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    8.5.1 • Public • Published


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    An implementation of JSON Web Tokens.

    This was developed against draft-ietf-oauth-json-web-token-08. It makes use of node-jws


    $ npm install jsonwebtoken

    Migration notes


    jwt.sign(payload, secretOrPrivateKey, [options, callback])

    (Asynchronous) If a callback is supplied, the callback is called with the err or the JWT.

    (Synchronous) Returns the JsonWebToken as string

    payload could be an object literal, buffer or string representing valid JSON.

    Please note that exp or any other claim is only set if the payload is an object literal. Buffer or string payloads are not checked for JSON validity.

    If payload is not a buffer or a string, it will be coerced into a string using JSON.stringify.

    secretOrPrivateKey is a string, buffer, or object containing either the secret for HMAC algorithms or the PEM encoded private key for RSA and ECDSA. In case of a private key with passphrase an object { key, passphrase } can be used (based on crypto documentation), in this case be sure you pass the algorithm option.


    • algorithm (default: HS256)
    • expiresIn: expressed in seconds or a string describing a time span zeit/ms.

      Eg: 60, "2 days", "10h", "7d". A numeric value is interpreted as a seconds count. If you use a string be sure you provide the time units (days, hours, etc), otherwise milliseconds unit is used by default ("120" is equal to "120ms").

    • notBefore: expressed in seconds or a string describing a time span zeit/ms.

      Eg: 60, "2 days", "10h", "7d". A numeric value is interpreted as a seconds count. If you use a string be sure you provide the time units (days, hours, etc), otherwise milliseconds unit is used by default ("120" is equal to "120ms").

    • audience
    • issuer
    • jwtid
    • subject
    • noTimestamp
    • header
    • keyid
    • mutatePayload: if true, the sign function will modify the payload object directly. This is useful if you need a raw reference to the payload after claims have been applied to it but before it has been encoded into a token.

    There are no default values for expiresIn, notBefore, audience, subject, issuer. These claims can also be provided in the payload directly with exp, nbf, aud, sub and iss respectively, but you can't include in both places.

    Remember that exp, nbf and iat are NumericDate, see related Token Expiration (exp claim)

    The header can be customized via the options.header object.

    Generated jwts will include an iat (issued at) claim by default unless noTimestamp is specified. If iat is inserted in the payload, it will be used instead of the real timestamp for calculating other things like exp given a timespan in options.expiresIn.

    Synchronous Sign with default (HMAC SHA256)

    var jwt = require('jsonwebtoken');
    var token = jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar' }, 'shhhhh');

    Synchronous Sign with RSA SHA256

    // sign with RSA SHA256
    var privateKey = fs.readFileSync('private.key');
    var token = jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar' }, privateKey, { algorithm: 'RS256'});

    Sign asynchronously

    jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar' }, privateKey, { algorithm: 'RS256' }, function(err, token) {

    Backdate a jwt 30 seconds

    var older_token = jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar', iat: Math.floor( / 1000) - 30 }, 'shhhhh');

    Token Expiration (exp claim)

    The standard for JWT defines an exp claim for expiration. The expiration is represented as a NumericDate:

    A JSON numeric value representing the number of seconds from 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z UTC until the specified UTC date/time, ignoring leap seconds. This is equivalent to the IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition [POSIX.1] definition "Seconds Since the Epoch", in which each day is accounted for by exactly 86400 seconds, other than that non-integer values can be represented. See RFC 3339 [RFC3339] for details regarding date/times in general and UTC in particular.

    This means that the exp field should contain the number of seconds since the epoch.

    Signing a token with 1 hour of expiration:

      exp: Math.floor( / 1000) + (60 * 60),
      data: 'foobar'
    }, 'secret');

    Another way to generate a token like this with this library is:

      data: 'foobar'
    }, 'secret', { expiresIn: 60 * 60 });
    //or even better:
      data: 'foobar'
    }, 'secret', { expiresIn: '1h' });

    jwt.verify(token, secretOrPublicKey, [options, callback])

    (Asynchronous) If a callback is supplied, function acts asynchronously. The callback is called with the decoded payload if the signature is valid and optional expiration, audience, or issuer are valid. If not, it will be called with the error.

    (Synchronous) If a callback is not supplied, function acts synchronously. Returns the payload decoded if the signature is valid and optional expiration, audience, or issuer are valid. If not, it will throw the error.

    token is the JsonWebToken string

    secretOrPublicKey is a string or buffer containing either the secret for HMAC algorithms, or the PEM encoded public key for RSA and ECDSA. If jwt.verify is called asynchronous, secretOrPublicKey can be a function that should fetch the secret or public key. See below for a detailed example

    As mentioned in this comment, there are other libraries that expect base64 encoded secrets (random bytes encoded using base64), if that is your case you can pass Buffer.from(secret, 'base64'), by doing this the secret will be decoded using base64 and the token verification will use the original random bytes.


    • algorithms: List of strings with the names of the allowed algorithms. For instance, ["HS256", "HS384"].
    • audience: if you want to check audience (aud), provide a value here. The audience can be checked against a string, a regular expression or a list of strings and/or regular expressions.

      Eg: "urn:foo", /urn:f[o]{2}/, [/urn:f[o]{2}/, "urn:bar"]

    • complete: return an object with the decoded { payload, header, signature } instead of only the usual content of the payload.
    • issuer (optional): string or array of strings of valid values for the iss field.
    • ignoreExpiration: if true do not validate the expiration of the token.
    • ignoreNotBefore...
    • subject: if you want to check subject (sub), provide a value here
    • clockTolerance: number of seconds to tolerate when checking the nbf and exp claims, to deal with small clock differences among different servers
    • maxAge: the maximum allowed age for tokens to still be valid. It is expressed in seconds or a string describing a time span zeit/ms.

      Eg: 1000, "2 days", "10h", "7d". A numeric value is interpreted as a seconds count. If you use a string be sure you provide the time units (days, hours, etc), otherwise milliseconds unit is used by default ("120" is equal to "120ms").

    • clockTimestamp: the time in seconds that should be used as the current time for all necessary comparisons.
    • nonce: if you want to check nonce claim, provide a string value here. It is used on Open ID for the ID Tokens. (Open ID implementation notes)
    // verify a token symmetric - synchronous
    var decoded = jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh');
    console.log( // bar
    // verify a token symmetric
    jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh', function(err, decoded) {
      console.log( // bar
    // invalid token - synchronous
    try {
      var decoded = jwt.verify(token, 'wrong-secret');
    } catch(err) {
      // err
    // invalid token
    jwt.verify(token, 'wrong-secret', function(err, decoded) {
      // err
      // decoded undefined
    // verify a token asymmetric
    var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem');  // get public key
    jwt.verify(token, cert, function(err, decoded) {
      console.log( // bar
    // verify audience
    var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem');  // get public key
    jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo' }, function(err, decoded) {
      // if audience mismatch, err == invalid audience
    // verify issuer
    var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem');  // get public key
    jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo', issuer: 'urn:issuer' }, function(err, decoded) {
      // if issuer mismatch, err == invalid issuer
    // verify jwt id
    var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem');  // get public key
    jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo', issuer: 'urn:issuer', jwtid: 'jwtid' }, function(err, decoded) {
      // if jwt id mismatch, err == invalid jwt id
    // verify subject
    var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem');  // get public key
    jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo', issuer: 'urn:issuer', jwtid: 'jwtid', subject: 'subject' }, function(err, decoded) {
      // if subject mismatch, err == invalid subject
    // alg mismatch
    var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key
    jwt.verify(token, cert, { algorithms: ['RS256'] }, function (err, payload) {
      // if token alg != RS256,  err == invalid signature
    // Verify using getKey callback
    // Example uses as a way to fetch the keys.
    var jwksClient = require('jwks-rsa');
    var client = jwksClient({
      jwksUri: ''
    function getKey(header, callback){
      client.getSigningKey(header.kid, function(err, key) {
        var signingKey = key.publicKey || key.rsaPublicKey;
        callback(null, signingKey);
    jwt.verify(token, getKey, options, function(err, decoded) {
      console.log( // bar

    jwt.decode(token [, options])

    (Synchronous) Returns the decoded payload without verifying if the signature is valid.

    Warning: This will not verify whether the signature is valid. You should not use this for untrusted messages. You most likely want to use jwt.verify instead.

    token is the JsonWebToken string


    • json: force JSON.parse on the payload even if the header doesn't contain "typ":"JWT".
    • complete: return an object with the decoded payload and header.


    // get the decoded payload ignoring signature, no secretOrPrivateKey needed
    var decoded = jwt.decode(token);
    // get the decoded payload and header
    var decoded = jwt.decode(token, {complete: true});

    Errors & Codes

    Possible thrown errors during verification. Error is the first argument of the verification callback.


    Thrown error if the token is expired.

    Error object:

    • name: 'TokenExpiredError'
    • message: 'jwt expired'
    • expiredAt: [ExpDate]
    jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh', function(err, decoded) {
      if (err) {
          err = {
            name: 'TokenExpiredError',
            message: 'jwt expired',
            expiredAt: 1408621000


    Error object:

    • name: 'JsonWebTokenError'
    • message:
      • 'jwt malformed'
      • 'jwt signature is required'
      • 'invalid signature'
      • 'jwt audience invalid. expected: [OPTIONS AUDIENCE]'
      • 'jwt issuer invalid. expected: [OPTIONS ISSUER]'
      • 'jwt id invalid. expected: [OPTIONS JWT ID]'
      • 'jwt subject invalid. expected: [OPTIONS SUBJECT]'
    jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh', function(err, decoded) {
      if (err) {
          err = {
            name: 'JsonWebTokenError',
            message: 'jwt malformed'


    Thrown if current time is before the nbf claim.

    Error object:

    • name: 'NotBeforeError'
    • message: 'jwt not active'
    • date: 2018-10-04T16:10:44.000Z
    jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh', function(err, decoded) {
      if (err) {
          err = {
            name: 'NotBeforeError',
            message: 'jwt not active',
            date: 2018-10-04T16:10:44.000Z

    Algorithms supported

    Array of supported algorithms. The following algorithms are currently supported.

    alg Parameter Value Digital Signature or MAC Algorithm
    HS256 HMAC using SHA-256 hash algorithm
    HS384 HMAC using SHA-384 hash algorithm
    HS512 HMAC using SHA-512 hash algorithm
    RS256 RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-256 hash algorithm
    RS384 RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-384 hash algorithm
    RS512 RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-512 hash algorithm
    PS256 RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 hash algorithm (only node ^6.12.0 OR >=8.0.0)
    PS384 RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 hash algorithm (only node ^6.12.0 OR >=8.0.0)
    PS512 RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 hash algorithm (only node ^6.12.0 OR >=8.0.0)
    ES256 ECDSA using P-256 curve and SHA-256 hash algorithm
    ES384 ECDSA using P-384 curve and SHA-384 hash algorithm
    ES512 ECDSA using P-521 curve and SHA-512 hash algorithm
    none No digital signature or MAC value included

    Refreshing JWTs

    First of all, we recommend you to think carefully if auto-refreshing a JWT will not introduce any vulnerability in your system.

    We are not comfortable including this as part of the library, however, you can take a look at this example to show how this could be accomplished. Apart from that example there are an issue and a pull request to get more knowledge about this topic.


    • X.509 certificate chain is not checked

    Issue Reporting

    If you have found a bug or if you have a feature request, please report them at this repository issues section. Please do not report security vulnerabilities on the public GitHub issue tracker. The Responsible Disclosure Program details the procedure for disclosing security issues.




    This project is licensed under the MIT license. See the LICENSE file for more info.



    npm i jsonwebtoken@8.5.1





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