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    swr
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    0.5.5 • Public • Published

    SWR


    Introduction

    swr.vercel.app

    SWR is a React Hooks library for remote data fetching.

    The name “SWR” is derived from stale-while-revalidate, a cache invalidation strategy popularized by HTTP RFC 5861. SWR first returns the data from cache (stale), then sends the fetch request (revalidate), and finally comes with the up-to-date data again.

    It features:

    • Transport and protocol agnostic data fetching
    • Fast page navigation
    • Revalidation on focus
    • Interval polling
    • Request deduplication
    • Local mutation
    • Pagination
    • TypeScript ready
    • SSR support
    • Suspense mode
    • React Native support
    • Minimal API

    ...and a lot more.

    With SWR, components will get a stream of data updates constantly and automatically. Thus, the UI will be always fast and reactive.


    Quick Start

    import useSWR from 'swr'
    
    function Profile() {
      const { data, error } = useSWR('/api/user', fetcher)
    
      if (error) return <div>failed to load</div>
      if (!data) return <div>loading...</div>
      return <div>hello {data.name}!</div>
    }

    In this example, the React Hook useSWR accepts a key and a fetcher function. The key is a unique identifier of the request, normally the URL of the API. And the fetcher accepts key as its parameter and returns the data asynchronously.

    useSWR also returns 2 values: data and error. When the request (fetcher) is not yet finished, data will be undefined. And when we get a response, it sets data and error based on the result of fetcher and rerenders the component.

    Note that fetcher can be any asynchronous function, so you can use your favourite data-fetching library to handle that part.

    Check out swr.vercel.app for more demos of SWR, and Examples for the best practices.


    Usage

    Inside your React project directory, run the following:

    yarn add swr
    

    Or with npm:

    npm install swr
    

    API

    const { data, error, isValidating, mutate } = useSWR(key, fetcher, options)

    Parameters

    • key: a unique key string for the request (or a function / array / null) (advanced usage)
    • fetcher: (optional) a Promise returning function to fetch your data (details)
    • options: (optional) an object of options for this SWR hook

    Return Values

    • data: data for the given key resolved by fetcher (or undefined if not loaded)
    • error: error thrown by fetcher (or undefined)
    • isValidating: if there's a request or revalidation loading
    • mutate(data?, shouldRevalidate?): function to mutate the cached data

    Options

    • suspense = false: enable React Suspense mode (details)
    • fetcher = window.fetch: the default fetcher function
    • initialData: initial data to be returned (note: This is per-hook)
    • revalidateOnMount: enable or disable automatic revalidation when component is mounted (by default revalidation occurs on mount when initialData is not set, use this flag to force behavior)
    • revalidateOnFocus = true: auto revalidate when window gets focused
    • revalidateOnReconnect = true: automatically revalidate when the browser regains a network connection (via navigator.onLine)
    • refreshInterval = 0: polling interval (disabled by default)
    • refreshWhenHidden = false: polling when the window is invisible (if refreshInterval is enabled)
    • refreshWhenOffline = false: polling when the browser is offline (determined by navigator.onLine)
    • shouldRetryOnError = true: retry when fetcher has an error (details)
    • dedupingInterval = 2000: dedupe requests with the same key in this time span
    • focusThrottleInterval = 5000: only revalidate once during a time span
    • loadingTimeout = 3000: timeout to trigger the onLoadingSlow event
    • errorRetryInterval = 5000: error retry interval (details)
    • errorRetryCount: max error retry count (details)
    • onLoadingSlow(key, config): callback function when a request takes too long to load (see loadingTimeout)
    • onSuccess(data, key, config): callback function when a request finishes successfully
    • onError(err, key, config): callback function when a request returns an error
    • onErrorRetry(err, key, config, revalidate, revalidateOps): handler for error retry
    • compare(a, b): comparison function used to detect when returned data has changed, to avoid spurious rerenders. By default, dequal/lite is used.
    • isPaused(): function to detect whether pause revalidations, will ignore fetched data and errors when it returns true. Returns false by default.

    When under a slow network (2G, <= 70Kbps), errorRetryInterval will be 10s, and loadingTimeout will be 5s by default.

    You can also use a global configuration to provide default options.


    Examples

    Global Configuration

    The context SWRConfig can provide global configurations (options) for all SWR hooks.

    In this example, all SWRs will use the same fetcher provided to load JSON data, and refresh every 3 seconds by default:

    import useSWR, { SWRConfig } from 'swr'
    
    function Dashboard() {
      const { data: events } = useSWR('/api/events')
      const { data: projects } = useSWR('/api/projects')
      const { data: user } = useSWR('/api/user', { refreshInterval: 0 }) // don't refresh
      // ...
    }
    
    function App() {
      return (
        <SWRConfig
          value={{
            refreshInterval: 3000,
            fetcher: (...args) => fetch(...args).then(res => res.json())
          }}
        >
          <Dashboard />
        </SWRConfig>
      )
    }

    Data Fetching

    fetcher is a function that accepts the key of SWR, and returns a value or a Promise. You can use any library to handle data fetching, for example:

    import fetch from 'unfetch'
    
    const fetcher = url => fetch(url).then(r => r.json())
    
    function App() {
      const { data } = useSWR('/api/data', fetcher)
      // ...
    }

    Or using GraphQL:

    import { request } from 'graphql-request'
    
    const fetcher = query => request('/api/graphql', query)
    
    function App() {
      const { data, error } = useSWR(
        `{
          Movie(title: "Inception") {
            releaseDate
            actors {
              name
            }
          }
        }`,
        fetcher
      )
      // ...
    }

    If you want to pass variables to a GraphQL query, check out Multiple Arguments.

    Note that fetcher can be omitted from the parameters if it's provided globally.

    Conditional Fetching

    Use null or pass a function as the key to useSWR to conditionally fetch data. If the functions throws an error or returns a falsy value, SWR will cancel the request.

    // conditionally fetch
    const { data } = useSWR(shouldFetch ? '/api/data' : null, fetcher)
    
    // ...or return a falsy value
    const { data } = useSWR(() => shouldFetch ? '/api/data' : null, fetcher)
    
    // ... or throw an error when user.id is not defined
    const { data } = useSWR(() => '/api/data?uid=' + user.id, fetcher)

    Dependent Fetching

    SWR also allows you to fetch data that depends on other data. It ensures the maximum possible parallelism (avoiding waterfalls), as well as serial fetching when a piece of dynamic data is required for the next data fetch to happen.

    function MyProjects() {
      const { data: user } = useSWR('/api/user')
      const { data: projects } = useSWR(() => '/api/projects?uid=' + user.id)
      // When passing a function, SWR will use the return
      // value as `key`. If the function throws or returns
      // falsy, SWR will know that some dependencies are not
      // ready. In this case `user.id` throws when `user`
      // isn't loaded.
    
      if (!projects) return 'loading...'
      return 'You have ' + projects.length + ' projects'
    }

    Multiple Arguments

    In some scenarios, it's useful to pass multiple arguments (can be any value or object) to the fetcher function. For example:

    useSWR('/api/user', url => fetchWithToken(url, token))

    This is incorrect. Because the identifier (also the index of the cache) of the data is '/api/user', so even if token changes, SWR will still have the same key and return the wrong data.

    Instead, you can use an array as the key parameter, which contains multiple arguments of fetcher:

    const { data: user } = useSWR(['/api/user', token], fetchWithToken)
    
    // ...and pass it as an argument to another query
    const { data: orders } = useSWR(user ? ['/api/orders', user] : null, fetchWithUser)

    The key of the request is now the combination of both values. SWR shallowly compares the arguments on every render and triggers revalidation if any of them has changed. Keep in mind that you should not recreate objects when rendering, as they will be treated as different objects on every render:

    // Don’t do this! Deps will be changed on every render.
    useSWR(['/api/user', { id }], query)
    
    // Instead, you should only pass “stable” values.
    useSWR(['/api/user', id], (url, id) => query(url, { id }))

    Dan Abramov explains dependencies very well in this blog post.

    Manually Revalidate

    You can broadcast a revalidation message globally to all SWRs with the same key by calling mutate(key).

    This example shows how to automatically refetch the login info (e.g.: inside <Profile/>) when the user clicks the “Logout” button.

    import useSWR, { mutate } from 'swr'
    
    function App() {
      return (
        <div>
          <Profile />
          <button onClick={() => {
            // set the cookie as expired
            document.cookie = 'token=; expires=Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 UTC; path=/;'
    
            // tell all SWRs with this key to revalidate
            mutate('/api/user')
          }}>
            Logout
          </button>
        </div>
      )
    }

    Mutation and Post Request

    In many cases, applying local mutations to data is a good way to make changes feel faster — no need to wait for the remote source of data.

    With mutate, you can update your local data programmatically, while revalidating and finally replace it with the latest data.

    import useSWR, { mutate } from 'swr'
    
    function Profile() {
      const { data } = useSWR('/api/user', fetcher)
    
      return (
        <div>
          <h1>My name is {data.name}.</h1>
          <button onClick={async () => {
            const newName = data.name.toUpperCase()
            
            // update the local data immediately, but disable the revalidation
            mutate('/api/user', { ...data, name: newName }, false)
            
            // send a request to the API to update the source
            await requestUpdateUsername(newName)
            
            // trigger a revalidation (refetch) to make sure our local data is correct
            mutate('/api/user')
          }}>Uppercase my name!</button>
        </div>
      )
    }

    Clicking the button in the example above will send a POST request to modify the remote data, locally update the client data and try to fetch the latest one (revalidate).

    But many POST APIs will just return the updated data directly, so we don’t need to revalidate again. Here’s an example showing the “local mutate - request - update” usage:

    mutate('/api/user', newUser, false)      // use `false` to mutate without revalidation
    mutate('/api/user', updateUser(newUser)) // `updateUser` is a Promise of the request,
                                             // which returns the updated document

    Mutate Based on Current Data

    In many cases, you are receiving a single value back from your API and want to update a list of them.

    With mutate, you can pass an async function which will receive the current cached value, if any, and let you return an updated document.

    mutate('/api/users', async users => {
      const user = await fetcher('/api/users/1')
      return [user, ...users.slice(1)]
    })

    Returned Data from Mutate

    Most probably, you need some data to update the cache. The data is resolved or returned from the promise or async function you passed to mutate.

    The function will return an updated document to let mutate update the corresponding cache value. It could throw an error somehow, every time when you call it.

    try {
      const user = await mutate('/api/user', updateUser(newUser))
    } catch (error) {
      // Handle an error while updating the user here
    }

    Bound mutate()

    The SWR object returned by useSWR also contains a mutate() function that is pre-bound to the SWR's key.

    It is functionally equivalent to the global mutate function but does not require the key parameter.

    import useSWR from 'swr'
    
    function Profile() {
      const { data, mutate } = useSWR('/api/user', fetcher)
    
      return (
        <div>
          <h1>My name is {data.name}.</h1>
          <button onClick={async () => {
            const newName = data.name.toUpperCase()
            // send a request to the API to update the data
            await requestUpdateUsername(newName)
            // update the local data immediately and revalidate (refetch)
            // NOTE: key is not required when using useSWR's mutate as it's pre-bound
            mutate({ ...data, name: newName })
          }}>Uppercase my name!</button>
        </div>
      )
    }

    SSR with Next.js

    With the initialData option, you pass an initial value to the hook. It works perfectly with many SSR solutions such as getServerSideProps in Next.js:

    export async function getServerSideProps() {
      const data = await fetcher('/api/data')
      return { props: { data } }
    }
    
    function App(props) {
      const initialData = props.data
      const { data } = useSWR('/api/data', fetcher, { initialData })
    
      return <div>{data}</div>
    }

    It is still a server-side rendered site, but it’s also fully powered by SWR in the client-side. Which means the data can be dynamic and update itself over time and user interactions.

    Suspense Mode

    You can enable the suspense option to use SWR with React Suspense:

    import { Suspense } from 'react'
    import useSWR from 'swr'
    
    function Profile() {
      const { data } = useSWR('/api/user', fetcher, { suspense: true })
      return <div>hello, {data.name}</div>
    }
    
    function App() {
      return (
        <Suspense fallback={<div>loading...</div>}>
          <Profile/>
        </Suspense>
      )
    }

    In Suspense mode, data is always the fetch response (so you don't need to check if it's undefined). But if an error occurred, you need to use an error boundary to catch it.

    Note that Suspense is not supported in SSR mode.

    Error Retries

    By default, SWR uses the exponential backoff algorithm to handle error retries. You can read more from the source code.

    It's also possible to override the behavior:

    useSWR(key, fetcher, {
      onErrorRetry: (error, key, option, revalidate, { retryCount }) => {
        if (retryCount >= 10) return
        if (error.status === 404) return
    
        // retry after 5 seconds
        setTimeout(() => revalidate({ retryCount: retryCount + 1 }), 5000)
      }
    })

    Prefetching Data

    There’re many ways to prefetch the data for SWR. For top-level requests, rel="preload" is highly recommended:

    <link rel="preload" href="/api/data" as="fetch" crossorigin="anonymous">

    This will prefetch the data before the JavaScript starts downloading. And your incoming fetch requests will reuse the result (including SWR, of course).

    Another choice is to prefetch the data conditionally. You can have a function to refetch and set the cache:

    function prefetch() {
      mutate('/api/data', fetch('/api/data').then(res => res.json()))
      // the second parameter is a Promise
      // SWR will use the result when it resolves
    }

    And use it when you need to preload the resources (for example when hovering a link). Together with techniques like page prefetching in Next.js, you will be able to load both next page and data instantly.

    Request Deduplication

    SWR deduplicates requests by default. If you call the hook with the same key multiple times, only one request is made. Duplicated calls will receive a value from cache. Here, the 'api/user' key is used in two requests:

    import useSWR from 'swr'
    
    function UserProfileName() {
      const { data, error } = useSWR('/api/user', fetcher)
    
      if (error) return <div>failed to load</div>
      if (!data) return <div>loading...</div>
      return <p>Name: {data.name}!</p>
    }
    
    function UserProfileAvatar() {
      const { data, error } = useSWR('/api/user', fetcher)
    
      if (error) return <div>failed to load</div>
      if (!data) return <div>loading...</div>
      return <img src={data.avatarUrl} alt="Profile image" />
    }
    
    export default function App() {
      return (
        <div>
          <UserProfileName />
          <UserProfileAvatar />
        </div>
      )
    }

    By default, requests made within 2 seconds are deduped. This can be changed by setting the dedupingInterval option:

    const { data, error } = useSWR('/api/user', fetcher, { dedupingInterval: 1000 })

    This will deduplicate requests at an interval of 1 second.

    Authors

    Thanks to Ryan Chen for providing the awesome swr npm package name!


    License

    The MIT License.

    Keywords

    none

    Install

    npm i swr

    DownloadsWeekly Downloads

    253,480

    Version

    0.5.5

    License

    MIT

    Unpacked Size

    128 kB

    Total Files

    47

    Last publish

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