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    Integreat

    An integration layer for node.js.

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    Note: We're still changing the api rather drastically from release to release. We encourage trying it out and experimenting with Integreat, and we highly appreciate feedback, but know that anything might change.

    The basic idea of Integreat is to make it easy to define a set of data services and expose them through a well defined interface, to abstract away the specifics of each service, and map their data to defined schemas.

    This is done through:

    • adapters, that does all the hard work of communicating with the different services
    • a definition format, for setting up each service with the right adapter and parameters
    • a dispatch() function that sends actions to the right adapters via internal action handlers

    It is possible to set up Integreat to treat one service as a store/buffer for other services, and schedule syncs between the store and the other services.

    Finally, there will be different interface modules available, that will plug into the dispatch() function and offer other ways of reaching data from the services – such as out of the box REST or GraphQL APIs.

                _________________
               |    Integreat    |
               |                 |
               |        |-> Adapter <-> Service
    Action -> Dispatch -|        |
               |        |-> Adapter <-> Service
               |                 |
               |_________________|
    

    Data from the services is retrieved, normalized, and mapped by the adapter, and returned asynchronously back to the code that initiated the action. Actions for fetching data will be executed right away.

    Actions that update data on services will reversely map and serialize the data before it is sent to a service. These actions may be queued or scheduled, by setting up Integreat with the supplied queue middleware.

    Integreat comes with a standard data format, which is the only format that will be exposed to the code dispatching the actions. The mapping, normalizing, and serializing will happing to and from this format, according to the defined schemas and mapping rules.

    To deal with security and permissions, Integreat has a built-in concept of an ident. Other authentication schemes may be mapped to Integreat's ident scheme, to provide data security from a service to another service or to the dispatched action. A ground principle is that nothing that enters Integreat from an authenticated service, will leave Integreat unauthenticated. What this means, though, depends on how you define your services.

    Install

    Requires node v8.6.

    Install from npm:

    npm install integreat
    

    Hello world

    The hello world example of Integreat, would look something like this:

    const integreat = require('integreat')
    const adapters = integreat.adapters('json')
    
    const schemas = [{
      id: 'message',
      plural: 'messages',
      service: 'helloworld',
      attributes: {text: 'string'}
    }]
    
    const services = [{
      id: 'helloworld',
      adapter: 'json',
      endpoints: [
        {options: {uri: 'https://api.helloworld.io/json'}}
      ],
      mappings: {
        message: {
          attributes: {text: {path: 'message'}}
        }
      }
    }]
    
    const great = integreat({schemas, services}, {adapters})
    const action = {type: 'GET', payload: {type: 'message'}}
    
    great.dispatch(action).then((data) => console.log(data.attributes.text))
    //--> Hello world

    As most hello world examples, this is a bit too trivial a use case to demonstrate the real usefulness of Integreat, but shows the simplest setup possible.

    The example requires an imagined api at 'https://api.helloworld.io/json', returning the following json data:

    {
      "message": "Hello world"
    }

    Schema definitions

    To do anything with Integreat, you need to define one or more schemas. They describe the data you expected to get out of Integreat. A type will be associated with a service, which is used to retrieve data for the type, unless another service is specified.

    {
      id: <string>,
      plural: <string>,
      service: <serviceId>,
      attributes: {
        <attrId>: {
          type: <string>,
          default: <object>
        }
      },
      relationships: {
        <relId>: {
          type: <string>,
          default: <object>,
          query: <query params>
        }
      },
      auth: <auth def>
    }
    

    The convention is to use singular mode for the id. The plural property is optional, but it's good practice to set it to the plural mode of the id, as some interfaces may use it. For instance, integreat-api-json uses it to build a RESTful endpoint structure, and will append an s to id if plural is not set – which may be weird in some cases.

    Attributes

    Each attribute is defined with an id, which may contain only alphanumeric characters, and may not start with a digit. This id is used to reference the attribute.

    The type defaults to string. Other options are integer, float, boolean, and date. Data from Integreat will be cast to corresponding JavaScript types.

    The default value will be used when a data service does not provide this value. Default is null.

    Relationships

    Relationship is defined in the same way as attributes, but with one important difference: The type property refers to other Integreat schemas. E.g. a schema for an article may have a relationship called author, with type: 'user', referring to the schema with id user. type is required on relationships.

    The default property sets a default value for the relationship, in the same way as for attributes, but note that this value should be a valid id for an item of the type the relationship refers to.

    Finally, relationships have a query property, which is used to retrieve items for this relationship. In many cases, a service may not have data that maps to id(s) for a relationship directly, and this is the typical use case for this property.

    The query property is an object with key/value pairs, where the key is the id of a field (an attribute, a relationship, or id) on the schema the relationship refers to, and the value is the id of field on this schema.

    Example schema with a query definition:

    {
      id: 'user',
      ...
      relationships: {
        articles: {type: 'article', query: {author: 'id'}}
      }
    }
    

    In this case, the articles relationship on the user schema may be fetched by querying for all items of type article, where the author field equals the id of the user item in question.

    Authorization

    Set the access property to enforce permission checking on the schema. This applies to any service that provides this schema.

    The simplest access type auth, which means that anyone can do anything with the data of this schema, as long as they are authenticated.

    Example of a schema with an access rule:

    {
      id: 'entry',
      attributes: {...},
      relationships: {...},
      access: 'auth'
    }

    To signal that the schema really has no need for authorization, use all. This is not the same as not setting the auth prop, as all will override Integreat's principle of not letting authorized data out of Integreat without an authorization rule. In a way, you can say that all is an authorization rule, but it allows anybody to access the data, even the unauthenticated.

    The last of the simpler access types, is none, which will simly give no one access, no matter who they are.

    For a more fine-grained rules, set access to an access definition.

    Service definitions

    Service definitions are at the core of Integreat, as they define the services to fetch data from, how to map this data to a set of items to make available through Integreat's data api, and how to send data back to the service.

    A service definition object defines the adapter, any authentication method, the endpoints for fetching from and sending to the service, and mappings to the supported schemas (attributes and relationships):

    {
      id: <string>,
      adapter: <string>,
      auth: <auth id>,
      meta: <type id>,
      options: {...},
      endpoints: [
        <endpoint definition>,
        ...
      ],
      mappings: {
        <schema id>: <mapping definition | mapping id>,
        ...
      }
    }
    

    Service definitions are passed to Integreat on creation through the integreat() function. To add services after creation, pass a service definition to the great.setService() method. There is also a great.removeService() method, that accepts the id of a service to remove.

    See mapping definition for a description of the relationship between services and mappings, and the mappings property.

    The auth property should normally be set to the id of an auth definition if the service requires authentication. In cases where the service is authenticated by other means, e.g. by including username and password in the uri, set the auth property to true to signal that this is an authenticated service.

    Endpoint definition

    {
      id: <string>,
      match: {
        type: <string>,
        scope: <'collection'|'member'>,
        action: <action type>,
        params: {...},
        filters: []
      },
      requestMapping: <string | mapping def>,
      responseMapping: <string | mapping def>,
      mapResponseWithType: <boolean>,
      validate: [],
      options: {...}
    }
    

    Match properties

    An endpoint may specify none or more of the following match properties:

    • id: An action payload may include an endpoint property, that will be matched against this id. For actions with an endpoint id, no other matching properties will be considered
    • type: When set, the endpoint will only be used for actions with the specified schema type (not to be confused with the action type)
    • scope: May be member or collection, to specify that the endpoint should be used to request one item (member) or an entire collection of items. Setting this to member will require an id property in the action payload. Not setting this property signals an endpoint that will work for both
    • action: May be set to the type string of an action. The endpoint will match only actions of this type

    Endpoints are matched to an action by picking the matching endpoint with highest level of specificity. E.g., for a GET action asking for resources of type entry, an endpoint with action: 'GET' and type: 'entry' is picked over an endpoint matching all GET actions.

    Properties are matched in the order they are listed above, so that when two endpoints matches – e.g. one with a scope and the other with an action, the one matching with scope is picked. When two endpoints are equally specified with the same match properties specified, the first one is used.

    All match properties except id may be specified with an array of matching values, so that an endpoint may match more cases. However, when two endpoints match on a property specified as an array on one and as a single value on the other, the one with the single value is picked.

    When no match properties are set, the endpoint will match any actions, as long as no other endpoints match.

    Params property

    An endpoint may accept properties, and indicate this by listing them on the params object, with the value set to true for required params. All properties are treated as strings.

    An endpoint is only used for actions where all the required parameters are present.

    Example service definition with endpoint parameters:

    {
      id: 'entries',
      adapter: 'json',
      endpoints: [
        {
          params: {
            author: true,
            archive: false
          },
          options: {
            uri: 'https://example.api.com/1.0/{author}/{type}_log{?archive}'
          }
        }
      ],
      ...
    }
    

    Some params are always available and does not need to be specified in params, unless to define them as required:

    • id: The item id from the action payload or from the data property (if it is an object and not an array). Required in endpoints with scope: 'member', not included for scope: 'collection', and optional when scope is not set.
    • type: The item type from the action payload or from the data property (if it is an object and not an array).
    • typePlural: The plural form of the type, gotten from the corresponding schema's plural prop – or by adding an 's' to the type is plural is not set.

    Options property

    Unlike the match properties, the options property is required. This should be an object with properties to be passed to the adapter as part of a request. The props are completely adapter specific, so that each adapter can dictate what kind of information it will need, but there are a set of recommended props to use when they are relevant:

    • uri: A uri template, where e.g. {id} will be placed with the value of the parameter id from the action payload. For a full specification of the template format, see Integreat URI Template.

    • path: A path into the data, specific for this endpoint. It will usually point to an array, in which the items can be found, but as mappings may have their own path, the endpoint path may point to an object from where the different mapping paths point to different arrays.

    • method: An adapter specific keyword, to tell the adapter which method of transportation to use. For adapters based on http, the options will typically be PUT, POST, etc. The method specified on the endpoint will override any method provided elsewhere. As an example, the SET action will use the PUT method as default, but only if no method is specified on the endpoint.

    Mapping definition

    {
      id: <string>,
      type: <typeId>,
      path: <string>,
      attributes: {
        <attrKey>: {
          path: <string>,
          transform: <transform pipeline>
        }
      },
      relationships: {
        <relKey>: {
          path: <string>,
          transform: <transform pipeline>
        }
      },
      toService: {
        path: <string>,
        transform: <transform pipeline>
      }
      qualifier: <string>,
      transform: <transform pipeline>,
      filterFrom: <filter pipeline>,
      filterTo: <filter pipeline>
    }
    

    id, createdAt, or updatedAt should be defined as attributes on the attributes property, but will be moved to the item on mapping. If any of these are not defined, default values will be used; a UUID for id and the current timestamp for createdAt and updatedAt.

    Data from the service may come in a different format than what is required by Integreat, so specify a path to point to the right value for each attribute and relationship. These values will be cast to the right schema after all mapping, mutating, and transforming is done. The value of each attribute or relationship should be in a format that can be coerced to the type defined in the schema. The transform pipeline may be used to accomplish this, but it is sufficient to return something that can be cast to the right type. E.g. returning '3' for an integer is okay, as Integreat will cast it with parseInt().

    The param property is an alternative to specifying a path, and refers to a param passed to the retrieve method. Instead of retrieving a value from the service data, an attribute or relationship with param will get its value from the corresponding parameter. When sending data to a service, this attribute/relationship will be disregarded.

    Most of the time, your attributes and relationships definitions will only have the path property, so providing the path string instead of an object is a useful shorthand for this. I.e. {title: 'article.headline'} translates to {title: {path: 'article.headline'}}.

    The toService section behaves just like attributes and relationships, except that it is only used when mapping to a service. This is where you'll put mappings that don't have a corresponding field in the schema you map to/from, e.g. root paths like $params.service.

    Mappings relate to both services and schemas, as the thing that binds them together, but it is the service definition that "owns" them. The mappings object on a service definition contains the ids of all relevant schemas as keys, and the value for these keys are either a mapping definition object or a mapping id. The type property of a mapping definition is optional when defined directly in a service definition, but should match the key if it is set.

    In some cases you may be able to reuse a mapping for several services or several types, by referring to the mapping id from several service definitions.

    Paths

    Mappings, attributes, and relationships all have an optional path property, for specifying what part of the data from the service to return in each case. (Endpoints may also have a path property, but not all adapters support this.)

    The path properties use a dot notation with array brackets.

    For example, with this data returned from the service ...

    const data = {
      sections: [
        {
          title: 'First section',
          articles: {
            items: [
              {id: 'article1', title: 'The title', body: {content: 'The text'}}
            ],
            ...
          }
        }
      ]
    }

    ... a valid path to retrieve all items of the first instance of sections would be 'sections[0].articles.items[]' and to get the content of each item 'body.content'.

    The bracket notation offers some possibilities for filtering arrays:

    • [] - Matches all items in an array
    • [0] - Matches the item at index 0
    • [1:3] - Matches all items from index 1 to 3, not including 3.
    • [-1] - Matches the last item in the array.
    • [id="ent1"] - Matches the item with an id equal to 'ent1'

    The bracket notation also offers two options for objects:

    • [keys] - Matches all keys on an object
    • [values] - Matches all values for the object's keys

    When mapping data to the service, the paths are used to reconstruct the data format the service expects. Only properties included in the paths will be created, so any additional properties must be set by a transform function or the adapter.

    Arrays are reconstructed with any object or value at the first index, unless a single, non-negative index is specified in the path.

    Prefix a path with $ to map with values from the request object, e.g. $params.service.

    You may optionally supply alternative paths by providing an array of paths. If the first one does not match any properties in the data, the next path is tried, and so on.

    Qualifiers

    When a service returns data for several schemas, Integreat needs a way to recognize which schema to use for each item in the data. For some services, the different schemas may be find on different paths in the data, so specifying different paths on each mapping is sufficient. But when all items are returned in one array, for instance, you need to specify qualifiers for the mappings.

    A qualifier is simply a path with an expression that will evaluate to true or false. If a mapping has qualifiers, it will only be applied to data that satisfies all its qualifiers. Qualifiers are applied to the data at the mapping's path, before it is mapped and transformed.

    An example of two mappings with qualifiers:

    ...
    mappings: {
      entry: {
        attributes: {...},
        qualifier: 'type="entry"'
      },
      admin: {
        attributes: {...},
        qualifier: [
          'type="account"',
          'permissions.roles[]="admin"'
        ]
      }
    }
    

    When a qualifier points to an array, the qualifier returns true when at least one of the items in the array satisfies the condition.

    Configuring metadata

    If a service may send and receive metadata, set the meta property to the id of a schema defining the metadata as attributes.

    {
      id: 'meta',
      service: <id of service handling the metadata>,
      attributes: {
        <metadataKey>: {
          type: <string>
        }
      }
    }
    

    The service property on the type defines the service that holds metadata for this type. In some cases the service you're defining metadata for and the service handling these metadata will be the same, but it is possible to let a service handle other services' metadata. If you're getting data from a read-only service, but need to, for instance, set the lastSyncedAt metadata for this store, you'll set up a service as a store for this (the store may also hold other types of data). Then the read-only store will be defined with meta='meta', and the meta schema will have service='store'.

    It will usually make no sense to specify default values for metadata.

    As with other data received and sent to services, make sure to include endpoints for the service that will hold the metadata, matching the GET_META and SET_META actions, or the schema defining the metadata. The way you set up these endpoints will depend on your service.

    Also define a mapping between this schema and the service. You may leave out attributes and relationships definitions and the service will receive the metadata in Integreat's standard format:

    {
      id: <serviceId>,
      type: <meta type>,
      createdAt: <date>,
      updatedAt: <date>,
      attributes: {
        <key>: <value>
      }
    }
    

    Finally, if a service will not have metadata, simply set meta to null or skip it all together.

    Idents and security rules

    An ident in Integreat is basically an id unique to one participant in the security scheme. It is represented by an object, that may also have other properties to describe the ident's permissions, or to make it possible to map identities in other systems, to an Integreat ident.

    Example ident:

    {
      id: 'ident1',
      tokens: ['facebook|12345', 'twitter|23456'],
      roles: ['admin']
    }

    The actual value of the id is irrelevant to Integreat, as long as it is a string with A-Z, a-z, 0-9, _, and -, and it's unique within one Integreat configuration. This means that mapped value from services may be used as ident ids, but be careful to set this up right.

    tokens are other values that may identify this ident. E.g., an api that uses Twitter OAuth to identify it's users, may provide the 'twitter|23456' token in the example above, which will be replaced with this ident when it enters Integreat.

    roles are an example of how idents are given permissions. The roles are custom defined per setup, and may be mapped to roles from other systems. When setting the auth rules for a service, roles may be used to require that the request to get data of this schema, an ident with the role admin must be provided.

    Idents may be supplied with an action on the meta.ident property. It's up to the code dispatching an action to get hold of the properties of an ident in a secure way. Once Integreat receives an ident, it will assume this is accurate information and uphold its part of the security agreement and only return data and execute actions that the ident have permissions for.

    Access rules

    Access rules are defined with properties telling Integreat which rights to require when performing different actions with a given schema. It may be set as a overall right to do anything with a schema, or it may be specified on the different action types available: GET, SET, and DELETE, including actions that start with these verbs.

    Note that this applies to the actual actions being sent to a service – some actions will never reach a service, but will trigger other actions, and access will be granted or refused to each of these actions as they reach the service interface, but not to the triggering action.

    An access definition for letting all authorized idents to GET, but requiring the role admin for SETs:

    {
      id: 'access1',
      actions: {
        GET: {allow: 'auth'},
        SET: {role: 'admin'}
      }
    }

    To use these access rules, set the definition object directly on the access property, of an schema, or set access: 'access1' on the relevant schema(s). The id is only needed in the latter case.

    Note: Referring to access rules by id is not implemented yet.

    For rules that treat every action the same, set the props on the access object directly. This will also define a default for actions not defined specifically.

    In the example above, no one will be allowed to DELETE. A better way to achieve what we aimed for above, could be:

    {
      id: 'access2',
      role: 'admin',
      actions: {
        GET: {allow: 'auth'}
      }
    }

    In this example, all actions are allowed for admins, but anyone else that is authenticated may GET.

    Available rule props:

    • role - Authorize only idents with this role. May be an array of strings (array is not implemented).
    • ident - Authorize only idents with this precise id. May be an array (array is not implemented).
    • roleFromField - Specify the field name (attribute or relationship) on the schema, that will hold the role value. When authorizing a data item with an ident, the field value on the item must match a role on the ident.
    • identFromField - The same as roleFromField, but for an ident id.
    • allow - Set to all, auth, or none, to give access to everybody, only the authenticated, or no one at all. This is also available in short form – use this string instead of a access rule object.

    Another example, intended for authorizing only the ident matching an account:

    {
      id: 'accountAccess',
      identFromField: 'id'
    }

    When used with e.g. an account schema, given that the id of the account is used as ident id, only an ident with the same id as the account, will have access to it.

    Persisting idents

    A security scheme with no way of storing the permissions given to each ident, is of little value. (The only case where this would suffice, is when every relevant service provided the same ident id, and authorization where done on the ident id only.)

    Unsurprisingly, Integreat uses schemas and services to store idents. In the definition object passed to integreat(), set the id of the schema to use with idents, on ident.schema.

    In addition, you may define what fields (attributes or relationships) will match the different props on an ident:

    {
      ...,
      ident: {
        type: 'account',
        props: {
          id: 'id',
          roles: 'groups',
          tokens: 'tokens'
        }
      }
    }

    When the prop and the field has the same name, it may be omitted, though it doesn't hurt to specify it anyway – for clarity. The service still have the final word, as any field that is not defined on the schema, will not survive casting.

    Note that in the example above, the id of the data will be used as the ident id. When the id is not suited for this, you will need another field on the schema that may act as the ident id. In cases where you need to transform the id from the data in some way, this must be set up as a separate field and the mapping definition will dictate how to transform it. In most cases, the id will do, though.

    The service specified on the schema, will be where the ident are stored, although that's not a precise way of putting it. The ident is never stored, but a data item of the specified schema is. The point is just that the ident system will get the relevant data item and get the relevant fields from it. In the same way, when storing an ident, a data item of the specified type is updated with props from the ident – and then sent to the service.

    For some setups, this requires certain endpoints to be defined on the service. To match a token with an ident, the service must have an endpoint that matches actions like this:

    {
      type: 'GET',
      payload: {
        type: 'account',
        params: {tokens: 'twitter|23456'}
      }
    }

    In this case, account is the schema mapped to idents, and the tokens property on the ident is mapped to the tokens field on the schema.

    To make Integreat complete idents on actions with the persisted data, set it up with the completeIdent middleware:

    const great = integreat(defs, resources, [integreat.middleware.completeIdent])

    This middleware will intercept any action with meta.ident and replace it with the ident item loaded from the designated schema. If the ident has an id, the ident with this id is loaded, otherwise a withToken is used to load the ident with the specified token. If no ident is found, the original ident is kept.

    Actions

    Actions are serializable objects that are dispatched to Integreat, and may be queued when appropriate. It is a key point that they are serializable, as they allows them to be put in a database persisted queue and be picked up of another Intergreat instance in another process.

    An action looks like this:

    {
      type: <actionType>,
      payload: <payload>,
      meta: <meta properties>
    }
    

    type is one of the action types that comes with Integreat and payload are data for this action.

    The meta object is for properties that does not belong in the payload. You may add your own properties here, but be aware that some properties are already used by Integreat, and more may be added in the future.

    Current meta properties reserved by Integreat:

    • id: Assigning the action an id. Will be picked up when queueing.
    • queue: Signals that an action may be queued. May be true or a timestamp
    • queuedAt: Timestamp for when the action was pushed to the queue
    • schedule: A schedule definition
    • ident: The ident to authorize the action with

    Returned responses from actions

    Retrieving from a service will return an Intgreat response object of the following format:

    {
      status: <statusCode>,
      data: <object>
      error: <string>
    }
    

    The status will be one of the following status codes:

    • ok: Everything is well, data is returned as expected
    • queued: The action has been queued
    • notfound: Tried to access a resource/endpoint that does not exist
    • noaction: The action did nothing
    • timeout: The attempt to perform the action timed out
    • autherror: An authentication request failed
    • noaccess: Authentication is required or the provided auth is not enough
    • badrequest: Request data is not as expected
    • badresponse: Response data is not as expected
    • error: Any other error

    On ok status, the retrieved data will be set on the data property. This will usually be mapped data in Integreat's data format, but essentially, the data format depends on which action it comes from.

    When the status is queued, the id of the queued action may found in response.data.id. This is the id assigned by the queue, but it is expected that queues will use action.meta.id when present.

    In case of any other status than ok or queued, there will be no data, and instead the error property will be set to an error message, usually returned from the adapter.

    data and error will never be set at the same time.

    The same principles applies when an action is sending data or performing an action other than receiving data. On success, the returned status will be ok, and the data property will hold whatever the adapter returns. There is no guaranty on the returned data format in these cases.

    The data format

    Items will be in the following format:

    {
      id: <string>,
      type: <schema>,
      createdAt: <date>,
      updatedAt: <date>,
      attributes: {
        <attrKey>: <value>,
        ...
      },
      relationships: {
        <relKey>: {id: <string>, type: <schema>},
        <relKey: [{id: <string>, type: <schema>, ...],
        ...
      }
    }
    

    id, type, createdAt, and updatedAt are mandatory and created by Integreat even when there are no mappings to these fields. In the future, createdAt and updatedAt may become properties of attributes, but will still be treated in the same way as now.

    Available actions

    GET

    Get items from a service. Returned in the data property is an array of mapped object, in Integreat's data format.

    Example GET action:

    {
      type: 'GET',
      payload: {
        type: 'entry'
      }
    }

    In the example above, the service is inferred from the payload type property. Override this by supplying the id of a service as a service property.

    By providing an id property on payload, the item with the given id and type is fetched, if it exists.

    The endpoint will be picked according to the matching properties, unless an endpoint id is supplied as an endpoint property of payload.

    By default, the returned data will be cast with default values, but set onlyMappedValues: true on the action payload to get only values mapped from the service data.

    GET_UNMAPPED

    Get data from a service without applying the mapping rules. Returned in the data property is an array of normalized objects in the format retrieved from the service. The data is not mapped in any way, and the only thing guarantied, is that this is a JavaScript object.

    This action does not require a type, unlike the GET action, as it won't lookup mappings for any given type. The only reason to include a type in the payload, would be if the endpoint uri requires a type parameter.

    Furthermore, a service property is required, as there is no type to infer from.

    Example GET action:

    {
      type: 'GET_UNMAPPED',
      payload: {
        service: 'store',
        endpoint: 'get'
      }
    }

    The endpoint will be picked according to the matching properties, unless an endpoint id is supplied as an endpoint property of payload.

    GET_META

    Get metadata for a service. Normal endpoint matching is applied, but it's common practice to define an endpoint matching the GET_META action.

    The action returns an object with a data property, which contains the service (the service id) and meta object with the metadata set as properties.

    Example GET_META action:

    {
      type: 'GET_META',
      payload: {
        service: 'entries',
        keys: ['lastSyncedAt', 'status']
      }
    }

    This will return data in the following form:

    {
      status: 'ok',
      data: {
        service: 'entries',
        meta: {
          lastSyncedAt: '2017-08-19T17:40:31.861Z',
          status: 'ready'
        }
      }
    }

    If the action has no keys, all metadata set on the service will be retrieved. The keys property may be an array of keys to retrieve several in one request, or a single key.

    Note that the service must be set up to handle metadata. See Configuring metadata for more.

    SET

    Send data to a service. Returned in the data property is the data that was sent to the service – casted, but not mapped to the service.

    The data to send is provided in the payload data property, and must given as an array of objects in Integreat's data format.

    Example SET action:

    {
      type: 'SET',
      payload: {
        service: 'store',
        data: [
          {id: 'ent1', type: 'entry'},
          {id: 'ent5', type: 'entry'}
        ]
      }
    }

    In the example above, the service is specified in the payload. Specifying a type to infer the service from is also possible, but not recommended, as it may be removed in future versions of Integreat.

    The endpoint will be picked according to the matching properties, unless an endpoint id is supplied as an endpoint property of payload.

    By default, only fields mapped from the action data will be sent to the service, but set onlyMappedValues: false to cast the data going to the service with default values. This will also affect the data coming back from the action.

    SET_META

    Set metadata on a service. Returned in the data property is whatever the adapter returns. Normal endpoint matching is used, but it's common practice to set up an endpoint matching the SET_META action.

    The payload should contain the service to get metadata for (the service id), and a meta object, with all metadata to set as properties.

    Example SET_META action:

    {
      type: 'SET_META',
      payload: {
        service: 'entries',
        meta: {
          lastSyncedAt: Date.now()
        }
      }
    }

    Note that the service must be set up to handle metadata. See Configuring metadata for more.

    DELETE / DEL

    Delete data for several items from a service. Returned in the data property is whatever the adapter returns.

    The data for the items to delete, is provided in the payload data property, and must given as an array of objects in Integreat's data format, but note that the attributes and relationships are not required.

    Example DELETE action:

    {
      type: 'DELETE',
      payload: {
        service: 'store',
        data: [
          {id: 'ent1', type: 'entry'},
          {id: 'ent5', type: 'entry'}
        ]
      }
    }

    In the example above, the service is specified in the payload. Specifying a type to infer the service from is also possible.

    Example DELETE action for one item:

    {
      type: 'DELETE',
      payload: {
        id: 'ent1',
        type: 'entry'
      }
    }

    The endpoint will be picked according to the matching properties, unless an endpoint id is supplied as an endpoint property of payload.

    The method used for the request defaults to POST when data is set, and DELETE for the id and type option, but may be overridden on the endpoint.

    DEL is a shorthand for DELETE.

    REQUEST

    While GET, SET, and DELETE are about sending requests to a service, the REQUEST action supports receiving from a service. The action will map its data from the service, dispatch an action with this data, and map its response to the service.

    A typical use case is a http server that accepts incoming requests. Each request is turned into a REQUEST action, which will be normalized and mapped, according to a matching endpoint on a service, and dispatched. The response from the REQUEST action will come back mapped and serialized, and may be returned in the http response.

    Example REQUEST action:

    {
      type: 'REQUEST',
      payload: {
        service: 'incoming',
        type: 'entry',
        data: '{"key":"ent1","title":"Entry 1"}'
      }
    }

    The service may be set up for outgoing requests as well. It might be a good idea to explicitly match the endpoints for incoming requests to action: 'REQUEST'.

    SYNC

    The SYNC action will retrieve items from one service and set them on another. There are different options for how to retrieve items, ranging from a crude retrieval of all items on every sync, to a more fine grained approach where only items that have been updated since last sync, will be synced.

    The simplest action definition would look like this, where all items would be retrieved from the service and set on the target:

    {
      type: 'SYNC',
      payload: {
        from: <serviceId | params>,
        to: <serviceId | params>,
        type: <itemType>,
        retrieve: 'all'
      }
    }
    

    The action will dispatch a 'GET' action right away, and then immediately dispatch a SET_META action to update the lastSyncedAt date on the service. The actions to update the target is added to the queue.

    To retrieve only new items, change the retrieve property to updated. In this case, the action will get the lastSyncedAt from the from service, and get only newer items, by passing it the updatedAfter param. The action will also filter out older items, in case the service does not support updatedAfter.

    The meta data is set for the service, but if you have different sets of metadata for a service, you may provide the metaKey property to store metadata in different dictionaries within a service.

    If you need to include more params in the actions to get from the from service or set to the to service, you may provide a params object for the from or to props, with the service id set as a service param.

    EXPIRE

    With an endpoint for getting expired items, the EXPIRE action will fetch these and delete them from the service. The endpoint may include param for the current time, either as microseconds since Januar 1, 1970 UTC with param {timestamp} or as the current time in the extended ISO 8601 format (YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.sssZ) with the {isodate} param. To get a time in the future instead, set msFromNow to a positive number of milliseconds to add to the current time, or set msFromNow to a negative number to a time in the past.

    Here's a typical action definition:

    {
      type: 'EXPIRE',
      payload: {
        service: 'store',
        type: 'entry',
        endpoint: 'getExpired',
        msFromNow: 0
      }
    }
    

    This will get and map items of type entry from the getExpired endpoint on the service store, and delete them from the same service. Only an endpoint specified with an id is allowed, as the consequence of delete all items received from the wrong endpoint could be quite severe.

    Example endpoint uri template for getExpired (from a CouchDB service):

    {
      uri: '/_design/fns/_view/expired?include_docs=true{&endkey=timestamp}',
      path: 'rows[].doc'
    }

    Custom actions

    You may write your own action handlers to handle dispatched actions just like the built-in types.

    Action handler signature:

    function (payload, {dispatch, services, schemas, getService}) { ... }

    An action handler may dispatch new actions with the dispatch() method. These will be passed through the middleware chain just like any other action, so it's for instance possible to queue actions from an action handler by setting action.meta.queue = true.

    The services and schemas arguments provide all services and schemas set on objects with their ids as keys.

    Finally, getService() is a convenience method that will return the relevant service object when you provide it with a type. An optional second argument may be set to a service id, in which case the service object with this id will be returned.

    Custom actions are supplied to an Integreat instance on setup, by providing an object with the key set to the action type your handler will be responsible for, and the handler function as the value.

    const actions = {
      `MYACTION`: function (payload, {dispatch}) { ... }
    }
    const great = integreat(defs, {schemas, services, mappings, actions})

    Note that if a custom action handler is added with an action type that is already use by one of Integreat's built-in action handlers, the custom handler will have precedence. So be careful when you choose an action type, if your intention is not to replace an existing action handler.

    Adapters

    Interface:

    • prepareEndpoint(endpointOptions, [serviceOptions])
    • async send(request)
    • async normalize(data, request)
    • async serialize(data, request)

    Available adapters:

    Service authentication

    This definition format is used to authenticate with a service:

    {
      id: <id>,
      authenticator: <authenticator id>,
      options: {
        ...
      }
    }
    

    At runtime, the specified authenticator is used to authenticate requests. The authenticator is given the options payload.

    Pipeline functions

    • Item transform(item)
    • Item filter(item)
    • Attribute transform(value)

    Built in transformers:

    • not - inverts a boolean value going from or to a service
    • hash - converts any string(ish) value to a SHA256 hash in base64 (with the url-unfriendly characters +, /, and = replaced with -, _, and ~)

    Schedule definition

    Note: This will likely be removed in version 0.8.

    {
      schedule: <schedule>,
      action: <action definition>,
    }
    

    The schedule format is directly borrowed from Later (also accepts the basic or composite schedule formats on the schedule property, as well as the text format).

    The following time periods are supported:

    • s: Seconds in a minute (0-59)
    • m: Minutes in an hour (0-59)
    • h: Hours in a day (0-23)
    • t: Time of the day, as seconds since midnight (0-86399)
    • D: Days of the month (1-maximum number of days in the month, 0 to specifies last day of month)
    • d: Days of the week (1-7, starting with Sunday)
    • dc: Days of week count, (1-maximum weeks of the month, 0 specifies last in the month). Use together with d to get first Wednesday every month, etc.
    • dy: Days of year (1 to maximum number of days in the year, 0 specifies last day of year).
    • wm: Weeks of the month (1-maximum number of weeks in the month, 0 for last week of the month.). First week of the month is the week containing the 1st, and weeks start on Sunday.
    • wy: ISO weeks of the year (1-maximum number of ISO weeks in the year, 0 is the last ISO week of the year).
    • M: Months of the year (1-12)
    • Y: Years (1970-2099)

    See Later's documentation on time periods for more.

    Example schedule running an action at 2 am every weekday:

    {
      schedule: {d: [2,3,4,5,6], h: [2]},
      action: {
        type: 'SYNC',
        payload: {
          from: 'src1',
          to: 'src2',
          type: 'entry'
        }
      }
    }

    To run an action every hour, use {m: [0]} or simply 'every hour'.

    Writing middleware

    You may write middleware to intercept dispatched actions. This may be useful for logging, debugging, and features like action replay. Also, Integreat's queue feature is written as a middleware.

    A middleware is a function that accepts a next() function as only argument, and returns an async function that will be called with the action on dispatch. The returned function is expected to call next() with the action, and return the result from the next() function, but is not required to do so. The only requirement is that the functions returns a valid Integreat response object.

    Example implementation of a very simple logger middleware:

    const logger = (next) => async (action) => {
      console.log('Dispatch was called with action', action)
      const response = await next(action)
      console.log('Dispatch completed with response', response)
      return response
    }

    Queue

    Integreat comes with a generic queue interface at integreat.queue, that must be setup with a specific queue implementation, for instance integreat-queue-redis.

    The queue interface is a middleware, that will intercept any dispatched action with action.meta.queue set to true or a timestamp, and direct it to the queue. When the action is later pulled from the queue, it will be dispatched again, but without the action.meta.queue property.

    If a dispatched action has a schedule definition at action.meta.schedule, it will be queued for the next timestamp defined by the schedule.

    To setup Integreat with a queue:

    const queue = integreat.queue(redisQueue(options))
    const great = integreat(defs, resources, [queue.middleware])
    queue.setDispatch(great.dispatch)

    queue.middleware is the middleware, while queue.setDispatch must be called to tell the queue interface where to dispatch actions pulled from the queue.

    Debugging

    Run Integreat with env variable DEBUG=great, to receive debug messages.

    Some sub modules sends debug messages with the great: prefix, so use DEBUG=great,great:* to catch these as well.

    Install

    npm i integreat

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    89

    Version

    0.7.39

    License

    ISC

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    Last publish

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    • kjellmorten