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A monadic LL(infinity) parser combinator library


Authors: @jneen and @laughinghan

Maintainer: @wavebeem

Parsimmon is a small library for writing big parsers made up of lots of little parsers. The API is inspired by parsec and Promises/A.

Parsimmon supports IE7 and newer browsers, along with Node.js. It can be used as a standard Node module through npm, or through build/parsimmon.browser.min.js directly in the browser through a script tag, where it exports a global variable called Parsimmon (you can also use the build/parsimmon.browser.js for local development).

var regexp = Parsimmon.regexp;
var string = Parsimmon.string;
var optWhitespace = Parsimmon.optWhitespace;
var lazy = Parsimmon.lazy;
function lexeme(p) {
  return p.skip(optWhitespace);
var lparen = lexeme(string('('));
var rparen = lexeme(string(')'));
var expr = lazy('an s-expression', function() { return form.or(atom); });
var number = lexeme(regexp(/[0-9]+/).map(Number));
var id = lexeme(regexp(/[a-zA-Z_]\w*/));
var atom = number.or(id);
var form = lparen.then(expr.many()).skip(rparen);
// => 3 
expr.parse('(add (mul 10 (add 3 4)) (add 7 8))').value;
// => ['add', ['mul', 10, ['add', 3, 4]], ['add', 7, 8]] 

A Parsimmon parser is an object that represents an action on a stream of text, and the promise of either an object yielded by that action on success or a message in case of failure. For example, string('foo') yields the string 'foo' if the beginning of the stream is 'foo', and otherwise fails.

The combinator method .map is used to transform the yielded value. For example,

string('foo').map(function(x) { return x + 'bar'; })

will yield 'foobar' if the stream starts with 'foo'. The parser { return parseInt(x) * 2; })

will yield the number 24 when it encounters the string '12'. The method .result can be used to set a constant result.

Calling .parse(str) on a parser parses the string, and returns an object with a status flag, indicating whether the parse succeeded. If it succeeded, the value attribute will contain the yielded value. Otherwise, the index and expected attributes will contain the index of the parse error (with offset, line and column properties), and a sorted, unique array of messages indicating what was expected.

The error object can be passed along with the original source to Parsimmon.formatError(source, error) to obtain a human-readable error string.

  • Parsimmon.string("my-string") is a parser that expects to find "my-string", and will yield the same.
  • Parsimmon.oneOf("abc") is a parser that expects to find one of the characters "a", "b", or "c", and will yield the same.
  • Parsimmon.noneOf("abc") is a parser that expects to find any character except one of the characters "a", "b", or "c", and will yield the same.
  • Parsimmon.regexp(/regexp/, group=0) is a parser that expects the stream to match the given regexp, and yields the given match group, or the entire match. The regexp will always match starting at the current parse location. The regexp may only use the following flags: imu. Parsimmon.regexp will throw an error for any other flag.
  • Parsimmon.regex is an alias for Parsimmon.regexp.
  • Parsimmon.succeed(result) is a parser that doesn't consume any of the string, and yields result.
  • Parsimmon.seq(p1, p2, ... pn) accepts a variable number of parsers that it expects to find in order, yielding an array of the results.
  • Parsimmon.seqMap(parser1, parser2, ..., function(result1, result2, ...) { return anotherResult; }): matches all parsers sequentially, passing their results to the callback at the end, returning its value. Works like seq and map combined but without any arrays.
  • Parsimmon.alt(p1, p2, ... pn) accepts a variable number of parsers, and yields the value of the first one that succeeds, backtracking in between. This means that the order of parsers matters. If two parsers match the same prefix, the longer of the two must come first (e.g. Parsimmon.alt(Parsimmon.string('ab'), Parsimmin.string('a'))).
  • Parsimmon.sepBy(content, separator) accepts two parsers, and expects multiple contents, separated by separators. Yields an array of contents.
  • Parsimmon.sepBy1(content, separator) same as Parsimmon.sepBy, but expects content to succeed at least once.
  • Parsimmon.lazy(f) accepts a function that returns a parser, which is evaluated the first time the parser is used. This is useful for referencing parsers that haven't yet been defined, and for implementing recursive parsers.
  • Parsimmon.lazy(desc, f) is the same as Parsimmon.lazy but also sets desc as the expected value (see .desc() below)
  • returns a failing parser with the given message.
  • Parsimmon.letter is equivalent to Parsimmon.regexp(/[a-z]/i)
  • Parsimmon.letters is equivalent to Parsimmon.regexp(/[a-z]*/i)
  • Parsimmon.digit is equivalent to Parsimmon.regexp(/[0-9]/)
  • Parsimmon.digits is equivalent to Parsimmon.regexp(/[0-9]*/)
  • Parsimmon.whitespace is equivalent to Parsimmon.regexp(/\s+/)
  • Parsimmon.optWhitespace is equivalent to Parsimmon.regexp(/\s*/)
  • Parsimmon.any consumes and yields the next character of the stream.
  • Parsimmon.all consumes and yields the entire remainder of the stream.
  • Parsimmon.eof expects the end of the stream.
  • Parsimmon.index is a parser that yields an object an object representing the current offset into the parse: it has a 0-based character offset property and 1-based line and column properties.
  • Parsimmon.test(pred) yield a single character if it passes the predicate.
  • Parsimmon.takeWhile(pred) yield a string containing all the next characters that pass the predicate.

You can add a primitive parser (similar to the included ones) by using Parsimmon.custom. This is an example of how to create a parser that matches any character except the one provided:

function notChar(char) {
  return Parsimmon.custom(function(success, failure) {
    return function(stream, i) {
      if (stream.charAt(i) !== char && i <= stream.length) {
        return success(+ 1, stream.charAt(i));
      return failure(i, 'anything different than "' + char + '"');

This parser can then be used and composed the same way all the existing ones are used and composed, for example:

var parser = Parsimmon.seq(Parsimmon.string('a'), notChar('b').times(5));
//=> {status: true, value: ['a', ['c', 'c', 'c', 'c', 'c']]} 
  • parser.or(otherParser): returns a new parser which tries parser, and if it fails uses otherParser.
  • parser.chain(function(result) { return anotherParser; }): returns a new parser which tries parser, and on success calls the given function with the result of the parse, which is expected to return another parser, which will be tried next. This allows you to dynamically decide how to continue the parse, which is impossible with the other combinators.
  • parser.then(anotherParser): expects anotherParser to follow parser, and yields the result of anotherParser. NB: the result of parser here is ignored.
  • { return anotherResult; }): transforms the output of parser with the given function.
  • parser.skip(otherParser) expects otherParser after parser, but preserves the yield value of parser.
  • parser.result(aResult): returns a new parser with the same behavior, but which yields aResult.
  • parser.many(): expects parser zero or more times, and yields an array of the results.
  • parser.times(n): expects parser exactly n times, and yields an array of the results.
  • parser.times(min, max): expects parser between min and max times, and yields an array of the results.
  • parser.atMost(n): expects parser at most n times. Yields an array of the results.
  • parser.atLeast(n): expects parser at least n times. Yields an array of the results.
  • parser.mark() yields an object with start, value, and end keys, where value is the original value yielded by the parser, and start and end are are objects with a 0-based offset and 1-based line and column properties that represent the position in the stream that contained the parsed text.
  • parser.desc(description) returns a new parser whose failure message is the passed description. For example, string('x').desc('the letter x') will indicate that 'the letter x' was expected.

These apply to most parsers for traditional languages - it's possible you may need to do something different for yours!

For most parsers, the following format is helpful:

  1. define a lexeme function to skip all the stuff you don't care about (whitespace, comments, etc). You may need multiple types of lexemes. For example,

    var ignore = whitespace.or(comment.many());
    function lexeme(p) { return p.skip(ignore); }
  2. Define all your lexemes first. These should yield native javascript values.

    var lparen = lexeme(string('('));
    var rparen = lexeme(string(')'));
    var number = lexeme(regexp(/[0-9]+/)).map(parseInt);
  3. Forward-declare one or more top-level expressions with lazy, referring to parsers that have not yet been defined. Generally, this takes the form of a large .alt() call

    var expr = lazy('an expression', function() { return Parsimmon.alt(p1, p2, ...); });

    With .lazy you could also recursively refer to expr in its own definition.

  4. Then build your parsers from the inside out - these should return AST nodes or other objects specific to your domain.

    var p1 = ...
    var p2 = ...
  5. Finally, export your top-level parser. Remember to skip ignored stuff at the beginning.

    return ignore.then(expr.many());

Parsimmon is also compatible with fantasyland. It is a Semigroup, an Applicative Functor and a Monad.