Matryoshka is a package for Cordova/PhoneGap 3.0 and above that lets you do live, on-device updating of the app's code.


Notice: This should be considered experimental code at the moment — it may not be ready for prime time. I've been testing it on iOS and Android. Other platforms are totally untested. Testers are welcome, but please back up your code before starting and report any issues you might encounter. If you want to add a new platform, see below.

This is working more or less the way I want it, so there shouldn't be any breaking changes, but obviously that can't be guaranteed at this stage.

Matryoshka is for Cordova/Phonegap 3.0 and above. It would probably be possible to make it work with earlier versions.

##What does it do?

For a quick overview, see the Demo Video

  1. Lets you build a "shell app" that can dynamically load your Phonegap/Cordova web code on the fly. No recompilation/reinstallation needed.
  2. Monitors your top-level www directory for changes and updates the platform-specific www directory accordingly (in addition to use with Matryoshka, this is handy if you're actually building the product with Xcode or Eclipse).
  3. Pushes these code updates to the device or simulator/emulator, again without requiring a rebuild and reinstall. Save a change to the www folder at the top level and your device is running the new code within seconds.


Clone the repo and run:

npm install -g

from the repo root folder.

If you want to remove it later, use:

npm uninstall -g matryoshka

A future (stable) release will be published to the npm registry, but for now you'll have to get it directly from github.

Note that you only need to do this once (unless you need to add more plugins or the like).

  • Create a new project with a name of your choosing ("Matryoshka" is probably good, unless you have a strong preference for something else). Do any conjurations necessary to make it installable on your devices (e.g., for iOS, create and install a development provisioning profile for the app and your devices, and set the app's id to match the app id for the provisioning profile, set up code signing, yadda-yadda).
  • Set the whitelist so the Matryoshka app can load code from your development machine's IP address. On Android and iOS, this is done by setting the access origin key in the top-level www/config.xml file. In this specific case, I recommend setting it to just an asterisk. This will allow the Matryoshka app to load code from anywhere. This isn't a good policy in general, but in this case it's going to be your app running your code on your device, and it avoids problems if your server IP address changes (due to DHCP or whatever). The key should look like this afterward:

<access origin="*" />

  • Some of the other platforms require handling the whitelist in a slightly different way. Check the Domain Whitelist Guide for details.
  • Add the code and resources from the app folder in the repo to the top-level www folder in your Matryoshka project (overwriting the generated index.html, etc.).
  • Add all the plugins to the Matryoshka project. Yes, all of them. All the standard plugins and all the third-party plugins that you normally use. Matryoshka can dynamically update your web code, but not compiled platform-specific code like plugins. If you need (or might need) a plugin, add it now (of course you can always rebuild/reinstall the Matryosha app later if you forget something or need something new).
  • Build the app and install it on all the devices and simulators/emulators that you normally use.

##Using Matryoshka with Your Own Projects

  1. Add the matryoshka-client.js file from the repo to your project's www folder, and add a script element for it to every HTML file that you want to monitor and dynamically reload.
  2. Build the project at least once from the command line, to ensure that all the folders, etc. are in place and that no build errors occur.
  3. Open a new terminal shell and navigate to the top level of your project. Run:

matryoshka [platform] where platform is ios, android, etc.

You may also specify an optional port number after the platform. If not supplied, the server will run on port 8089.

Your system's firewall may ask for permission to receive incoming connections. If so, grant it.

When the Matryoshka server starts, it should tell you which port number and IP address(es) it is using. Make a note of the external IP address (i.e., the one that is not

After it starts up, the server will begin monitoring the top-level www folder for changes and should automatically propagate those changes into the platform-specific www folder (e.g., platforms/ios/www).

Next, run the Matryoshka app on your device and enter the IP address and port number for the Matryoshka server. Tap Go and your own app's web code should load, replacing the Matryoskha app's web code.

Once the server and app are both running, any changes under the top-level www folder in your project (editing, adding, or deleting files) should be reflected in the running Matryoshka app within a few seconds.

Cool beans, huh?

When you're finished, just terminate the Matryoshka server (Control-C on most platforms).

If you need to return to the main screen in the Matryoshka app, the matryoshka-client.js file exposes a matryoshkaHome() function that you can call from within your app (or from the JavaScript console, etc.).

##Known and Potential Limitations, Issues, and Workarounds

  1. If your Matryoshka server is running on a machine on the public internet, anyone will be able to see your code. It is recommended that you run the server on a machine behind a NAT (or otherwise firewalled against incoming connections from the public net). However, you also need to make sure that your devices can connect to the server (see the discussion in troubleshooting below). Note that the built-in web server in Cordova also works this way. These servers are for testing and development, and are not hardened/secured for general use on the public internet.

  2. Before building and submitting a production app to the iOS App Store, remove both the matryoshka-client.js and the script elements for it in your HTML files. I guarantee that Apple's reviewers won't be amused by finding dynamic code loading in a production app. :-)

  3. Matryoshka can only make live updates for the web portion of your code (HTML, JavaScript, CSS, web image resources, etc.). It can't update native code (e.g., plugins). For native stuff you'll still have to rebuild and reinstall before any changes are reflected. If you need to add a new plugin, add it to your own app as you normally would, then build the app from the command line at least once to make sure the plugin files are updated. If the same plugin is already installed in the Matryoshka app, you're good to go. If not, you'll have to install the plugin in the Matryoshka app codebase as well, then rebuild and reinstall the Matryoshka app on your device. Matryoshka uses your app's JavaScript plugin code and the Matryoshka app's native code, so the plugin needs to be installed in both.

##Plugin Compatibility

In theory, most plugins should work as long as the plugin is added to both the Matryoshka app and the app under test. In practice there are some exceptions which will be noted here as they're discovered. At this early stage, "seems to work" in this list should be interpreted as "tried with one of the simple examples in the docs" rather than "rigorously tested". :-)

Anything that uses a file:// URL to load stuff from the device is likely to cause trouble. When your app is running in Matryoshka, it's being loaded as a remote site over http. Browser security restrictions prevent direct access to local files from remote web sites. Normally this is a very good thing (you don't want random web pages reading files from your hard drive) but it's troublesome for an app of this type. There may be a way around this (configuring security on the web view, e.g.) — investigating.

  • Accelerometer: seems to work on iOS. Not working on one of my Android devices (but does work on the other). Investigating.

  • Camera: partial support on both iOS and Android. Taking pictures works, as does returning the image with Camera.DestinationType.DATA_URL. Camera.DestinationType.FILE_URI partially works, in the sense that you can take a picture, but suffers from the "loading file:// from http://' issue discussed above.

  • Capture: untested. Likely also suffers from the "loading file:// from http://' issue.

  • Compass: seems to work on both Android (if the device has a compass) and iOS (previous weird behavior on iOS went away after recalibrating compass).

  • Connection: seems to work on both Android and iOS.

  • Contacts: seems to work on both Android and iOS.

  • Device: seems to work on both Android and iOS.

  • Events: deviceready seems to work on both Android and iOS. Others untested.

  • File: seems to work on both Android and iOS (tested using my gapfile gapfile plugin).

  • Geolocation: seems to work on both Android (if the Android device has GPS, some don't) and iOS.

  • Globalization: untested.

  • InAppBrowser: seems to work on both Android and iOS.

  • Media: untested.

  • Notification: seems to work on both Android and iOS (both dialog and vibration).

  • Splashscreen: untested.

  • Storage: seems to work on both Android and iOS. However, do note that the local storage for your app running stand-alone and the local storage for your app running in Matryoshka are going to be different.


If it doesn't work, check these possible causes:

  • Are the Matryoshka app and server able to see each other? One way to check is to go into the regular browser on the mobile device and try to load http://(server ip address):(server port)/index.html. If it comes up in the browser, you're good. If not, make sure that your device is on the same network as the Matryoshka server (e.g., on the same wireless LAN). It definitely won't work if your device is on the cellular data network and your server is behind a NAT or firewall.

  • JavaScript or other errors in your code might cause the updates to stop working. If you're using a debugging tool that lets you connect to the JavaScript console on the device (e.g., the Web Inspector in Safari, weinre, etc.) you should be able to force a manual reload of your app by running this line in the console:

window.location='http://(server IP address):(server port)/index.html'

  • You can go back to the Matryoshka startup page with:


  • If you find yourself doing these things often, you could put temporary buttons in your app to run these code snippets without messing with the JavaScript console.

  • This technique also handy if you want to start debugging a different app without quitting the Matryoshka app. Just terminate the running Matryoshka server, switch to the folder for the new app, restart the server, and run one of the lines above in the JavaScript console.

  • If things really get messed up, you may need to terminate and restart the Matryoskha app. On iOS 7, this is done by double-tapping on the Home button, then swiping upward on the app's mini-screenshot (not the icon). On Android, you can do this by Force Stopping from the Applications menu (YMMV on where this is located — it's under Settings on both of my Android devices).

##Adding a New Platform

If you want to try it with a platform that isn't currently supported, load up lib/matryoshka.js and add entries for the proper folders for your platform in buildfolders and assetfolders. The entry in buildfolders is likely to be 'platforms/[platformname]', but the entry for assetfolders may vary. This is the folder where the generated www folder for your platform should be placed. For example, on iOS, the app's www folder is located at /platforms/ios, while for Android it's /platforms/android/assets. I have no idea for the others; firefoxos seems to follow the same pattern as iOS, but I have no way of actually testing it. Pull requests welcome on this.

Once you've added the correct folders, reinstall the matryoshka node module with npm install -g and restart any matryoshka servers you might have running.


Matryoshkya was written by Tony Hursh. Of course, major credit must go to the fine folks behind node (and all the node modules) and Cordova/PhoneGap itself.


I can be reached at tony.hursh -- AT -- However, please don't email bug reports or feature requests. Use the issue tracker instead. I get a lot of email. If I can't deal with your issue at the exact moment I get the mail, there's a good chance it will sink into the uncharted depths of my inbox, never to be seen again. :-)

If you want want to hire me to do something, have a look at my profile on the PhoneGap developer portal. I'm currently available for remote contract work.