1.0.3 • Public • Published


A JS module for sending Web Push notifications, working in both browser and server environments. Try the live example page:



This module offers similar functionality to the web-push Node module but with the following differences:

  • It only has one dependency: the WebCrypto API. This means it can run on more than just Node: most significantly it runs on all major browsers, allowing you to send messages peer to peer (with an important caveat). In theory it also runs in environments like Deno and Cloudflare Workers but I haven't tried that yet.
  • It doesn't have any of the legacy support that web-push does, like sending GCM messages to Chrome.

How do I use it?

import {
} from "webpush-webcrypto";

// you'll want to persist these keys as they are reused between
// requests. ApplicationServerKeys has toJSON and fromJSON
// methods allowing you to do that.

const keys = await ApplicationServerKeys.generate();

const { headers, body, endpoint } = await generatePushHTTPRequest({
	applicationServerKeys: keys,
	payload: "TEST MESSAGE",
	target: {
		endpoint: "https://push-endpoint-origin/…",
		keys: {
			p256dh: "…",
			auth: "…",
	adminContact: "hello@example.com",
	ttl: 60,
	urgency: "low",

// bring your own fetch implementation if required

await fetch(endpoint, {
	method: "POST",

Bring your own WebCrypto instance

By default the module will use the crypto variable in the global scope to access the WebCrypto API. Some platforms (e.g. Node) do not provide that global variable, so as an alternative you can use setWebCrypto before using any of the other functions:

import { setWebCrypto } from "webpush-webcrypto";
import nodeCryptoModule from "crypto";


Try it out locally

If you want you can try out this library locally relatively easily. Clone this repo then run

npm install

(or yarn or whatever) to install the development dependencies. Run

npm run example

and load localhost:9080 in your browser. When you do you might experience the one big caveat with peer to peer pushes...

The big caveat with peer to peer pushes

Sending a web push requires sending an HTTP request to a server run by the target browser organisation. Unfortunately they do not all support CORS, which is a requirement when sending requests from the browser.

As of December 2021 Firefox's push server is the only one that does support CORS. This means that anyone can send a message to a Firefox user but no-one (a Firefox user or not) will be able to send to a user of any other browser.

There is a GitHub issue discussing this in the Push API repo. Fingers crossed this will change in the future.



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npm i webpush-webcrypto

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  • alastaircoote