Nocturnal Pumpkin Maelstrom


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    NodeJS-Server-Pages is a system for using Node.JS code on a web server, using FastCGI. Like PHP, web pages are written in a templated style, with server-side JavaScript code embedded into HTML (or anything else).

    For instance, the following page displays the current time, generated on the server:

            The current time is <?JS write(new Date().toDateString()); ?>.

    So-called "echo tags" are also supported, e.g.:

            The current time is <?JS= new Date().toDateString() ?>

    In addition, a "no-direct" tag is supported, for pages which must be included from other pages (e.g. headers and footers):

    <?JS! /* this must be included from elsewhere! */ ?>
    <div id="header">

    You can also abbreviate <?JS as <?, as in PHP.

    Various concepts in NJSP are inspired by CGI-Node, but NJSP's design makes for much faster, more responsive web sites. No CGI-Node code was used (or even looked at) in the design of NJSP.

    Installing NodeJS-Server-Pages

    This repository can be used directly (run njsp.js), or used as a module. Use the createServer method when using NJSP as a module:

    const njsp = require("nodejs-server-pages");
    njsp.createServer({port: 3000, ip: ""});

    The configuration parameter to createServer takes three options: port, ip and db. NJSP presents a FastCGI server on the given IP and port, or, if port is a string, at the given Unix domain socket. The default is the Unix socket /tmp/nodejs-server-pages.sock. The db option is the path to an SQLite3 database, which NJSP will create if it doesn't exist, in which to store session data. The default is nodejs-server-pages.db. To use all default arguments, it's sufficient to pass no config argument at all, so the simplest NJSP client requires nothing more than:


    NJSP is a standard FastCGI server, so then you must configure your web server to use it. In NGINX, for example:

    location ~ \.jss$ {
        fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/nodejs-server-pages.sock;
        include fastcgi_params;

    You may also want to make index.jss a default index page.

    If it's not perfectly clear, note that NJSP pages will be run with the permissions of whichever user runs NJSP itself. Do not install or use NJSP if you need greater control of who executes code than this. I may eventually consider a version of NJSP that handles user permissions in a useful way.

    Using NodeJS-Server-Pages

    Simply create pages named with .jss (or whatever extension you used in the server configuration), and embed JavaScript code in <?JS ... ?>, or JavaScript expressions in <?JS= ... ?>.

    A NJSP page is compiled into a JavaScript async function, and the page is considered complete after awaiting its result. As a consequence, you must be careful to use await within your NJSP code at any points where the sending of the web page to the client needs to wait for some processing. You may find Node's util.promisify extremely helpful (essentially mandatory) for this.

    NJSP pages may use all the features of Node.JS, including require. Modules will be searched for in the NJSP installation directory, not the web server's document root.

    NJSP exposes a number of variables and functions for use in web pages:


    request represents the HTTP request, though it is strictly static.

    request.url is the full URL of the request.

    request.headers maps headers in the request to their values.

    request.query maps query variables to their values.

    request.bodyRaw is the raw (Buffer) body sent by the client on POST requests. You can use its presence to determine if a POST request was made, even if the body doesn't parse.

    request.body is the parsed client body, using whichever content-type the client specified. Currently supported are application/json, application/x-www-form-urlencoded, multipart/form-data, and text/plain.

    request.bodyException is the exception thrown while attempting to parse the body if it failed. Either this or request.body will be present if the type is supported.

    request.files is, in the case of multipart/form-data, the array of file data uploaded. Each entry is an object with a filename, name, and data field, where the filename is the client-specified filename uploaded, the name is the form-specified name of the file field, and data is a Node buffer with the content of the file. If the content type is not multipart/form-data, this field does not exist.


    response represents the HTTP response, and has several of the methods available in Node's HTTP response type. It does not directly reflect Nodes' HTTP response type or node-fastcgi's response type, however.

    response.write(data) writes data to the web client, converting to a string if necessary. This function is aliased as write for brevity.

    response.setHeader(name, value) sets a header with the given name to the given value.

    response.writeHead(code, headers) writes the header, with the given status code and headers, which are added to any headers set by setHeader. Only the first call to writeHead has an effect, and writeHead will be called automatically when write is called, or when the non-JavaScript part of a NJSP file writes any data. Thus, it's only necessary to use writeHead in special circumstances. This function is aliased as writeHead for brevity.

    response.end() ends the response. This is unlikely to be useful in most circumstances, but could be used to allow the server to continue doing some processing even after the page is complete.

    response.compress(request) will enable compression (gzip or brotli) based on what the request supports. To disable compression, which may be necessary if you need data to flush to the client immediately, use response.compress(null). This must be done before writeHead, and is done automatically (compression is on by default).

    response.setTimeLimit(limit) sets the time limit, in milliseconds, starting from the point when the function is called. There is no function to disable the time limit entirely.


    params maps FastCGI parameters to their values, such as params.SCRIPT_NAME and params.DOCUMENT_ROOT.


    You may store session variables per user, keyed by a cookie stored in the user's browser, on the server, accessible through session. All session functions are asynchronous, and so must be awaited, or otherwise have their promise handled. Asynchronous functions will be written with await here to make that clear.

    await session.init(config) initializes the session state for this session. Note that this must be called before writing the header; unlike PHP, sessions are not created automatically. The optional config parameter is an object with configuration options. config.expiry sets the maximum age of session variables for this session, in seconds, defaulting to 6 months. config.path sets the path over which this session's cookie should apply, defaulting to /.

    await session.get(key) gets the value stored in the name key for this session. Returns null if there is no such key-value pair.

    await session.getAll() gets a map of all keys to all values stored for this session.

    await session.set(key, value) adds or replaces the key-value pair of key and value to the session data for this session.

    await session.delete(key) deletes any value bound to the key key for this session.

    include, compile, and module

    await include(filename, [args]) includes the NJSP file named by filename, searched in the directory of the current file. Note that you can include normal JavaScript files with require instead; this is only for NJSP files. This behaves like require, insofar as it returns (a Promise which resolves to) an object, set by module.exports in the NJSP file referenced. Optional further arguments may be provided to include, and if provided, will be available in the included code in arguments[1] and further.

    compile(filename) parses and compiles filename into an asynchronous function in the same way as include, but does not run it. Note, however, that these functions take a map of all these globals as an argument, so the plain function is probably largely useless.

    module.exports will be exported to whoever includes this NJSP page, as with require. Otherwise, module is nothing like Node's module.


    In addition to standard, templated pages, NodeJS-Server-Pages has support for WebSocket "pages". The createWSServer function is used in place of createServer, and instead of creating a FastCGI server, an HTTP server is created which only supports WebSocket connections. Depending on the WebSocket URL accessed, it defers to scripts, not unlike .jss scripts in the normal server. This can be proxied from a standard web server to create a variety of WebSocket endpoints. New servers are started automatically when the host scripts change, so this is a practical way of hosting diverse WebSocket endpoints without having to restart the core server.

    In addition to the configuration parameters accepted by createServer, createWSServer requires a field root, which describes the root directory for scripts handled by this server. root must be an object with at least a default field, containing the path where WebSocket scripts are stored. It may additionally have fields in the form of host:<HOSTNAME>, in order to support different scripts for different hostnames. port defaults to /tmp/nodejs-server-pages-ws.sock.

    If the path /foo/bar/baf is accessed, then the file foo/bar/baf.js is run from the appropriate root. Each script is a JavaScript file which is used as the body of an async function. That function is called every time a new WebSocket connection is made. The variable sock refers to the particular WebSocket. request, session, and module are available, but no other NodeJS-Server-Pages variables. Sessions may be accessed and modified within a WebSocket connection, but new sessions may not be created; that is, the session must have originally been created by a standard NodeJS-Server-Pages page.

    A single instance of a script will handle multiple WebSocket connections. A new instance is only created when the script changes.

    Why NodeJS-Server-Pages?

    Why NodeJS-Server-Pages instead of (other JS solution) x?

    To be honest, I haven't found a satisfying x. I'm surprised not to find many alternatives for this PHP-style templating. Perhaps because of the problem with asynchrony; we needed Node to support async functions before this would've been useful. If you know of one, please tell me; I don't want to step on any feet!


    CGI-Node is a non-starter for a number of reasons. As the name suggests, it's CGI, so it spins up a new Node process for every page view. For a language like Perl, which was the common use case of CGI back in the day, this startup time is negligible. But for Node, startup time can be significant. Further, that's chewing through a lot of memory, and making zero use of the JIT.

    Worse yet, CGI-Node has no real support for asynchrony, which is, at best, troublesome for Node.JS.


    ( )

    EJS is half the solution: It does the templating, but isn't easily built into an existing web-server infrastructure. I could've made NJSP use EJS for its templating (and might do so in the future), but that's not the interesting part to me. I'm also dissatisfied with how EJS handles the variables of the compiled functions. with is never the right option, and since they're compiling anyway, there's no compelling reason not to compile them in as plain ol' vars.

    Also, EJS compiles to functions which return strings, rather than sending strings via some response, which is exactly not what PHP or NJSP does. NJSP allows you to send partial output, then do some processing, then send the rest. Whether this is useful is debatable, but it is a major difference.

    Ultimately, the part of NJSP that EJS solves is actually pretty small, and NSJP solves it in a way that's better suited for its use case.

    Express, etc

    In terms of JS solutions that allow you to build web pages but not with PHP-style embedded-code templates... well, it's a matter of taste. I don't like PHP very much, but I think that style was an extremely good choice. It's a very elegant way of expressing code in the context of filling in a web page. There are many tasks for which that makes no sense, but there are also many tasks for which it makes perfect sense, and NJSP is designed for those.

    Why NodeJS-Server-Pages instead of PHP?

    Limitations and future

    I made NJSP because I needed it. It's probably not going to change very much, simply because there aren't a lot of moving parts, and so not a lot that would need to change. All the heavy lifting is done by Node.JS itself.

    NJSP's server model presents a bottleneck, as all data has to pass through the main thread on its way to or back from one of the worker threads. That being said, that's the lightest load, and this model is perfectly common. If that's a major bottleneck, probably you would need to have created more redundancy at an earlier stage, e.g. the web server itself, beforehand.

    NJSP's cache makes the second load of any page fast, but the first load is still pretty slow. It would be nice to persist the cache in some way, so that new worker threads and new runs of NJSP would know what pages to cache. However, if the cache was persistent, cache invalidation would be absolutely mandatory, and who wants to bother with that?

    Technical details

    NJSP operates a threadpool (really, a process pool) of Node.JS processes which handle individual requests. When a request is made, one of these processes is chosen, and it runs the requested page.

    The page is compiled into an async function, simply by replacing the text components with calls to write, and this is compiled using AsyncFunction.

    The handler processes cache pages they've been requested to load, so that reused pages are handled extremely quickly, requiring no further parsing or compilation, and benefiting from JIT.

    When the async function's promise resolves, the response is closed, and more requests are allowed. Technically, there's nothing to stop the page from having events left over, and these may interfere with future pages. It's best simply to avoid this.

    To be quite precise, the example from the beginning of this README resolves to this code:

    var request = module.request;
    var response = module.response;
    var params = module.params;
    var writeHead = module.writeHead;
    var write = module.write;
    var session = module.session;
    var compileAbsolute = module.compileAbsolute;
    var require = module.require;
    function compile(name) {
    name = (name[0]==='/') ? name : ("/var/www/html/"+name);
    return module.compileAbsolute(name);
    async function include(name) {
    var sm = {request,response,params,writeHead,write,session,compileAbsolute,require,exports:{}};
    await (compile(name)(sm));
    return sm.exports;
    write("<html>\n    <body>\n        The current time is ");
    write(new Date().toDateString()); write(".\n    </body>\n</html>\n");


    npm i nodejs-server-pages

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