Ready to take your JavaScript development to the next level? Meet npm Enterprise - the ultimate in enterprise JavaScript.Learn more »


0.3.0 • Public • Published


Type-safe Typescript data specification verification.


Any data flowing into a program at run-time should be checked for validity, while it also has an implicit or explicit type. Examples are: user input, http request body payloads, http response body payloads, message bus event payloads, environment variables, configuration files. The specified package allows to describe a "spec" of the data, by specifying its type and any constraints. The spec can then be used to verify the data and will automatically assign the correct Typescript type to the result.

Design goals

  • Single definition of type and validation.
  • Strictly typed and type-safe.
  • Zero dependencies.
  • Easy extensability: simple to create custom convertions and validations.


Simple short example:

import {Type, constrain, Constraint, verify} from "specified";
const productSpec = Type.object({
    description: Type.string,
    price: constrain(Type.number, [Constraint.number.above(0)])
const data = JSON.parse('{"description":"Peanut butter","price":3.50}');
const myProduct = verify(productSpec, data).value();
// NOTE: myProduct now has the expected typescript type: { description: string, price: number }


  • Type contains these predefined type specs:

    • unknown: Accepts anything, but returns unknown as its type.
    • null: Only accepts null.
    • string: Accepts strings.
    • number: Accepts numbers.
    • boolean: Accepts booleans.
    • literal({ key1: 1, key2: 1, ... }): Only accepts the literal values of the keys.
    • array(spec): Accepts arrays of which the elements are according to specification spec.
    • object(schema): Accepts object that follow the specified schema (see below).
    • map(keySpec, valueSpec): Accepts objects of which all keys are according to keySpec and all values according to valueSpec.
    • instance(classCtor): Accepts instances of the specified class.
    • dateString: Accepts anything convertable to a date and returns a Date instance.
    • numeric: Accepts anything that is convertible to a number.
  • Constraint contains predefined constraints for some of the types.

  • result = verify(spec, data, globalOptions) verifies that the data is conforms to the spec and returns an object containing the result value or a validation error if one occurred. Optionally global options can be provided that are passed to all nested specs.

    • result.err: Either null or an instance of ValidationError.
    • result.value(): Returns the result value if no validation error occurred. The value has the typescript type VerifiedType<typeof spec>.
  • constrain(spec, [constraint1, constraint2, ...]): Adds one or more constraints to a spec.

  • adjust: Adjust the local options of a spec, if it has any. For example adjust(Type.object({}), { strict: false }).

  • either(spec1, spec2, ...) creates a new spec that accepts any of the upto 9 specs provided.

  • optional(spec) makes a schema attribute optional.

  • definitionOf(spec) returns the definition of a spec.

  • alias(spec, alias) adds a string alias to the spec's definition.

  • extractAliases(definition) extracts aliases from a definition.

  • ValidationError: The error class for validation errors thrown by the types and constraints.

    • err.generateReportJson(): Generate a JSON report of the error details.
    • err.generateErrorPathList(): Generate a list of paths into the data which failed verification.
  • VerifiedType<Spec> corresponds to the verification result type of the spec. Example: type v = VerifiedType<typeof Type.number>; // Equals <number>.

  • Spec<T, L> is the generic type of a spec, where T is its result type (as is provided by VerifiedType) and L is the inferred type with the available local options properties for the spec.

  • SpecConstraint<T> defines what a constraint for spec with result type T looks like.

  • GlobalOptions defines the global options available for each spec, which is optionally passed into verify.


A schema describes an object by its attributes and their value specifications. The attributes can be declared optional.

For example:

const exampleSchema = {
    numattr: Type.number,
    optStrAttr: optional(Type.string)
const exampleObjectSpec = Type.object(exampleSchema);
type ExampleObjectType = VerifiedType<typeof exampleObjectSpec>;
// ExampleObjectType corresponds to { numAttr: number, optStrAttr?: string }



npm i specified

Downloadsweekly downloads









last publish


  • avatar
Report a vulnerability