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    2.2.0 • Public • Published
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    TS-Promise is a fast, robust, type-safe promise library.


    • Promises/A+ 1.1 compliant
    • ES6 Promise interface compatible
    • Possibly-unhandled rejection detection (can be disabled)
    • Early throwing of unhandled rejections with .done()
    • Long stack traces support (switchable at runtime!)
    • Fast
    • Small (gzipped minified version 2.0.0 weighs only 4kB, everything included)
    • Efficiently supports infinite recursion (with and without long stack traces)
    • Optional explicit promise chain flushing, useful for test frameworks
    • Readable code (not too many tricks)

    Usage example

    Install using npm:

    cd your-project
    npm install --save ts-promise

    If you use TypeScript, use "moduleResolution": "node" in your tsconfig.json to let it automatically pick up the typings of this package.

    For use in the browser, a bundler like Webpack is recommended, but it's also possible to use the minified version supplied in dist/browser.min.js.

    // Example using ES6 syntax (e.g. using Typescript or Babel)
    import Promise from "ts-promise";
    // or e.g. var Promise = require("ts-promise").Promise;
    // Hello world
    Promise.resolve("hello world").then((v) => {
    // Long stack traces demo
    var p = Promise.resolve();
    p.then(() => {
        return Promise.reject(new Error("my error"));
    }).catch((e) => {

    Example output of the above:

    "hello world"
    Error: my error
        at /home/martin/src/promise-example/example.js:9:35
        at Promise._unwrap (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/Promise.ts:542:20)
        at Promise._unwrapper (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/Promise.ts:557:19)
        at CallQueue.flush (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/async.ts:47:4)
        at Async.flush (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/async.ts:116:19)
        at Async._scheduledFlush (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/async.ts:95:9)
        at Object.Async._flusher [as _onImmediate] (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/async.ts:58:50)
        at processImmediate [as _immediateCallback] (timers.js:330:15)
      from Promise at:
        at Function.Promise.reject (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/Promise.ts:211:11)
        at /home/martin/src/promise-example/example.js:9:28
        at Promise._unwrap (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/Promise.ts:542:20)
        at Promise._unwrapper (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/Promise.ts:557:19)
        at CallQueue.flush (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/async.ts:47:4)
        at Async.flush (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/async.ts:116:19)
        at Async._scheduledFlush (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/async.ts:95:9)
        at Object.Async._flusher [as _onImmediate] (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/async.ts:58:50)
        at processImmediate [as _immediateCallback] (timers.js:330:15)
      from previous:
        at Promise.then (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/Promise.ts:181:15)
        at Object.<anonymous> (/home/martin/src/promise-example/example.js:8:3)
        at Module._compile (module.js:456:26)
        at Object.Module._extensions..js (module.js:474:10)
        at Module.load (module.js:356:32)
        at Function.Module._load (module.js:312:12)
        at Function.Module.runMain (module.js:497:10)
        at startup (node.js:119:16)
        at node.js:902:3
      from previous:
        at Function.Promise.resolve (/home/martin/src/ts-promise/src/lib/Promise.ts:205:11)
        at Object.<anonymous> (/home/martin/src/promise-example/example.js:7:25)
        at Module._compile (module.js:456:26)
        at Object.Module._extensions..js (module.js:474:10)
        at Module.load (module.js:356:32)
        at Function.Module._load (module.js:312:12)
        at Function.Module.runMain (module.js:497:10)
        at startup (node.js:119:16)
        at node.js:902:3

    Unhandled Rejection detection

    TS-Promise supports detection of (possibly) unhandled rejections.

    All versions of TS-Promise support 'manually' terminating a promise chain with the .done() method. If that chain resolved to a rejected promise, it will cause an UnhandledRejection event.

    Starting with version 2.0, promise chains that resolve to a rejected promise which is not handled by e.g. a .catch() call by the end of the 'tick' will result in a PossiblyUnhandledRejection event.

    If that rejection is later handled (by calling .catch() or .suppressUnhandledRejections() on it), the PossiblyUnhandledRejectionHandled event is raised.

    For example:

    const p1 = Promise.reject(new Error("oops"));
    const p2 = Promise.reject(new Error("boom"));
    p1.catch((err) => console.log("no problem here:", err.message));
      () => {
        p2.catch((err) => console.log("now caught:", err.message));

    Will output:

    no problem here: oops
    PossiblyUnhandledRejection: Error: boom
        at Object.<anonymous> (/home/martin/src/ts-promise-test/catching.js:4:27)
        at Module._compile (module.js:643:30)
        at Object.Module._extensions..js (module.js:654:10)
        at Module.load (module.js:556:32)
        at tryModuleLoad (module.js:499:12)
        at Function.Module._load (module.js:491:3)
        at Function.Module.runMain (module.js:684:10)
        at startup (bootstrap_node.js:187:16)
        at bootstrap_node.js:608:3
    now caught: boom

    Note how the first rejection is caught before or within the same cycle as that it is resolved. The second one is handled in the timeout handler, but because that will be executed in the next cycle, it will first be detected as unhandled.

    To prevent this, one can use .suppressUnhandledRejections(), but it's not recommended to 'just silence' rejections. Try to pass them on to calling functions, such that higher level can decide how to handle them.

    Custom unhandled rejection event handlers

    Starting from version 2.0, it is possible to configure custom handlers for each of these events (see the API reference). By default:

    • UnhandledRejection will throw an error (which can be caught by e.g. Node's uncaughtException handler).
    • PossiblyUnhandledRejection will emit unhandledRejection in Node, or an unhandledrejection event in the browser (if supported). If the event is not handled (i.e. no handlers attached in Node, or no-one called .preventDefault() on the event in the browser), a warning is printed on the console.
    • PossiblyUnhandledRejectionHandled will similarly emit rejectionHandled in Node, or an rejectionhandled event in the browser (if supported). However, no message will be printed if the event it unhandled.

    It is recommended not to install any custom handlers for TS-Promise, but instead use the more generic mechanisms available in Node and the browser. This ensures that rejections from native promises and other promise libraries will all be handled in a consistent manner.

    Disabling unhandled rejection handling

    It is possible to completely disable this behavior using e.g.:

    // Disable all (possibly) unhandled rejection detection

    Multiple rejections using the same reason (error)

    When handling a rejection, TS-Promise only considers that specific (rejected) promise to be handled, not all other promises being rejected with the same reason (e.g. error).

    The reason for this is that such promises are indeed (sometimes subtly) different because they follow another code path (branch), and care should be taken to handle any errors in that branch, too.

    For example, consider the following contrived example:

    function someFunction(p) {
      p.catch((e) => /* handle error */);
    function otherFunction(p) {
      p.then(() => /* something */ );
      // Note: unhandled rejection!
    const result = doSomething(); // returns rejected Promise

    Note how otherFunction() is taking a different code path, and should be handling that rejection itself, even though it is also already handled by someFunction(). (For example, consider what would happen if someFunction() was later removed: the code in otherFunction() suddenly starts generating unhandled rejection errors, which were not there before.)


    All public methods and interfaces have JSDoc comments, so if your favorite IDE supports these, you'll have instant inline documentation.

    That said, the library's interface should be very unsurprising: basically ES6 Promises with some extras.

    For your convenience, here's a list of what's available on Promise.

    Static methods on Promise:

    • constructor(resolver: (resolve: (value: T | Thenable<T>) => void, reject: (reason: Error) => void) => void) Create a new Promise by passing a function that accepts resolve and reject functions. Example:
      var p = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
          setTimeout(() => {
              // or e.g.: reject(new Error("boom"));
          }, 100);
      See ES6 Promise spec for details.
    • static resolve<R>(value: R | Thenable<R>): Promise<R> Create an immediately resolved promise (in case of a 'normal' value), or a promise that 'follows' another Thenable (e.g. a Promise from another library). See ES6 Promise spec for details.
    • static resolve(): Promise<void> Convenience alias to create a void-Promise (for type-safety). See ES6 Promise spec for details.
    • static reject(reason: Error): Promise<any> Create an immediately rejected promise with reason as its rejection value. See ES6 Promise spec for details.
    • static all<X>(thenables: (X | Thenable<X>)[]): Promise<X[]> Create a promise that resolves to an array containing the results of resolving all Thenables ('promises') in the input array (or simply their value, if they're not a Thenable). If any of the input promises leads to a rejection, the output promise is rejected with the reason of the first rejected promise. See ES6 Promise spec for details.
    • static race<X>(thenables: (X|Thenable<X>)[]): Promise<X> Create a promise that is resolved or rejected with the first resolved or rejected Thenable (or 'plain' value) in the array. Note: the promise will never resolve if the input array is empty.
    • static delay(ms: number): Promise<void> Create a promise that resolves with undefined after ms milliseconds.
    • static delay<R>(value: R|Thenable<R>, ms: number): Promise<R> Create a promise that resolves with given value after ms milliseconds. If value is a Thenable, the timer will start when it is resolved. If value is rejected, the resulting promise is also rejected, without waiting for the timer.
    • static defer<X>(): Deferred<X> Return an object containing a promise and its corresponding resolve and reject functions. Note: most users will typically want to use the Promise constructor instead, as e.g. thrown errors will then automatically lead to a rejected promise.
    • static setLongTraces(enable: boolean): void Enable or disable long stack trace support. See Example in README. Can be enabled and disabled at runtime, and 'traced' and 'untraced' promises can be mixed freely. Disabled by default, as it does incur both a performance and memory overhead (though still about twice as fast as Q without long traces...).
    • static flush(): void Recursively flush the async callback queue until all .then() and .done() callbacks for fulfilled and rejected Promises have been called. May throw an error (e.g. UnhandledRejectionError). It is safe to call flush() again afterwards. It is an error to call flush while it is already running. Useful in e.g. unit tests to advance program state to the next 'async tick'.
    • static onUnhandledRejection(handler: boolean | UnhandledRejectionHandler): void Register a callback to be called whenever a rejected Promise reaches a .done() call without rejectHandler argument, or either of the .done() callbacks itself throws/rejects. This is similar to Node's unhandledException event, in that it is guaranteed to be an error, because the programmer explicitly marked the chain with .done(). Node also has an unhandledRejection event, which is actually closer to ts-promise's onPossiblyUnhandledRejection handler. The default handler will throw an UnhandledRejection error, which contains the original reason of the rejection. In Node, if you don't have an unhandledException event handler, that will cause your program to terminate after printing the error. When overriding the default handler, it is recommended to keep a similar behavior, as your program is likely in an unknown state. Parameters:
      • handler Callback called with the rejection reason (typically an Error), and a Trace to the .done() call that terminated the chain. Call e.g. trace.inspect() to get the full trace. If true is given, the default handler is installed. If false is given, a no-op handler is installed.
    • static onPossiblyUnhandledRejection(handler: boolean | PossiblyUnhandledRejectionHandler): void Register a callback to be called whenever a rejected Promise is not handled by any .catch() (or second argument to .then()) at the end of one turn of the event loop. Note that such a rejected promise may be handled later (by e.g. calling .catch(() => {}) on it). In that case, a subsequent call to an onPossiblyUnhandledRejectionHandled callback will be made. This mechanism is equivalent to Node's unhandledRejection event. The default handler will:
      • emit Node's unhandledRejection event if present, or
      • emit an unhandledrejection (note small R) PromiseRejectionEvent on window or self if present, or
      • log the rejection using console.warn(). Note: when attaching an unhandledrejection handler in the browser, make sure to call event.preventDefault() to prevent ts-promise's default fallback logging. Parameters:
      • handler Callback called with the (so-far) unhandled rejected promise. If true is given, the default handler is installed. If false is given, a no-op handler is installed.
    • static onPossiblyUnhandledRejectionHandled(handler: boolean | PossiblyUnhandledRejectionHandledHandler): void Register a callback to be called whenever a rejected promise previously reported as 'possibly unhandled', now becomes handled. This mechanism is equivalent to Node's rejectionHandled event. The default handler will emit Node's rejectionHandled event if present, or emit a rejectionhandled (note small R) event on window (or self) if present. Parameters:
      • handler Callback called with a rejected promise that was previously reported as 'possibly unhandled'. If true is given, the default handler is installed. If false is given, a no-op handler is installed.
    • static setTracer(tracer: (promise: Promise<any>, msg: string) => void): void Debug helper to trace promise creation, callback attaching, fullfilments, etc. Call with null to disable (default), or pass a function that's called during various stages in a Promise's lifecycle. Note: this function's API is likely going to change in the future (and may even be removed completely.)

    Methods on Promise instances:

    • then<R>(onFulfilled?: (value: T) => R | Thenable<R>, onRejected?: (reason: any) => R | Thenable<R>): Promise<R> Run onFulfilled handler when this Promise is resolved, or onRejected handler when this Promise is rejected. The resolved value or rejection value is passed as the first argument to that handler. The Promise returned by .then() is resolved/rejected with the return value/promise/error of the handler. See ES6 Promise spec for further details.
    • catch<R>(onRejected: (reason: any) => R | Thenable<R>): Promise<T | R> catch<R>(predicate: ErrorClass | ErrorClass[], onRejected: (reason: Error) => R | Thenable<R>): Promise<T | R> catch<R>(predicate: (reason: any) => boolean, onRejected: (reason: any) => R | Thenable<R>): Promise<T | R> Run onRejected handler in case promise is rejected. The returned promise is resolved with the output of the callback, so it is possible to re-throw the error, but also to return a 'replacement' value that should be used instead. The first variant is equivalent to .then(undefined, onRejected). The second variant allows to pass an error class or array of error classes to match (e.g. [TypeError, RangeError]); The third variant allows to pass a custom predicate function to determine wether to call the handler (handler is called if predicate function returns truthy value).
    • done<R>(onFulfilled?: (value: T) => void | Thenable<void>, onRejected?: (reason: Error) => void | Thenable<void>): void done() behaves like .then() but does not return a new promise. Instead, it throws an UnhandledRejectionError when the final result of the promise chain is a rejected Promise (.reason property of the error). Note that it is technically safe to 'continue' the program after e.g. catching the error through Node's uncaughtException, or when running in a browser.
    • finally(handler: (result: Promise<T>) => void|Thenable<void>): Promise<T> Asynchronous equivalent of try { } finally { }. Runs handler when promise resolves (fulfilled or rejected). Handler is passed the current promise (which is guaranteed to be resolved), and can be interrogated with e.g. isFulfilled(), .value(), etc. When handler returns undefined or its promise is fulfilled, the promise from finally() is resolved to the original promise's resolved value or rejection reason. If handler throws an error or returns a rejection, the result of finally() will be rejected with that error. Example: someLenghtyOperation().finally((result) => { if (result.isFulfilled()) { console.log("succeeded"); } else { console.log("failed", result.reason()); } });
    • isFulfilled(): boolean Returns true when promise is fulfilled, false otherwise.
    • isRejected(): boolean Returns true when promise is rejected, false otherwise.
    • isPending(): boolean Returns true when promise is still pending, false otherwise.
    • value(): T Returns fulfillment value if fulfilled, otherwise throws an error.
    • reason(): any Returns rejection reason if rejected, otherwise throws an error. Note: this does not consider the rejection to be 'handled', if it is rejected. To do so, explicitly call e.g. .suppressUnhandledRejections().
    • suppressUnhandledRejections(): void Prevent this promise from throwing a PossiblyUnhandledRejection in case it becomes rejected. Useful when the rejection will be handled later (i.e. after the current 'tick'), or when the rejection is to be ignored completely. This is equivalent to calling .catch(() => {}), but more efficient. Note: any derived promise (e.g. by calling .then(cb)) causes a new promise to be created, which can still cause the rejection to be thrown. Note: if the rejection was already notified, the rejection-handled handler will be called.
    • toString(): string Returns a human-readable representation of the promise and its status.
    • inspect(): string Returns a human-readable representation of the promise and its status.
    • delay(ms: number): Promise<T> Create a promise that resolves with the same value of this promise, after ms milliseconds. The timer will start when the current promise is resolved. If the current promise is rejected, the resulting promise is also rejected, without waiting for the timer.


    Found an issue? Have an idea? Wanna help? Submit an issue!

    git clone https://github.com/poelstra/ts-promise
    cd ts-promise
    npm install
    # hack hack, code code...
    npm run prepublish


    Notable changes listed below, for details see the version tags in Git.

    2.2.0 (2018-07-21):

    • Improve compatibility with native Promise (through e.g. PromiseLike) with newer TypeScript definitions
    • Update to TypeScript 3.5.3

    2.1.0 (2018-08-20):

    • Improve compatibility with native Promise (through e.g. PromiseLike) in strictNullChecks mode
    • Update to Typescript 3.0.1
    • Compile using strict mode

    2.0.0 (2018-05-26):

    • Implement PossiblyUnhandledRejection detection
      • Emits unhandledRejection event in Node, unhandledrejection in browser to handle these for all promise libraries
      • Can be overridden and disabled (see section in Readme for more info)
      • Logs message if not handled in node or browser
    • Update to Typescript 2.7.2

    1.0.0 (2017-11-22):

    • It's production-ready for a long time, so let's call it that way.
    • Change type of argument to catch callbacks to any (instead of Error) because rejections (e.g. from other libs) could actually be non-Errors. No functional changes (code handled that just fine already) (#15, thanks @sgrtho!)
    • Fix Error subclasses on recent TypeScript + Node, also enables stack traces on more platforms (#14, thanks @mgroenhoff!)

    0.3.4 (2016-10-27):

    • Make Thenable interface more compatible with TS2's ES2015 promise, to let e.g. Promise.resolve() more easily accept it.
    • Optimize Promise#return() (without argument): very common case when converting a Promise<X> to a Promise<void>.

    0.3.3 (2016-10-18):

    • Fix unnecessary dependency on node typings in generated type definitions, broke some builds (#13)

    0.3.2 (2016-10-10):

    • Fix TS2 not finding ts-promise typings
    • Switch to @types typings

    0.3.1 (2016-08-17):

    • Add opt-in polyfill()
    • Add experimental minified build (dist/browser.min.js)
    • Upgrade dev dependencies

    0.3.0 (2016-02-26):

    • Switch to "moduleResolution": "node"-compatible typings
      • To use these typings, simply put that setting in your tsconfig.json and remove the (manual) reference to the ts-promise.d.ts file from your project.
    • Update to latest Typescript (1.8.2)
    • Update to latest TSLint, fix linting errors
    • async.setScheduler() now uses undefined (instead of null) to reset, but the old behaviour still works (though deprecated)

    0.2.5 (2016-02-08):

    • Replace previous setImmediate hack with non-global-polluting one (#8)

    0.2.4 (2016-01-30):

    • Stub setImmediate in case of browserify'ed environment (#8)

    0.2.3 (2015-08-27):

    • Fix stack overflow for very long unresolved promise chains
    • Simplify and document internal unwrapping logic

    0.2.2 (2015-08-04):

    • Implement .finally() (#3)
    • Add Inspection<T> interface (#4)
    • Don't confuse users by showing our internal stack trace when Node didn't provide one for UnhandledRejectionError

    0.2.1 (2015-06-24):

    • Improve stack trace for UnhandledRejectionError
    • Allow specifying Error classes with different constructor arguments in .catch()

    0.2.0 (2015-06-23):

    • Allow passing predicate to .catch() (Error class or array of them, or a custom matching function)
    • Add .return() and .throw() helpers
    • Document all public members of Promise and UnhandledRejectionError
    • Stricter typing for Promise.reject(), no longer returns Promise<any> by default
    • Require .then() and .catch() to have first callback (for typing only, implementation supports full Promises/A+)
    • Include .ts sources to not confuse debugger due to sourcemaps also being included
    • Fix building on Windows

    0.1.5 (2015-05-17):

    • Add Promise.race()
    • Add .delay() on Promise and instance

    0.1.4 (2015-05-13):

    • Add longStackTraces support to .done()
    • Export VoidDeferred interface and allow resolving it with a Thenable
    • Add .toString() and .inspect()

    0.1.3 (2015-05-09):

    • Add Promise.defer()
    • Add stack to BaseError
    • Add rejection reason to UnhandledRejectionError
    • 100% code coverage

    0.1.2 (2015-05-07):

    • Fix bundled .d.ts file for default export
    • Add synchronous inspection API
    • Export BaseError (to be moved to separate package later)

    0.1.1 (2015-05-06):

    • Transparent support for mocked timers (e.g. Sinon.useFakeTimers())

    0.1.0 (2015-05-04):

    • Initial version


    The MIT license.


    npm i ts-promise

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