0.17.1 • Public • Published


⛩️ The minimal React framework

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Project status

We are working toward v1-alpha: https://github.com/dai-shi/waku/issues/24

Feel free to try it seriously with non-production projects and give us feedback.

Playground: https://codesandbox.io/p/sandbox/waku-example-counter-mdc1yb


Waku is a React framework that supports React Server Components (RSCs), a new feature that will be available in a future version of React. RSCs allow developers to render UI components on the server, improving performance and enabling server-side features. To use RSCs, a framework is necessary for bundling, optionally server, router and so on.

Waku takes a minimalistic approach, providing a minimal API that allows for multiple feature implementations and encourages growth in the ecosystem. For example, the minimal API is not tied to a specific router. This flexibility makes it easier to build new features.

Waku uses Vite internally, and while it is still a work in progress, it will eventually support all of Vite's features. It can even work as a replacement for Vite + React client components. While using RSCs is optional, it is highly recommended for improved user and developer experiences.

Why develop a React framework?

We believe that React Server Components (RSCs) are the future of React. The challenge is that we can't utilize RSCs with the React library alone. Instead, they require a React framework for bundling, at the very least.

Currently, only a few React frameworks support RSCs, and they often come with more features than RSCs. It would be nice to have a minimal framework that implements RSCs, which should help learning how RSCs work.

Learning is the start, but it's not what we aim at. Our assumption is that RSC best practices are still to explore. The minimal implementation should clarify the fundamentals of RSCs and enable the creation of additional features. Our goal is to establish an ecosystem that covers a broader range of use cases.

How to create a new project

To start a new Waku project, you can use any of the following commands, depending on your preferred package manager:

npm create waku@latest
yarn create waku
pnpm create waku

These commands will create an example app that you can use as a starting point for your project.

Minimum requirement: Node.js 18



Server API

To use React Server Components in Waku, you need to create an entries.ts file in the project root directory with a renderEntries function that returns a server component module. Here's an example:

import { lazy } from 'react';
import { defineEntries } from 'waku/server';

const App = lazy(() => import('./components/App.js'));

export default defineEntries(
  // renderEntries
  async (input) => {
    return {
      App: <App name={input || 'Waku'} />,

The id parameter is the ID of the React Server Component that you want to load on the server. You specify the RSC ID from the client.

Client API

To render a React Server Component on the client, you can use the Root and Slot components from waku/client with the RSC ID to create a wrapper component. Here's an example:

import { createRoot } from 'react-dom/client';
import { Root, Slot } from 'waku/client';

const rootElement = (
      <Slot id="App" />


The initialInput prop can be passed to the Root Component, overriding the default input which is "". You can also re-render a React Server Component with new input. Here's an example just to illustrate the idea:

import { useRefetch } from 'waku/client';

const Component = () => {
  const refetch = useRefetch();
  const handleClick = () => {
  // ...

Additional Server API

In addition to the renderEntries function, you can also optionally specify getBuildConfig function in entries.ts. Here's an example:

import { defineEntries } from 'waku/server';

export default defineEntries(
  // renderEntries
  async (input) => {
    return {
      App: <App name={input || 'Waku'} />,
  // getBuildConfig
  async () => {
    return {
      '/': {
        entries: [['']],

The getBuildConfig function is used for build-time optimization. It renders React Server Components during the build process to produce the output that will be sent to the client. Note that rendering here means to produce RSC payload not HTML content.

How to try it

If you create a project with something like npm create waku@latest, it will create the minimal example app.


Waku provides a router built on top of the minimal API, and it serves as a reference implementation.

Client API

To use the router, it is required to use the Router component instead of using Root and Slot directly. The following code demonstrates how to use the Router component as the root component:

import { createRoot } from 'react-dom/client';
import { Router } from 'waku/router/client';

const root = createRoot(document.getElementById('root')!);

root.render(<Router />);

The Router component internally uses Root and Slot and handles nested routes.

Server API

In entries.ts, we use defineRouter to export getEntry and getBuildConfig at once. Here's a simple example code without builder:

import { defineRouter } from 'waku/router/server';

export default defineRouter((id) => {
  switch (id) {
    case 'index/page':
      return import('./routes/index.tsx');
    case 'foo/page':
      return import('./routes/foo.tsx');
      throw new Error('no such route');

The implementation of the defineRouter is config-based. However, it isn't too difficult to make a file-based router. Here's a file-based example code with builder:

import url from 'node:url';
import path from 'node:path';
import { glob } from 'glob';
import { defineRouter } from 'waku/router/server';

const routesDir = path.join(

export default defineRouter(
  // getComponent (id is '**/layout' or '**/page')
  async (id) => {
    const files = await glob(${'`'}$\{id}.{tsx,js}${'`'}, { cwd: routesDir });
    if (files.length === 0) {
      return null;
    const items = id.split('/');
    switch (items.length) {
      case 1:
        return import(${'`'}./routes/$\{items[0]}.tsx${'`'});
      case 2:
        return import(${'`'}./routes/$\{items[0]}/$\{items[1]}.tsx${'`'});
      case 3:
        return import(${'`'}./routes/$\{items[0]}/$\{items[1]}/$\{items[2]}.tsx${'`'});
        throw new Error('too deep route');
  // getPathsForBuild
  async () => {
    const files = await glob('**/page.{tsx,js}', { cwd: routesDir });
    return files.map(
      (file) => '/' + file.slice(0, Math.max(0, file.lastIndexOf('/'))),

Due to the limitation of bundler, we cannot automatically allow infinite depth of routes.

How to try it

You can try an example app in the repository by cloning it and running the following commands:

git clone https://github.com/dai-shi/waku.git
cd waku
npm install
npm run examples:dev:07_router

Alternatively, you could create a project with something like npm create waku@latest and copy files from the example folder in the repository.








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