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mushimas

6.6.0 • Public • Published

Mushimas

A tool to bootstrap modern content management and delivery systems using GraphQL, MongoDB, Redis and Elasticsearch.

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Introduction

Mushimas generates GraphQL CRUD APIs that are tightly coupled with MongoDB, via Mongoose, as a primary store, optionally Redis, among others as a cache store, and Elasticsearch as a full-text search engine. Mushimas exposes a simple configuration interface that is designed to combine configuration options for Mongoose, GraphQL schemas and Elasticsearch mappings. Mushimas thus effectively reduces the configuration complexity of backends that rely on MongoDB, Elasticsearch and GraphQL to a single configuration file under a universal syntax.

For each collection level document that is defined, Mushimas automatically creates the relevant collection in MongoDB along with its Elasticsearch mappings. It also defines GraphQL endpoints for each collection that allow CRUD operations as well as full-text search to be performed on documents right out of the box.

Installation

npm install --save mushimas

To actually run the GraphQL server you will also need the express and express-graphql packages

npm install --save express express-graphql

Defining Document Schemas

Defining document schemas is the first and the most crucial step towards setting up the server. Documents are defined as javascript objects that have the properties: class and fields.

The class Property

The class property takes a string value indicating the class of document. There are two classes of documents that may be defined: "collection" and "embedded"

The Collection Class

Collection class documents are documents that will be stored in MongoDB under a collection. Documents classified as collection are usually standalone documents that have meaning in and of themselves.

See below for an example schema of a collection class document.

const Student = {
  class: 'collection',
  fields: {
    firstName: {
      type: 'string',
      required: true,
      es_indexed: true,
      es_keyword: true
    },
    lastName: {
      type: 'string',
      required: true,
      es_indexed: true,
      es_keyword: true
    }
  }
}

The Embedded Class

Embedded documents are, as the name suggests, documents that will not be stored under its own collection, but rather embedded in an existing collection. Documents classified as embedded are usually documents that do not make much sense outside the context of a parent document. Because the shape of any individual document schema is flat, Mushimas requires you to define a separate embedded document for each level of nesting in order to define documents with deeply nested structures.

See below for an example schema of an embedded document.

const Grades = {
  class: 'embedded',
  fields: {
    mathematics: {
      type: 'float',
      required: true,
      es_indexed: true,
      es_boost: 2.0
    },
    english: {
      type: 'float',
      required: true,
      es_indexed: true,
      es_boost: 1.5
    },
    physics: {
      type: 'float',
      required: false,
      es_indexed: true,
      es_boost: 1.0
    }
  }
}

In order to reference an embedded document from within a collection level document, simply create a reference field within the collection level document that points to the embedded document, like so:

// an embedded document
const Grades = {
  class: 'embedded',
  fields: {
    mathematics: {
      type: 'float',
      required: true,
      es_indexed: true,
      es_boost: 2.0
    },
    english: {
      type: 'float',
      required: true,
      es_indexed: true,
      es_boost: 1.5
    },
    physics: {
      type: 'float',
      required: false,
      es_indexed: true,
      es_boost: 1.0
    }
  }
}
 
// a collection level document that references the above defined embedded document
const Student = {
  class: 'collection',
  fields: {
    firstName: {
      type: 'string',
      required: true,
      es_indexed: true,
      es_keyword: true
    },
    lastName: {
      type: 'string',
      required: true,
      es_indexed: true,
      es_keyword: true
    },
    grades: {
      type: 'reference',
      ref: 'Grades',
      required: false,
      es_indexed: true
    }
  }
}

The fields Property

The fields property is an object that contains all of the fields of the document, which in turn contain information relevant to validation and search indexing of the field. Each key in the fields object corresponds to the name of a field, while its value is a field object that contains information about the field.

The field Object

Each field of a document has a couple of properties that Mushimas should know about. These properties are provided in the form of a field object, one for each field of the document. A field object can have a number of properties, both required and optional depending on its type. See below for details of each field type in turn.

String Fields

String fields have a required property: type, whose value must be set to "string". Refer to the table below for all the properties that may be defined on a field object of type "string".

Property Required Type Description
required true Boolean Tells Mushimas whether to always expect a value for the field
type true String Tells Mushimas how to parse values of the field
es_indexed true Boolean Tells Elasticsearch whether to analyze the field during indexing
es_keyword true Boolean Tells Elasticsearch whether to analyze the field as a keyword rather than as full-text
es_boost false Number Tells Elasticsearch how to weight the field when calculating the document's relevance score; defaults to 1.0
es_analyzer false String Tells Elasticsearch which analyzer to use during indexing; defaults to the standard analyzer
es_search_analyzer false String Tells Elasticsearch which analyzer to use during search; defaults to the analyzer defined at es_analyzer
es_search_quote_analyzer false String Tells Elasticsearch which analyzer to use for quotes during search; defaults to the analyzer defined at es_search_analyzer
Integer Fields

Integer fields have a required property: type, whose value must be set to "integer". Refer to the table below for all the properties that may be defined on a field object of type "integer".

Property Required Type Description
required true Boolean Tells Mushimas whether to always expect a value for the field
type true String Tells Mushimas how to parse values of the field
es_indexed true Boolean Tells Elasticsearch whether to analyze the field during indexing
es_boost false Number Tells Elasticsearch how to weight the field when calculating the document's relevance score; defaults to 1.0
Float Fields

Float fields have a required property: type, whose value must be set to "integer". Refer to the table below for all the properties that may be defined on a field object of type "float".

Property Required Type Description
required true Boolean Tells Mushimas whether to always expect a value for the field
type true String Tells Mushimas how to parse values of the field
es_indexed true Boolean Tells Elasticsearch whether to analyze the field during indexing
es_boost false Number Tells Elasticsearch how to weight the field when calculating the document's relevance score; defaults to 1.0
Boolean Fields

Integer fields have a required property: type, whose value must be set to "integer". Refer to the table below for all the properties that may be defined on a field object of type "integer".

Property Required Type Description
required true Boolean Tells Mushimas whether to always expect a value for the field
type true String Tells Mushimas how to parse values of the field
es_indexed true Boolean Tells Elasticsearch whether to analyze the field during indexing
es_boost false Number Tells Elasticsearch how to weight the field when calculating the document's relevance score; defaults to 1.0
Date Fields

Date fields have a required property: type, whose value must be set to "date". Date fields are a special kind of field in that it takes valid ISO Date objects. Refer to the table below for all the properties that may be defined on a field object of type "date".

Property Required Type Description
required true Boolean Tells Mushimas whether to always expect a value for the field
type true String Tells Mushimas how to parse values of the field
es_indexed true Boolean Tells Elasticsearch whether to analyze the field during indexing
es_boost false Number Tells Elasticsearch how to weight the field when calculating the document's relevance score; defaults to 1.0
default false String Specifies a default date to use during creation of the document. Takes any valid ISO Date string or the value: "current_date", which generates a timestamp during query time (on create or update)
Reference Fields

Reference fields have a required property: type, whose value must be set to "reference". Reference fields are a pointers to other collection class or embedded documents and are useful for nesting documents together. Refer to the table below for all the properties that may be defined on a field object of type "reference".

Property Required Type Description
required true Boolean Tells Mushimas whether to always expect a value for the field
type true String Tells Mushimas how to parse values of the field
es_indexed true Boolean Tells Elasticsearch whether to analyze the field containing the nested document during indexing
ref true String Tells Mushimas which document this field is a reference to. The value should be the document name as defined in the document schema definition and is case sensitive
Array Fields

Array fields have a required property: type, whose value must be set to "array". Array fields specify a list of values of some type of field. Array fields are useful for storing lists of values of the same type in a collection. Refer to the table below for all the properties that may be defined on a field object of type "array".

Property Required Type Description
required true Boolean Tells Mushimas whether to always expect a value for the field
type true String Tells Mushimas how to parse values of the field
item true Object Tells Mushimas the field type of the values that are contained in the array. The value must be an object that represents one of the field types described above; cannot be an array type because nesting arrays within arrays is not allowed

Composing the Document Definitions

All documents, of both the embedded and collection classes should be compiled into a single javascript object whose keys are the document names:

// for brevity we're using the previously defined sample documents
const documentDefinitions = {
  Grades,
  Student
}

Defining the Resolver

The resolver is a single function that defines how GraphQL API calls to the create_, find_, findOne_, update_, delete_ and search_ endpoints are handled. Because Mushimas generates the relevant Mongoose models and Elasticsearch mappings during runtime, the user is expected to create a curry function, call it createResolver, that accepts an object (which contains the Mongoose models and Elasticsearch mappings) as a parameter and returns an async resolver function. The resolver function returned by createResolver accepts an object containing details of the method being called by the GraphQL query, the particular document involved, the arguments of the query and the GraphQL context. With this information you could write logic within the resolver function that allows you to respond with the appropriate resource. Since the GraphQL context is provided, access control logic could also be implemented from within the resolver function.

The createResolver function

// for the sake of brevity, assume these methods are already defined in another place
const { find, findOne, search, create, update, _delete } = require('./predefinedMethods')
 
const createResolver = ({ mongoose_models, elastic_mappings }) =>
  async ({ method, collection, root, args, context }) => {
 
    // example resolver logic
    const model = mongoose_models[collection]
    const mapping = elastic_mappings[collection]
 
    switch(method) {
      case 'find':
        return await find(model, args)
      case 'findOne':
        return await findOne(model, args)
      case 'search':
        return await search(mapping, args)
      case 'create':
        return await create(model, args)
      case 'update':
        return await update(model, args)
      case 'delete':
        return await _delete(model, args)
    }
  }

Building the GraphQL Schema

Once the createResolver function and document definitions are set up, the GraphQL schema can be built by calling the buildGraphql function with the document definitions and createResolver function as arguments.

const { buildGraphql } = require('@umran/mushimas')
 
// for brevity assume these are already defined elsewhere
const documentDefinitions = require('./documentDefinitions')
const createResolver = require('./createResolver')
 
const { graphqlSchema } = buildGraphql(documentDefinitions, createResolver)

Setting Up and Running the GraphQL Server

Setting up and running the server is pretty straightforward. You will need to either create a new express app or use an existing one. The GraphQL server can be attached to the express instance as middleware at a path of your choice.

const express = require('express')
const graphqlHTTP = require('express-graphql')
 
// for brevity assume the graphqlSchema is already built and available elsewhere
const graphqlSchema = require('./graphqlSchema')
 
// create a new express app
const app = express()
 
app.use('/api', graphqlHTTP({
  schema: graphqlSchema,
  graphiql: true
}))
 
app.listen(3000)

Building the Mongoose Models and Elasticsearch Mappings Elsewhere in Your Code (Optional)

Sometimes it is not convenient to have code that calls the database directly live inside the GraphQL API server, for example when running a microservices architecture that decouples database operations from consumer facing services. For this reason a convenience function called buildBackend is available. This function can be imported and called by a separate process to generate the Mongoose models and Elasticsearch mappings needed to read and write to/from the databases.

With this capability the main resolver function which runs on the GraphQL API server can push queries to a message queue like RabbitMQ while a separate process consumes the queries and actually executes the database calls.

See below for sample code implemented in a separate NodeJS process:

const { buildBackend } = require('@umran/mushimas')
 
// the document definitions must be available to this process
const documentDefinitions = require('./documentDefinitions')
 
const { mongoose_models, elastic_mappings } = buildBackend(documentDefinitions)

install

npm i mushimas

Downloadsweekly downloads

19

version

6.6.0

license

MIT

homepage

github.com

repository

Gitgithub

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