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2.5.6 • Public • Published


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Pannellum is a lightweight, free, and open source panorama viewer for the web. Built using HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, and WebGL, it is plug-in free. It can be deployed easily as a single file, just 21kB gzipped, and then embedded into pages as an <iframe>. A configuration utility is included to generate the required code for embedding. An API is included for more advanced integrations.

Getting started

Hosted examples

A set of examples that demonstrate the viewer's various functionality is hosted on This is the best place to start if you want an overview of Pannellum's functionality. They also provide helpful starting points for creating custom configurations.

Simple tutorial and configuration utility

If you are just looking to display a single panorama without any advanced functionality, the steps for doing so are covered on the simple tutorial page. Said page also includes a utility for easily creating the necessary Pannellum configuration.

Local testing and self-hosting

If you would like to locally test or self-host Pannellum, continue to the How to use section below.

How to use

  1. Upload build/pannellum.htm and a full equirectangular panorama to a web server or run a development web server locally.
    • Due to browser security restrictions, a web server must be used locally as well. With Python 3, one can use python3 -m http.server, but any other web server should also work.
  2. Use the included multi-resolution generator (utils/multires/, the configuration tool (utils/config/configuration.htm), or create a configuration from scratch or based on an example.
  3. Insert the generated <iframe> code into a page, or create a more advanced configuration with JSON or the API.

Configuration parameters are documented in the doc/ file, which is also available at API methods are documented inline with JSDoc comments, and generated documentation is available at

Using a minified copy

For final deployment, it is recommended that one use a minified copy of Pannellum instead of using the source files in src directly. The easiest method is to download the most recent release and use the pre-built copy of either pannellum.htm or pannellum.js & pannellum.css. If you wish to make changes to Pannellum or use the latest development copy of the code, follow the instructions in the Building section below to create build/pannellum.htm, build/pannellum.js, and build/pannellum.css.

Using to create multires panoramas

To be able to create multiresolution panoramas, you need to have the nona program installed, which is available as part of Hugin, as well as Python with the Pillow package. Then, run

python3 pano_image.jpg

in the utils/multires directory. This will generate all the image tiles and the config.json file in the ./output folder by default. For this to work, nona needs to be on the system path; otherwise, the location of nona can be specified using the -n flag. On a Unix-like platform, with nona already on the system path use:

cd utils/multires
$ python3 pano_image.jpg

where pano_image.jpg is the filename of your equirectangular panorama. If nona is not on the system path, use:

cd utils/multires
$ python3 -n /path/to/nona pano_image.jpg

For a complete list of options, run:

$ python3 --help

To view the generated configuration, run:

cd ../..
$ python3 -m http.server

This goes back to the root directory of the repository and starts a local development web server. Then open http://localhost:8000/src/standalone/pannellum.htm?config=../../utils/multires/output/config.json in your web browser of choice.

Bundled examples

Examples using both the minified version and the version in the src directory are included in the examples directory. These can be viewed by starting a local web server in the root of the repository, e.g., by running:

$ python3 -m http.server

in the directory containing this readme file, and then navigating to the hosted HTML files using a web browser; note that the examples use files from the src directory, so the web server must be started from the repository root, not the examples directory. For the example-minified.htm example to work, a minified copy of Pannellum must first be built; see the Building section below for details.

Additional examples are available at

Browser Compatibility

Since Pannellum is built with web standards, it requires a modern browser to function.

Full support (with appropriate graphics drivers):

  • Firefox 23+
  • Chrome 24+
  • Safari 8+
  • Internet Explorer 11+
  • Edge

The support list is based on feature support. As only recent browsers are tested, there may be regressions in older browsers.

Not officially supported:

Mobile / app frameworks are not officially supported. They may work, but they're not tested and are not the targeted platform.


All user-facing strings can be changed using the strings configuration parameter. There exists a third-party respository of user-contributed translations that can be used with this configuration option.


The utils folder contains the required build tools, with the exception of Python 3.2+ and Java installations. To build a minified version of Pannellum, run either or build.bat depending on your platform. On a Unix-like platform:

cd utils/build
$ ./

If successful, this should create build/pannellum.htm, build/pannellum.js, and build/pannellum.css, relative to the root directory of the repository.


A minimal Selenium-based test suite is located in the tests directory. The tests can be executed by running:


A Selenium-driven web browser (with a Chrome driver, by default) is created, and screenshots are generated and compared against previously generated ones in tests. For example, to regenerate the screenshots one can run:

$ python3 tests/ --create-ref

And to simply run the tests to compare to, eliminate that argument. By default, a random port is selected, along with other arguments. One can see usage via:

$ python tests/ --help

Continuous integration tests are run via Travis CI. Running the tests locally requires Python 3, the Selenium Python bindings, Pillow, NumPy, and either Firefox & geckodriver or Chrome & ChromeDriver.

Seeking support

If you wish to ask a question or report a bug, please open an issue at See the Contributing section below for more details.


Development takes place at Issues should be opened to report bugs or suggest improvements (or ask questions), and pull requests are welcome. When reporting a bug, please try to include a minimum reproducible example (or at least some sort of example). When proposing changes, please try to match the existing code style, e.g., four space indentation and JSHint validation. If your pull request adds an additional configuration parameter, please document it in doc/ Pull requests should preferably be created from feature branches.


Pannellum is distributed under the MIT License. For more information, read the file COPYING or peruse the license online.

In the past, parts of Pannellum were based on three.js r40, which is licensed under the MIT License.

The panoramic image provided with the examples is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.


If used as part of academic research, please cite:

Petroff, Matthew A. "Pannellum: a lightweight web-based panorama viewer." Journal of Open Source Software 4, no. 40 (2019): 1628. doi:10.21105/joss.01628



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