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🥑 ArangoDB migrations and batch processing manager.

migrado is a command-line client that can help build and run schema or data migrations against your ArangoDB instance.

migrado utilizes ArangoDB Transactions when running data migrations to ensure failed scripts are rolled back automatically. arangosh from the ArangoDB Client Tools is required to run schema migrations, however no transaction safety is available at this point.

migrado should be considered alpha software. Make sure you test well before using in a production setting.

If you have trouble, open an issue. Contributions are welcome.


migrado requires Node.js 12 or higher.

$ yarn add migrado


$ npm install -s migrado

<!-- Usage

migrado can create a migrations directory and generate an initial set of collections from the given schema file:

$ migrado init --schema schema.yml

See YAML schemas for details. If no schema is specified, migrado will create an empty initial migration.

To make a new template migration script:

$ migrado make --name rewrite_names

This will create a new file, migrations/0002_rewrite_names.js (--name is optional), which you can edit as you see fit. See Migration scripts for details.

When you are ready, run all migrations not currently ran against the database:

$ migrado run

migrado stores migration state in a configurable collection, see --help or Environment vars for details.

If you wrote a reverse() migration, you can revert to an earlier point by specifying a target migration id. To revert to the initial migration:

$ migrado run --target 0001

You can compare the current database migration state with migration files on disk with:

$ migrado inspect

Use the --help option for help on any command when using the client.

Environment vars

The following environment variables are employed by migrado:

  • MIGRADO_PATH: Specifies the path to the migrations directory, replaces -p, --path (default: migrations).
  • MIGRADO_DB: Specifies the ArangoDB database name for generated migrations to interact with, replaces -d, --db (no default, but required for the run command).
  • MIGRADO_COLL: Specifies ArangoDb collection name to store migration state in, replaces -c, --state-coll (default: migrado).
  • MIGRADO_TLS: Use TLS for connection when running migrations, replaces -T, --tls (default: False).
  • MIGRADO_HOST: Specifies the database host for running migrations, replaces -H, --host (default: localhost).
  • MIGRADO_PORT: Specifies the database port for running migrations, replaces -P, --port (default: 8529).
  • MIGRADO_USER: Specifies the database username for running migrations, replaces -U, --username (no default).
  • MIGRADO_PASS: Specifies the database password for running migrations, replaces -W, --password (no default).

YAML schemas

ArangoDB may be schemaless, but in a larger project it still makes sense to keep a schema spec up to date, both for an overview of collections and their data structures, and as a basis for validation.

migrado uses a schema model based on JSON Schema, in YAML, and can use this to generate an initial migration for the collections available in your database.

Example schema:

Migration scripts

Migration scripts are structured so they may be parsed and run easily by both migrado and ArangoDB. In addition, they are structured so they may be run manually against ArangoDB using arangosh.

There are two types of script, data and schema migration scripts.


Data migrations

You need to declare all collections subject to write operations using the syntax // write collection_name, because ArangoDB needs this information for locking during transactions. We've made the declaration explicit to reduce errors. Attempting to write to collections not declared in this way will cause the migration to fail.

In general, a reverse migration should do the logical opposite of a forward migration. forward() and reverse() functions can contain anything that the ArangoDB V8 engine understands, but must be fully self-contained. Anything outside these functions is ignored and unavailable when running migrations.

Here's an example migration script for adding new_field in collection things:

// write things
function forward(db) {
    var db = require("@arangodb").db
        FOR thing IN things
            UPDATE thing WITH { new_field: "some value" } IN things
function reverse(db) {
        FOR thing IN things
            REPLACE thing WITH UNSET(thing, "new_field") IN things

More Examples

Please make sure you read limitations when running transactions in the ArangoDB documentation. In particular, creation and deletion of databases, collections, and indexes is not allowed in transactions.

Schema migrations

Schema migrations are stuctured in the same way as data migrations, but are run against arangosh as opposed to the HTTP API. There is no transaction safety when running schema migrations.

Schema migrations are structured the same way as data migrations, but // write declarations are not required. All operations are allowed.

Here's an example migration script generated from the YAML schema above:

function forward(db) {
function reverse(db) {

Please be careful when running schema migrations in reverse. As you can see, the reverse() function above would drop your collections if you were to reverse beyond this point. Currently, you will not be able to do so for an initial migration.

Influenced From


npm i migrado

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