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unippear

0.1.0 • Public • Published

Unippear

Enforce consistent look-and-feel to multiple enterprise websites through centralized layout manager service.

Motivation

Large organizations often own many web sites, such as vanity sites, subsidiary sites etc, in addition to home portal. Maintaining a consistent look-and-feel for branding purpose is often desirable, sometimes even mandatory. In early days when most websites were built with static HTML files, consistency is achieved through distributing a set of template files to client sites. Nowadays a lot of sites are built on a server-side scripting platform employing some sort of template engines. For this template sharing solution to work, adapting the template to a specific engine is unavoidable. However, this conversion effort not only takes time, but also prone to breaking the consistency. Besides, coordinating template upgrade could also be a challenge.

Unippear addresses these problems through a service oriented architecture (SOA) that takes advantage of Web 2.0 AJAX technology. The layout templates are managed in a centralized API service web app. A client site applies the layout by adding a few lines of Javascript code to invoke the service. This centralized service approach helps enforcing core look-and-feel, yet still gives site builder some degree of freedom to customize presentation through optional configurations.

Features

  • Enforcing consistent header and footer across multiple websites.
  • Allowing per-site customization through optional configurations.
  • Expediting Javascript downloading by auto combining all Javascript files into one download with Etag caching.
  • Layout versioning: A website can choose either ties to a specific layout version or always uses the latest version.
  • Theming: Multiple themes are allowed in each version.
  • Security: Only pre-registered client sites can use the service.

Live Demo

Take a look at live demo hosted on Heroku.

Description

Structure

Unippear runs on Express. Important folders and files Unippear consists of are:

/                           	<--- app root
├── bin/                                   
│    └── www                	<--- app startup script
├── public/                     <--- Express view folder
│    ├── api/                
│    │    ├── index.ejs         <--- loader
│    │    ├── jquery.js         <--- jQuery used by loader only
│    ├── assets/                <--- assets folder
│         ├── <version/theme>/  <--- optional version/theme levels
│              ├── css/         <--- css folder
│              ├── js/          <--- js folder
│              ├── footer.html  <--- footer HTML fragment
│              ├── header.html  <--- header HTML fragment
├── routes/                                
│    └── index.js               <--- Express routers
├── app.js                      <--- Express app config
├── client-whitelist.json       <--- a list of RegEx patterns of allowed clients
├── package.json                <--- Node package descriptor

Loader

Unippear's core component is a loader that controls what assets (HTML, CSS, JS, IMG etc) get injected asynchronously to the client document and the order of downloading and parsing. All assets should be stored in /public/assets. The loader loads following assets by performing respective operations:

  1. All assets/<version/theme>/css files sorted alphabetically, nested folders are allowed and sorted after file peers. A CSS file is loaded by appending a stylesheet <link> HTML element to the document <head>.
  2. All assets/<version/theme>/js files sorted alphabetically, nested folders are allowed and sorted after file peers. A JS file is downloaded by calling jQuery.ajax(). Caching is set to true prior to calling the method. A JS file is evaluated by calling jQuery.globalEval().
  3. assets/<version/theme>/header.html containing header HTML fragment loaded by calling jQuery.get(). By default header is prepended to document <body>. The container element can be changed by setting headerContainer option when client site invoking the loader. More about headerContainer option in Customization below.
  4. assets/<version/theme>/footer.html containing footer HTML fragment loaded and inserted same way as assets/<version/theme>/header.html except that footer is appended to the container set by footerContainer option.

To maximize performance, all assets are downloaded in parallel. Furthermore, all JS files are combined into one download by default. If individual JS download is desirable, say for debugging purpose, it can be enabled by setting environment variable UNIPPEAR_COMBINE_JS to false.

The order of parsing assets is important. CSS and JS files should be named in their desired parsing order by, for example, prefixing file names with 0-left-padded digits such as 01_file1.js, 02_file2.js etc. To ensure event handler is defined before event is triggered, the loader postpones inserting header and footer into DOM only after all JS files have been downloaded and evaluated.

Versioning and Theming (Optional)

Versioning and theming provide ways to partition assets under /public/assets. However, Unippear doesn't recognize those concepts. Instead, it only recognizes folders. Versioning and theming are nothing but interpretations we gave to folder levels under assets. For example, in an implementation where multiple themes are provided under a version, the folder structure may look like:

public/assets/
 ├── v1/
 │    ├── theme1/
 │    │    ├── css/
 │    │    ├── img/
 │    │    ├── js/
 │    │    ├── footer.html
 │    │    ├── header.html
 │    └── theme2/
 │         ├── ...
 ├── v2/
 │    ├── theme1/
 │    │    ├── ...
 │    └── theme2/
 │         ├── ...
 └── latest/  <--- symbolic link pointing to public/assets/v2

Note a latest symbolic folder can be manually provided pointing to latest version (v2 in this case) to support auto-upgrade.

The version and theme a client website uses is determined by URL path of the loader in client HTML document, as shown in Serving below.

Templating

Unippear uses EJS template engine. EJS view folder is set to /public. Any file in /public can be converted to EJS template by appending file extension .ejs to the file name (including original extension). An EJS template performs context substitution. In particular, Unippear supplies two context variables:

  1. unippearHost set to <protocol>:// <host_name>:<port> of Unippear service web app to allow emitting fully qualified URL.
  2. thisFileUrlPath set to the URL path portion (excluding file name) of the template file to allow emitting relative URL. This variable is useful to support versioning and theming because the variable contains their names.

The URL of an asset rendered by EJS template should not include the .ejs extension.

As an example, suppose we imported header HTML fragment from an existing website to file /public/assets/v1/theme1/header.html, which maps to URL //<my-unippearHost>/v1/theme1/header.html. The file contains

...
<img alt="Logo" src="/img/logo.png">
...

When this file is served to a client website, /img/logo.png will be relative to the host of client website, not Unippear. To let Unippear take control of the logo file, first copy the logo to /public/assets/v1/theme1/img/logo.png, then rename file header.html to header.html.ejs, lastly change the content to generate fully qualified logo URL:

...
<img alt="Logo" src="<%=unippearHost%><%=thisFileUrlPath%>/img/logo.png">
...

The URL of header.html.ejs remains to be //<my-unippearHost>/v1/theme1/header.html.

thisFileUrlPath is set to /v1/theme1 in this context. Later on a new version, say v2, can be created by duplicating folder v1 without changing the content of header.html.ejs because thisFileUrlPath will be /v2/theme1 in that context.

Access Control

Without access control, your branding can be easily spoofed. Unippear prevents unauthorized access by validating the incoming request against a whitelist in file /client-whitelist.json. If Referer and/or Origin (used by CORS) request headers are supplied, they must match at least one RegEx patterns of the whitelist.

Implementation

After you have checked out live demo and familiarized with the topics described above, you can build your site layout service by:

  1. installing Unippear
  2. replacing files in /public/assets with your own assets. Devise a versioning and/or theming directory structure as you see fit.
  3. updating /client-whitelist.json with a list of authorized client URL patterns. Updates made at runtime in the future take effect immediately without restarting Node.
  4. launching Unippear by running command node bin/www from application root. By default, the process listens on port 3000. To change port, either modify /bin/www or set env PORT before launching node. Running Node as a service or setting up a front-end reverse proxy are beyond the scope of this document. It's easy to google a solution.

Serving

Unippear layout is served by adding following Javascript to an authorized client website page:

<script type="text/javascript" src="//<your-unippearHost>/<version/theme>/"></script>
<script type="text/javascript">
    unippear();
</script>

You need to convey <your-unippearHost>, allowable <version> and <theme>, if applicable, to intended clients.

Customization

The call to unippear() can take an option parameter. Out of the box Unippear only supports two options - headerContainer and footerContainer to specify which DOM element should header and footer be inserted into respectively. When omitted, header and footer are inserted into <body>. If, for instance, a client site HTML page has following DOM:

<!doctype html>
<html lang="en">
  <head>
    ...
  </head>
  <body>
    <div id='root'>...</div>
  </body>
</html>

and it is desirable to insert header and footer into root <div>, then call unippear() with:

unippear({
   "headerContainer": "#root",
   "footerContainer": "#root"
});

The value of headerContainer and footerContainer follows jQuery selector syntax. If multiple elements match the selector, the first element is chosen.

Other options allowed is implementation specific. For example, if in your implementation, header contains an optional search box and it's up to a client site to decide whether or not to show the searchBox, then you can support an option called showSearchBox. A client site that wants to hide search box can call unippear this way:

unippear({
   "showSearchBox": false
});

To implement showSearchBox, you can add code somewhat like following to one of your JS assets if you use jQuery:

$(document).on('headerLoaded', function() {
    if(unippear.showSearchBox === false){
        $('#searchBox').hide();
    }
});

Note that options set by client is accessible from global variable unippear. Also note the code is in the handler of custom event headerLoaded rather than the built-in ready event of document. More on this topic in Best Practice below.

Best Practice

It is assumed that the layout to be implemented as a service will be imported from an existing website since nearly all organizations already have a web presence. In simplest implementation the import task involves no more than copy & paste files and HTML code fragments. Complexity arises when client-side Javascript needs to be executed to render header and footer. Following guidelines are drawn from converting an a real production web site:

  • It is recommended to add a version of jQuery to JS asset folder and order it on top. Other library or means to manipulate DOM is acceptable but you need to implement your own custom event trigger in the loader. After adding jQuery, you should call jQuery.noConflict(true) to hide global variable $ and jQuery to avoid conflict with a client installed version.
  • HTML fragments and assets loaded by AJAX follow a different DOM parsing order. Events that works before may not get triggered at desired time. For instance, jQuery $(function(){}) block is executed when DOM is ready. But if header and footer are injected to the DOM by AJAX, then DOM ready event will be triggered prior to header and footer are available. To get the desired behavior, if jQuery is added to /public/assets/<version/theme>/js or if directly referenced by the document, Unippear will trigger a document level custom event headerLoaded and footerLoaded when headers and footers are loaded respectively. Javascript that depends on the readiness of header, for example, should then be enclosed in $(document).on('headerLoaded') instead.
  • When a HTML fragment is injected into DOM by AJAX, some browsers skip evaluating inline Javascript in the fragment. Therefore header and footer HTML fragment should be free of inline Javascript.
  • Unippear should be served from both HTTP and HTTPS because some browsers require protocol of client domain and AJAX host domain must match.
  • If total size of JS files is large, consider using AMD. If so, only put AMD engine such as RequireJS and the bootstrap code in /public/assets/<version/theme>/js. Save AMD modules in another folder under /public/assets/<version/theme>, say /public/assets/<version/theme>/modules.
  • If a client site is composed of multiple pages and no templating engine is used to help eliminate code duplication, the call to unippear() should be factored out to a client-side JS file rather than defined inline to facilitate changing option parameter in the future.
  • A client site usually needs some regression test before upgrading to a new layout version. The latest symbolic link should be advertised precautiously unless you can guarantee backward compatibility.

Installation

Make sure you have latest version of Node installed.

  git clone git@github.com:abbr/Unippear.git
  cd Unippear
  npm i -g yarn
  yarn install

If you don't have git, you can also download zip and extract.

License

The MIT License (MIT)

Copyright (c) 2014-Present

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Install

npm i unippear

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