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    2.1.2 • Public • Published

    Parsinator

    Parsinator lets you build small well-defined parsers in JavaScript or TypeScript which can be combined together to accomplish just about any parsing task.

    Installation

    Install from the npm published package:

    npm install parsinator

    What it does

    Parsinator uses parser combinators to build structured data from string input. Unlike other ways of parsing data, Parser Combinators are:

    • Maintainable: designed to be read and written by humans, unlike regular expressions which are designed to be executable by machines.
    • Reusable: complex parsers are built from smaller pieces, which are each responsible for parsing individual parts.
    • Debuggable: parse failures provide a detailed error message which shows what the parser was expecting.
    • Powerful: can match/extract data which is impossible (like equal nesting) for regular expressions to parse.

    Parsinator is inspired by the excellent parsec Haskell library.

    Parsinator allows you to easily define and combine parsers to produce structured data from string input.

    Example

    Here's a small text parser that parses a greeting between a matching number of < and > characters:

    import * as Parsinator from 'parsinator';
    
    const greeting = Parsinator.fromGenerator(function *() {
        const exclamations = yield* Parsinator.many(Parsinator.str("<"));
        const intro = yield* Parsinator.regex(/[hH]ello, /);
        const who = yield* Parsinator.until(Parsinator.str("!"));
        yield* Parsinator.count(exclamations.length, Parsinator.str(">"));
        return {
            who: who,
            excitement: exclamations.length
        };
    });
    
    Parsinator.runToEnd(greeting, "<Hello, Parsinator>");
    // { who: "Parsinator", excitement: 1 }
    Parsinator.runToEnd(greeting, "<<<<hello, stranger>>>>");
    // { who: "stranger", excitement: 4 }

    Documentation

    The main abstraction is the Parser<T> type, which represents a parser which consumes some amount of a string input, and produces an arbitrary value (of type T) as a result of parsing the string text.

    Building blocks

    The following building blocks can be used to build both simple and parsers.

    function regex(re: RegExp): Parser<string>

    Consume and produce the full string match from a regular expression.

    function regexMatch(regex: RegExp): Parser<string[]>;

    Consume and produce the full match and all groups from a regular expression.

    Produces a string array; item 0 is the full match, subsequent items are the regular expression matched groups.

    function str<T extends string>(string: T): Parser<T>;

    Consume and produce a string value.

    function fromGenerator<P, V>(generator: () => Generator<number | ParseState, V, ParseState>): Parser<V>;

    Create a custom parser for a generator function. This is the recommended approach for building parsers. For example, here's how to parse a word surrounded by any number of matching parenthesis:

    const parenMatcher = Parsinator.fromGenerator(function* () {
      const maybeOpen = Parsinator.maybe(Parsinator.str('('));
      let parenCount = 0;
      let match = yield* maybeOpen;
      while (match !== null) {
        parenCount += 1;
        match = yield* maybeOpen;
      }
      const name = yield* Parsinator.regex(/[a-zA-Z]+/);
      for (let i = 0; i < parenCount; ++i) {
        yield* Parsinator.str(')');
      }
      return match;
    });
    
    Parsinator.run(parenMatcher, '(((three)))'); // evaluates to 'three'
    Parsinator.run(parenMatcher, '(one)'); // evaluates to 'one'
    
    Parsinator.run(parenMatcher, '((two)'); // Fails with:
    // Error: Parse failure at 1:7: ")" not found
    //   -> «((two)»
    //            ^

    Running sub-parsers

    Parsers are executed with a yield* expression. The parser is executed and the expression evaluates to the produced value of the parser.

    Changing parse state

    Parsers may obtain the state of the parser via yield 0. Parse state is an object containing: { input: string, offset: number }.

    Parsers may advance the offset by a number of characters via yield numChars where numChars is a number.

    Parsers may reset state to a prior state by yield priorState.

    If a parser fails, an exception is thrown. Note: the state of the parser is not reset after an exception if caught, it's up to the caller to save and restore parse state.

    function fail<T>(message: string): Parser<T>;

    Create a parser which consumes nothing and always fails with a specific error message.

    function wrapFail<T>(parser: Parser<T>, wrapper: (message: string) => string): Parser<T>;

    Create a parser which acts like the passed parser, but when fails, provides an alternate error message.

    function debugTrace(log: (str: string) => void): Parser<undefined>;

    A parser which consumes nothing and produces undefined. Helpful to log inside a parser.

    const end: Parser<null>;

    A parser which consumes nothing, but successfully produces null when at the end of input and fails if there is more input.

    Running parsers

    Once a parser is created, the parser can be performed via these functions.

    function run<T>(parser: Parser<T>, input: string): T;

    Run a parser on an input string, returning the parser's produced value.

    Note: the parser does not need to consume the entire input string.

    function runToEnd<T>(parser: Parser<T>, input: string): T;

    Run a parser on an input string, returning the parser's produced value.

    Fails if the parser does not consume the entire input string.

    Parser combinator helpers

    These functions are helpers for common parsers.

    function maybe<P>(parser: Parser<P>): Parser<P | null>;

    Create a parser which acts like the provided parser, but produces null if it fails.

    function many<P>(parser: Parser<P>): Parser<P[]>;

    Create a parser which produces an array of items by applying the provided parser any number of times (including zero).

    function many1<P>(parser: Parser<P>): Parser<P[]>;

    Create a parser which produces an array of items by applying the provided parser one or more times.

    function choice<V>(parsers: Parser<V>[]): Parser<V>;

    Create a parser which produces the first successful result of matching the provided parsers.

    function sequence<V>(parsers: Parser<V>[]): Parser<V[]>;

    Create a parser which produces an array of results, provided by running the provided parsers in sequence.

    function count<V>(num: number, parser: Parser<V>): Parser<V[]>;

    Create a parser which produces an array of values by running the provided parser a specific number of times.

    function sepBy1<S, V>(sepParser: Parser<S>, valParser: Parser<V>): Parser<V[]>;

    Create a parser which produces an array of desired values separated discarded separators.

    If no values are found, the parser fails.

    For example, this parses comma separated words:

    const commaSeparatedDigits = Parsinator.sepBy1(Parsinator.str(','), Parsinator.regex(/[a-z]+/));
    
    Parsinator.runToEnd(commaSeparatedDigits, 'foo,bar,baz'); // evaluates to ['foo', 'bar', 'baz']

    function sepBy<S, V>(sepParser: Parser<S>, valParser: Parser<V>): Parser<V[]>;

    Create a parser which produces an array of desired values separated discarded separators.

    If no values are found, the parser produces an empty array.

    function peek<P>(parser: Parser<P>): Parser<P>;

    Create a parser which produces a value by running the provided parser, but does not advance state.

    Note: If an error occurs, it will still raise an exception. Use maybe in addition to avoid the error.

    function until<T>(terminator: Parser<T>): Parser<string>;

    Create a parser which produces a string that spans until the provided terminator is parsed.

    function between<T>(start: Parser<T>, end: Parser<T>): Parser<string>;

    Create a parser which produces a string that spans from the provided start parser to the provided end parser.

    function map<V, W>(parser: Parser<V>, fn: (val: V) => W): Parser<W>;

    Create a parser which produces a transformed value from a provided parser.

    function surround<L, T, R>(left: Parser<L>, val: Parser<T>, right: Parser<R>): Parser<T>;

    Create a parser which produces a value surrounded by a provided prefix and suffix parser.

    For example, this parser returns a word surrounded by parenthesis:

    const parenthetical = Parsinator.surround(Parsinator.str('('), Parsinator.regex(/[a-z]+/), Parsinator.str(')'));
    
    Parsinator.run(parenthetical, '(howdy)'); // evaluates to: 'howdy'

    function buildExpressionParser<T>(operators: OperatorDecls<T>, parseTermFactory: () => Parser<T>): Parser<T>;

    Produce a parser which can parse arbitrary binary and unary expressions.

    buildExpressionParser deals with the heavy lifting of dealing with operator fixity, precedence, and associativity.

    As an example, here's a very simple arithmetic parser:

    var number = Parsinator.map(Parsinator.regex(/[0-9]+/), (str) => parseInt(str, 10));
    
    var operator = (opstr, action) => Parsinator.map(Parsinator.str(opstr), () => action);
    
    var negate = operator('-', (val) => -val);
    var sum = operator('+', (x, y) => x + y);
    var multiply = operator('*', (x, y) => x * y);
    var exponent = operator('^', (x, y) => Math.pow(x, y));
    
    var evaluate = Parsinator.buildExpressionParser([
        { fixity: "prefix", parser: negate },
        { fixity: "infix", associativity: "right", parser: exponent },
        { fixity: "infix", associativity: "left", parser: multiply },
        { fixity: "infix", associativity: "left", parser: sum }
    ], () => Parsinator.choice([
        Parsinator.surround(Parsinator.str("("), evaluate, Parsinator.str(")")),
        number
    ]));
    
    Parsinator.runToEnd(evaluate, "1+2*3+1"); // evaluates to 8
    Parsinator.runToEnd(evaluate, "(1+2)*-(3+1)"); // evaluates to -12
    Parsinator.runToEnd(evaluate, "3^3^3"); // evaluates to 7625597484987

    Upgrading from Version 1 to Version 2

    Note: Version 2 does not support ES5.

    Version 2 uses TypeScript features only available in version 3.6, in order to allow for correct typing of generators. This required an API change and a language runtime that supports the yield* keyword.

    To upgrade, change all your fromGenerator calls that contain yield so that they are yield*.

    If you wrote custom parsers which take and return state, you must use generators now.

    • yield 0 retrieves the current state
    • yield number increments the offset by number
    • yield state sets the state to the new state

    Install

    npm i parsinator

    DownloadsWeekly Downloads

    4

    Version

    2.1.2

    License

    MIT

    Unpacked Size

    232 kB

    Total Files

    13

    Last publish

    Collaborators

    • srhazi