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pioc

1.3.0 • Public • Published

pioc - A Dependency Injection Container for node.js

Since you're already here, I suppose you know what Dependency Injection is. If not, please take a look at Martin Fowlers Article. Don't be afraid, this is a tool for Javascript, not Java, so you won't need to write XML or anything like that to configure pioc.

The short story is that pioc will allow you to write loosely coupled modules which enable you to easily switch specific implementations with something else (i.e. for tests or during natural growth of an application) without the mess that you'd normally have to work through.

pioc is very smart about how and when to initialize your services. It supports constructor injection, property injection, static values and even module inheritance with all the parts that are needed to make it work.

If you were writing Java, pioc would remove the need for the "new" keyword in your vocabulary. For Javascript, it does the same but it also removes many function invocations, require statements and so on.

Whether you're writing an express.js application or a website, pioc has the features you need to be more productive and it has an extensive test suite.

License

pioc is MIT licensed.

Installation

npm install --save pioc

Example

Before I explain any details, let me give you an example of what can be done with pioc and how it is used.

// inside lib/db.js
var MongoClient = require('mongodb').MongoClient;
// we can write modules that require dependencies by specifying
// module.exports as a function
// This one needs a Promise constructor and the configuration for our app
module.exports = function(Promise, config) {
    // you like Promises, don't you?
    return Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
        MongoClient.connect(config.db.url, function(err, db) {
            if(err) return reject(err);
            resolve(db);
        });
    });
};
// inside config/development.json
{
    "db": {
        "url": "mongodb://localhost:27017/myproject"
    }
}
// inside app.js
var pioc = require('pioc'),
    // create a new module,
    // by specifying __dirname, we can load services using
    // node.js require relative to the app.js file
    module = pioc.createModule(__dirname)
        // not stricly necessary to bind bluebird as a Promise service,
        // but this offers us the option to change to a different implementation
        // easily
        .value('Promise', require('bluebird'))
        // load the config/development.json file and store it as a value service.
        .loadValue('config/development')
        // and now load our lib/db.js
        .load('lib/db'),
    // a module is not able to do anything on its own, most often, you'll
    // want an injector or provider to go with it
    injector = pioc.createInjector(module);
 
// Now let's resolve some dependencies
injector.resolve(function(db) {
    db.then(function(db) {
        console.log('successfully connected to the database!');
        db.close();
    }).catch(function(err) {
        console.log(err);
    });
});

Changes

Version 1.3

  • provider.get(): Now performs a suffix search if the service is unknown and the prefix search was unsuccessful as well.
  • The resolution (finding dependencies, resolving them) algorithm is now pluggable and can be changed by through the pioc.resolver property

Version 1.2

  • inject.lazy(serviceName): Specify a lazy property injection.
  • Symbol support: Support injecting properties that are defined using ES6 Symbol.
  • Support @require syntax: Provides support with Electrolyte style annotations.

Version 1.1

  • Provider#getAll(servicePrefix): Returns a list of all services that start with the given prefix.
  • Property injection: Constructor functions and objects can use pioc.inject to specify properties that should be injected during the resolve process.
  • Object instantiation: Services can now be constructors instead of just simple factory functions.
  • Undocumented Module#bind(serviceName).to(serviceDefinition) has been removed.
  • Module#bind(obj), Module#value(obj), Module#factory(obj): Binds all services defined in the object to their property name.
  • Module#has(serviceName): Returns true, if the service is defined in the module (or a parent module); false, otherwise.
  • Comments in function declarations are ignored (would've resulted in an error previously).

Structure

In pioc, a Module simply stores service definitions but it has nothing at all to do with how they're resolved or injected into other services.

The task of resolving a service definition is the responsibility of the Provider. The Injector we saw above is simply a convenient way to start an application. Instead of doing it the way I displayed above, you could also get a Provider for the Module and ask it to resolve a service definition that acts as the starting point of your application.

What that means is simple: If a Module is not responsible for resolving a service, then you can create child modules, as well as more than one Provider and Injector from the same Module and each of them will provide their own instance of your service.

Inheritance

Module and Provider can both create children. This allows you to create only the amount of instances of a service that you really need. Let's have a look at it.

var pioc = require('pioc'),
    // create a module and a child module
    module = pioc.createModule(),
    childModule = module.create(),
    // create a provider and a child provider
    provider = pioc.createProvider(module),
    childProvider = provider.create(childModule);
 
// now let's define some services
module.value('message', 'Hello World')
    .bind('write', function() {
        return function(text) {
            console.log(text);
        };
    })
    .bind('greeting', function(message) {
        return message + '!';
    })
    .bind('logger', function(greeting, write) {
        return function() {
            write(greeting);
        };
    });
 
// override the definition of "message" for the child
childModule.value('message', 'Hello Universe');
 
// get our services
var logWorld = provider.get('logger'),
    logUniverse = childProvider.get('logger');
 
// prints "Hello World!"
logWorld();
 
// prints "Hello Universe!"
logUniverse();

Since a Module and a Provider can both create children and inheritance works as expected, we can create the same service with entirely different configurations as if it was nothing.

However, since pioc always tries to limit the instances of a service to the minimum, our write service is only instantiated once.

If you're application has modules that need to redefine some dependencies, you can create a child module and a new Provider or Injector for the specifiy module and it'll receive the proper dependencies.

Available services in an Injector

When using an Injector, you gain free access to a few useful services:

  • $module: A child of the current Module
  • $provider: The currently used Provider
  • $injector: The Injector instance
  • $pioc: The pioc object

Using these services, you can create sub modules like this:

injector.resolve(function($pioc, $module, $provider) {
    $module.bind('message', 'Hi World');
    var injector = $pioc.createInjector($module, $provider);
    injector.resolve(function(logger) {
        // prints "Hi World!" to console.log
        logger();
    });
});

By sharing an ancestoral Provider in you're sub module, you can be certain that only those services are freshly instantiated which depend on modified services.

API Documentation

require('pioc')

createModule([rootDirectory: String]): Module

Creates a new Module. If a rootDirectory is specified, the new Module will load all services relative to that directory.

createProvider(module: Module): Provider

Creates a new Provider for the given Module.

createInjector(module: Module[, provider: Provider]): Injector

Creates a new Injector for the given Module. The Injector will use the a child of the given Provider or a new one.

inject(serviceName: String): Object

Creates an injectable annotation that signals pioc to inject the required service during the resolve process.

resolver: Object

The Resolver object that is used throughout the system to analyse dependencies of services and to resolve them.

Example

var inject = pioc.inject;
module
    .value('message', 'Hello World!')
    .bind('foo', {
        message: inject('message'),
        sayHello: function() {
            console.log(this.message);
        }
    });
provider.get('foo').sayHello(); // => Hello World!

inject.lazy(serviceName: String): Object

Creates an injectable annotation that signals pioc to inject the required service as soon as it is accessed. Using this annotation allows circular dependencies.

Example

var inject = pioc.inject;
module
    .value('message', 'Hello World!')
    .bind('test', {
        printer: inject.lazy('printer'),
    }).bind('printer', {
        test: inject.lazy('test'),
        message: inject('message'),
        print: function() {
            // well.. we're going from this => test => this => message
            // but that should show that cyclic references work
            return this.test.printer.message;
        }
    });
var printer = provider.get('printer');
expect(printer.print()).to.equal(provider.get('message'));

inject(): Object

Creates an injectable annotation that signals pioc to inject the required service during the resolve process. The service name will be inferred through the property name.

Example

module
    .value('message', 'Hello World!')
    .bind('foo', {
        message: pioc.inject(), // requires the service "message"
        sayHello: function() {
            console.log(this.message);
        }
    });
provider.get('foo').sayHello(); // => Hello World!

inject(target:Function|Object, ...serviceNames): target

Defines injectable annotations for the given service name on the object or the prototype of the function and returns the given target.

Example

var inject = pioc.inject;
module
    .value('message', 'Hello World!')
    .bind('foo', inject({
        sayHello: function() {
            console.log(this.message);
        }
    }, 'message'));
provider.get('foo').sayHello(); // => Hello World!

inject(...serviceNames, target:Function|Object): target

Defines injectable annotations for the given service name on the object or the prototype of the function and returns the given target.

Example

var inject = pioc.inject;
module
    .value('message', 'Hello World!')
    .bind('foo', inject('message', function() {
        this.sayHello = function() {
            console.log(this.message);
        };
    }));
provider.get('foo').sayHello(); // => Hello World!

Injector

resolve(service: Function|Array<String...,Function>): Any

Resolves the specified service and returns whatever the service returned.

If a dependency doesn't exist, it'll instead try to load all services with that prefix (see Provider#getAll).

Example

module
    .value('config', { port: 3000 })
    .bind('routes/auth', require('./app/modules/auth'))
    .bind('routes/api', require('./app/modules/api'));
var app = injector.resolve(function(routes, config) {
    var app = express();
    routes.forEach(function(route) { app.use(routes); });
    return app.listen(config.port);
});

Provider

get(name: String): Any|Array

Returns an instance of the specified service. If no service with the given name was found, an error will be thrown.

throws: Error, if the specified service is not defined in the module or a parent of the module associated with the Provider.

getAll(servicePrefix: String): Array

Returns all services whose name starts with the given prefix.

Example

module
    .bind('routes/auth', require('./app/modules/auth'))
    .bind('routes/api', require('./app/modules/api'));
var routes = provider.getAll('routes/');
var app = express();
routes.forEach(function(route) { app.use(routes); });
app.listen(3000);

create(module: Module): Provider

Returns a new child of this Provider with the specified child Module.

throws: Error, if the given module is not a child of the module of the Provider it is invoked for.

Module

value(name: String, service: Any): Module

Binds the specified service to the given name. A service that is bound using value will resolved as is, i.e. no dependencies will be injected into it.

Returns the module to allow method chaining.

value(serviceContainer: Object): Module

For each service as name in serviceContainer, it binds the specified service to the given name. A service that is bound using value will resolved as is, i.e. no dependencies will be injected into it.

Returns the module to allow method chaining.

Example

module.value({
    config: { port: 3000 },
    db: { url: 'mongodb://...' }
});
provider.get('config').port === 3000;
provider.get('db').url === 'mongodb://...';

bind(name: String, service: Any): Module

Binds the specified service to the given name. The service will be resolved when needed (i.e. lazy) and behaves like a singleton unless Inheritance requires a new instance (i.e. dependencies have been reconfigured for a child module).

Returns the module to allow method chaining.

bind(serviceContainer: Object): Module

For each service as name in serviceContainer, it binds the specified service to the given name. The service will be resolved when needed (i.e. lazy) and behaves like a singleton unless Inheritance requires a new instance (i.e. dependencies have been reconfigured for a child module).

Returns the module to allow method chaining.

bindFactory(name: String, service: Any): Module

Binds the specified service to the given name. The service will be resolved when needed (i.e. lazy) and will be instantiated whenever the specified service is requested. This is intended to be used for services that should never behave like a singleton.

Returns the module to allow method chaining.

bindFactory(serviceContainer: Object): Module

For each service as name in serviceContainer, it binds the specified service to the given name. The service will be resolved when needed (i.e. lazy) and will be instantiated whenever the specified service is requested. This is intended to be used for services that should never behave like a singleton.

Returns the module to allow method chaining.

loadValue([name: String, ]filename: String): Module

Loads a service using require. The module.exports of the file will be bound as a value.

If name is specified, the service will be bound by that name, otherwise, the name of the service will be retrieved by using the last segment of the filename, without any file extensions.

Returns the module to allow method chaining.

load([name: String, ]filename: String): Module

Loads a service using require. The module.exports of the file will be bound to this module.

If name is specified, the service will be bound by that name, otherwise, the name of the service will be retrieved by using the last segment of the filename, without any file extensions.

Returns the module to allow method chaining.

loadFactory([name: String, ]filename: String): Module

Loads a service using require. The module.exports of the file will be bound to this module as a factory.

If name is specified, the service will be bound by that name, otherwise, the name of the service will be retrieved by using the last segment of the filename, without any file extensions.

Returns the module to allow method chaining.

has(name: String): Boolean

Returns true, if the specified service is defined in this module or a parent module; false, otherwise.

create(): Module

Returns a new child of this Module.

install

npm i pioc

Downloadsweekly downloads

12

version

1.3.0

license

MIT

homepage

github.com

repository

Gitgithub

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