option what the voter chooses.
  • _nullifier is the nullifier for the commitment.
  • _root is the Merkle root for the proof.
  • _proof_a, _proof_b and _proof_c are the zero-knowledge proof.

The commitment and the nullifier is generated on the client side by the generateCommitment method. (Please check the VoterRegistration component in the zktree-vote project.)

To generate the zero-knowledge proof, use calculateMerkleRootAndZKProof. (Please check the Vote component in the zktree-vote project.)

For more info, please check the test folder in the repository and the zktree-vote project.

WARNING: This library is not audited, so use it at your own risk.

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