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0.1.9 • Public • Published


a shared CRDT key-value map for Yjs using a "last-write-wins" (LWW) algorithm for conflict resolution

Yjs provides a complete ecosystem for (persisting and) sharing "Conflict-free replicated data types" (CRDT) among multiple clients using a variety of persistence and communication providers. The shared data types include arrays and maps, with shared maps becoming inefficient in most practical cases, which is why there is an alternative implementation based on shared arrays in the y-utility package.

Unfortunately, however, the standard approach to resolve conflicts during synchronization is unpredictable from a user's point of view - in particular, former changes may overwrite later ones when synchronized (see issue 520). The aim of y-lwwmap is therefore to keep the chronological order of changes (even in the case of - moderately - desynchronized wall clocks) and let only later changes superseed former ones.

All other characteristics of LWWMap should be consistent with YKeyValue such that an LWWMap could be used as a direct drop-in for YKeyValue.

NPM users: please consider the Github README for the latest description of this package (as updating the docs would otherwise always require a new NPM package version)

Just a small note: if you like this module and plan to use it, consider "starring" this repository (you will find the "Star" button on the top right of this page), so that I know which of my repositories to take most care of.

How it works

LWWMaps are key-value maps with literal keys and values of multiple types (see below for details). Being compatible to the Yjs ecosystem, LWWMaps can be shared as part of a Y.Doc using y-websocket, y-webrtc or similar and persisted using y-indexeddb or similar.

Its implementation is based on that of YKeyValue but uses a "last-write-wins" strategy during synchronization. This includes keeping track of deleted map entries - such that, upon synchronization, locally modified entries will be removed if deleted remotely after that local modification, or restored if deleted remotely but modified locally afterwards.

Deleted entries are marked as deleted for a limited time only (the "retention period") and removed afterwards.

When all sharing clients are connected and immediately synchronized, LWWMaps should behave like ordinary YKeyValues - even in the case of unsynchronized wall clocks.

When reconnecting after a period of disconnection, clients with faster running clocks may have a better chance to push their changes, but only if clients with slower running clocks changed the same entry earlier than the timestamp of the faster client indicates. Assuming, that all wall clocks only differ slightly (let's say, by a few minutes), the slower client only has to wait for that small time offset (after a change made by the faster client) while offline to apply his/her change in order to let it survive the other one upon reconnection.

Nota bene: it might be worth mentioning that, although changes will be "synchronized", clients should avoid working on the same item simultaneously as there will always be a single "winner" who will overwrite the work of all other clients (CRDTs do not implement operational transforms which could be used to "merge" simultaneously applied changes together. However, CRDTs are good in synchronizing changes that were made one after the other by different clients)


y-lwwmap may be used as an ECMAScript module (ESM), a CommonJS or AMD module or from a global variable.

You may either install the package into your build environment using NPM with the command

npm install y-lwwmap

or load the plain script file directly

<script src="https://unpkg.com/y-lwwmap"></script>


How to access the package depends on the type of module you prefer

  • ESM (or Svelte): import { LWWMap } from 'y-lwwmap'
  • CommonJS: const LWWMap = require('y-lwwmap')
  • AMD: require(['y-lwwmap'], (LWWMap) => {...})

Alternatively, you may access the global variable LWWMap directly.

Note for ECMAScript module users: all module functions and values are exported individually, thus allowing your bundler to perform some "tree-shaking" in order to include actually used functions or values (together with their dependencies) only.

Usage within Svelte

For Svelte, it is recommended to import the package in a module context. From then on, its exports may be used as usual:

<script context="module">
  import * as Y     from 'yjs'
  import { LWWMap } from 'y-lwwmap'

  const sharedDoc       = new Y.Doc()
  const sharedContainer = sharedDoc.getArray('sharedContainer')
  const sharedMap       = new LWWMap(sharedContainer)

Usage as ECMAscript, CommonJS or AMD Module (or as a global Variable)

Let's assume that you already "required" or "imported" (or simply loaded) the module according to your local environment. In that case, you may use it as follows:

  const sharedMap = new LWWMap(sharedArray)

Choosing a "RetentionPeriod"

In order to choose a "useful" RetentionPeriod, please keep in mind that

  • deleted entries are remembered (albeit without their contents) for the given RetentionPeriod only and completely forgotten afterwards,
  • the RetentionPeriod is configured once in the LWWMap constructor and remains constant from then on,
  • all LWWMap instances for the same shared Y.Array should always use the same RetentionPeriod - otherwise the synchronization behaviour after deletion of elements while offline may differ from your expectations (i.e., formerly deleted entries may suddenly appear again)

As a consequence, the following "rules of thumb" seem useful

  • keep RetentionPeriod as short as possible if you plan to delete entries often (as every deleted entry still consumes memory keeping its key and deletion timestamp)
  • make RetentionPeriod larger than the longest expected offline duration for any client

API Reference

The following documentation shows method signatures as used by TypeScript - if you prefer plain JavaScript, just ignore the type annotations.

LWWMap tries to mimic the interface of JavaScript Maps as closely as possible.

In particular, LWWMaps may also be used within for ... of loops:

const sharedMap = new LWWMap(sharedArray)
for (const [Key,Value] of sharedMap) {

The following differences are important:

  • keys must be strings - keys of other types are not supported
  • values must be
    • null,
    • boolean, number or string primitives,
    • Uint8Arrays,
    • plain (JSON-serializable) Objects,
    • Arrays of the above,
    • Y.Arrays or nested LWWMaps
  • external changes are reported through 'change' events (one event per transaction) containing JavaScript Maps with the following [key,value] pairs (the given key is always that of a modified LWWMap entry)
    • [key, { action:'add', newValue:... }]
    • [key, { action:'update', oldValue:..., newValue:... }]
    • [key, { action:'delete', oldValue:... }]

Deleting a non-existing entry is permitted, but does neither change the LWWMap nor does it emit an event.


  • LWWMap<T extends null|boolean|number|string|object|Uint8Array|Array<T>> extends Observable<T> (sharedArray:Y.Array<{ key: string, val: T }>, RetentionPeriod:number = 30*24*60*60*1000)
    creates a new LWWMapfor elements of type T, synchronized using the given Y.Array sharedArray. If provided, deleted entries are kept for the given RetentionPeriod (measured from the time of deletion on) and forgotten afterwards


  • Container
    contains a reference to the container of this LWWMap, i.e., the sharedArray passed as the first argument to the constructor
  • size
    contains the number of elements in this LWWMap


  • [Symbol.iterator]():IterableIterator<T>
    works like entries() but allows this LWWMap to be used in a for ... of loop
  • clear ():void
    removes all elements from this LWWMap
  • delete (Key:string):boolean
    removes the element with the given Key from this LWWMap and returns true if that element existed before - or false otherwise
  • entries ():IterableIterator<[string, T]>
    returns a new map iterator object that contains the [key, value] pairs for each element of this LWWMap in arbitrary order
  • forEach (Callback:(Value:T, Key:string, Map:LWWMap<T>) => void, thisArg?:any):void
    executes a provided function once per each key/value pair in arbitrary order
  • get (Key:string):T | undefined
    returns (a reference to) the element with the given Key in this LWWMap - or undefined if such an element does not exist
  • has (Key:string):boolean
    returns true if this LWWMap contains an element with the given Key - or false if not
  • keys ():IterableIterator<string>
    returns a new map iterator object that contains the keys for each element in this LWWMap in arbitrary order
  • set (Key:string, Value:T):void
    adds or updates the element with the given Key in this LWWMap by setting the given Value
  • values ():IterableIterator<T>
    returns a new map iterator object that contains the values for each element in this LWWMap in arbitrary order
  • emit (EventName:string, ArgList:Array<any>):void
    emits an event with the given EventName. All event listeners registered for this event will be invoked with the arguments specified in ArgList (see lib0/Observable)
  • off (EventName:string, Handler:Function):void
    unregisters the given Handler from the given EventName
  • on (EventName:string, Handler:Function):void
    registers the given Handler for the given EventName
  • once (EventName:string, Handler:Function):void
    registers the given Handler for the given EventName and automatically unregisters it again as soon as the first such event has been received

Synthetic Timestamps

LWWMaps use "synthetic timestamps" similar to Lamport timestamps (see here for a short description including some code) in order to keep the chronological order even in the case of (moderately) desynchronized wall clocks between clients.

These "synthetic timestamps" work as follows:

  • LWWMaps keep track of the highest timestamp used in local operations and found during synchronizations;
  • principally, operations are stamped with the current UTC wall clock time - unless a higher timestamp was observed before: in that case, the higher timestamp is incremented by one, used to stamp the operation and stored as the new highest timestamp;
  • this approach guarantees that later operations always have higher timestamps as former ones;
  • if two changes of the same entry appear to have the same timestamp (but different values), the one with the higher MD5 hash wins - this guarantees consistent behaviour for every client even in the case of timestamp collisions

This leads to the following LWWMap behaviour

  • while connected (and immediately synchronizing upon operations), later changes actually overwrite former ones
  • upon reconnection after having been offline for a while (i.e., during synchronization), peers with faster running clocks still have better chances to keep their changes - but only within the offset between slower and faster clocks (this is why clients should only have "moderately" desynchronized wall clocks)

In other words,

  • let's say, two clients "past" and "future" have wall clocks which differ by 1 minute (with "future" having a faster clock than "past")
  • with an active network connection, the differing wall clocks do not play any role (within the transmission time over this network)
  • while beeing offline, "future" changes will superseed "past" ones - but only if the "past" one wasn't be applied more than 1 minute later than the "future" one

Build Instructions

You may easily build this package yourself.

Just install NPM according to the instructions for your platform and follow these steps:

  1. either clone this repository using git or download a ZIP archive with its contents to your disk and unpack it there
  2. open a shell and navigate to the root directory of this repository
  3. run npm install in order to install the complete build environment
  4. execute npm run build to create a new build

You may also look into the author's build-configuration-study for a general description of his build environment.


MIT License

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  • arozek