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tasso

0.0.1 • Public • Published

Tasso

Tasso is the name of an ingredient in Cajun cuisine.

It is also, here, a prototype for runtime type objects in TypeScript. It seemed like a better name than "TSO", TypeScript Schema Objects, or whatever.

Of course, like all TypeScript that's resident at runtime, you can also use these schema objects to validate JavaScript from JavaScript. But a key feature is that you don't have to repeat yourself when you're writing the TypeScript types, which come for free from this library.

Wait, what?

So for example imagine that you write some HTTP API like,

router.get('/path/to/thing', {
  queryParams: {
    id: {
      doc: 'The ID of the thing',
      type: 'integer'
    }
  },
  async handler(query) {
    // some logic
  }
});

Using tasso it is possible to ensure that inside this handler, TypeScript (and thus VS Code) can infer that the query argument has the shape {id: number} without any further annotation from you. This is possible because the config object for the route looks like,

interface IRouteConfigGet<Q extends QueryParams> {
  queryParams: Q;
  handler: (query: QueryValues<Q>) => Promise<HttpResponse>;
}

so TypeScript gets direct information from the queryParams key that you have provided, and in turn it wants to unify that information into the handler function. The queryParams key defines a schema object, a runtime value that TypeScript can use to determine the type of the query.

The manifesto

Now that we have TypeScript we have to repeat ourselves several times if we do not want bugs:

  • We write types in TypeScript, so VS Code can yell at us when our code makes no sense.
  • We rewrite those types in JSON Schema or so, because we talk to JavaScript and JavaScript is a monotyped wonderland where everything (e.g. JSON.parse) comes to us as any-typed.
  • We rewrite those types for our documentation generator to consume, when it doesn't handle JSON Schema directly.
  • We rewrite those types when we consume the data structure, because types are isomorphic to the control structures that consume them.

This library takes the following stand:

  • For some of your types (the ones that cross the JS/TS barrier) the type can be encoded in a runtime-present "typescript schema object" tso with a hyper-specific type. This is a library of related types that can reference each other. Convenience functions are provided to construct it, which allow you to avoid writing "object" as "object" and such over and over again.
  • Given that schema's type, typeof tso, there is a TypeScript derivation, say, ValueOfType<k extends TypeObject<T>, T extends Schema>, for the values which inhabit that type.
  • There is a validation function from a value of type any to the derived value-type.
  • The schemas can be threaded through with consistent metadata. I am not sure that this is absolutely essential but I mean it's a nice-to-have.
  • There should also be a program which, given a schema in a schema library, scaffolds out the control structure that consumes it.
  • There should be a metaschema. That is, it should be possible to use this library to determine if a schema is valid.

The cost is just that you must construct your types with the conventions of this library; in particular that means that sum-types must discriminate based on a fixed key pointing at a string. In addition there are many things that we'd like but cannot offer yet, for example I'd like this to support ADTs or maybe even GADTs but we'd need a good story on how to handle type variables.

How to model data the tasso way

Tasso is strongly based on the idea that there is an isomorphism between the data structures you use and the control structures that consume them. Here are the basic control structures that tasso targets and the data structures that they correspond to:

  • switch (obj[typeKey]) statements: entities that tasso calls choices and type theorists call “tagged unions” or “sum types.” Tasso, like the control structure, requires the typeKey to be constant for all such objects, so if you want to use TypeScript's | operator more generally you will need to use union schemas below.
  • for (const item of obj) loops: entities that tasso calls lists and JS/TypeScript calls “arrays.” As with TypeScript all of the elements must be of one consistent type, though it may include unions.
  • for (const key of Object.keys(obj)) loops: entities that tasso calls dicts and stores as JavaScript objects; TypeScript calls these “records” in at least one interface. The main feature is iteration through a key-value pair listing where the keys are not repeated. JavaScript has a dedicated Map class which does the same, so that's another word for them.
  • if(check(obj)) statements: entities that tasso calls unions after the term for | in TypeScript. Of course you can do deeper things with business logic with an if statement; here check() is being restricted to only those functions which check the shape of the data to match a given schema.
  • obj[property] accessors: entities that tasso calls objects, type theorists call “product types” or “records.” These are stored as JS objects with fixed keys that each have some schema for the things they access.

In addition to these we have several primitives: a unit type (what JavaScript calls undefined), a num type for numbers which can validate integers, a text type for strings, a bool type for booleans, and a ref to another type object in the schema for recursion and DRY-ness.

There are some control structures which tasso does not do directly; for example you might have a TypeScript Array<{key?: string, rowValues: IRow}> type where you are expecting the keys to mostly be distinct but you consume this via the find and filter control structures plus the not-null type assertion !,

const totalRow = queryResponse.find(x => x.key === undefined);
for (const row of queryResponse.filter(x => x.key !== undefined)) {
  myTable.addRow('dataClass', row.key!, row.rowValues);
}
myTable.addRow('totalClass', 'Total', totalRow!.rowValues);

Tasso will let you describe that TypeScript type, but since that control structure is not natural to Tasso you may instead find yourself wishfully assuming that the totalRow is guaranteed to exist and the keys are guaranteed to be unique or so, in other words your natural control structure in tasso's terms is,

const {totalRow, breakdown} = queryResponse;
for (const key of Object.keys(breakdown)) {
  myTable.addRow('dataClass', key, breakdown[key]);
}
myTable.addRow('totalClass', 'Total', totalRow);

and thus Tasso "wants" to describe this queryResponse with an object schema, as

const refs = tasso.refs<'IRow'>();
const queryResponseTSO = tasso.object({
  totalRow: refs.IRow,
  breakdown: tasso.dict(refs.IRow)
}

License and Contributing

This is licensed under the Mozilla Public License v2. It's kind of like a very polite GPL. This code can coexist alongside proprietary code without open-sourcing it, but any edits to the constituent files of this repository also become open-source, and that probably includes any files that you paste my source code into. But it always operates at a file-boundary, so you can use that to stay sane. You can read the full details in LICENSE.

Your issues and feature requests and code contributions are 100% welcome as long as any new files are also under the MPLv2.

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0.0.1

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