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9.11.0 • Public • Published


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Simplified HTTP requests

Build Status: Linux Coverage Status Downloads Install size

Got is a human-friendly and powerful HTTP request library.

It was created because the popular request package is bloated: Install size

Got is for Node.js. For browsers, we recommend Ky.

This readme reflects the next major version that is currently in development. You probably want the v9 readme.


Moving from Request?

See how Got compares to other HTTP libraries


$ npm install got


const got = require('got');
(async () => {
    try {
        const response = await got('');
        //=> '<!doctype html> ...'
    } catch (error) {
        //=> 'Internal server error ...'
const fs = require('fs');
const got = require('got');'').pipe(fs.createWriteStream('index.html'));
// For POST, PUT, and PATCH methods `` returns a `stream.Writable`


It's a GET request by default, but can be changed by using different methods or via options.method.

got([url], [options])

Returns a Promise for a response object or a stream if is set to true.


Type: string | object

The URL to request, as a string, a https.request options object, or a WHATWG URL.

Properties from options will override properties in the parsed url.

If no protocol is specified, it will throw a TypeError.

Note: this can also be an option.


Type: object

Any of the https.request options.


Type: string | object

When specified, url will be prepended by baseUrl.
If you specify an absolute URL, it will skip the baseUrl.

Very useful when used with got.extend() to create niche-specific Got instances.

Can be a string or a WHATWG URL.

Slash at the end of baseUrl and at the beginning of the url argument is optional:

await got('hello', {baseUrl: ''});
//=> ''
await got('/hello', {baseUrl: ''});
//=> ''
await got('/hello', {baseUrl: ''});
//=> ''

Type: object
Default: {}

Request headers.

Existing headers will be overwritten. Headers set to null will be omitted.


Type: boolean
Default: false

Returns a Stream instead of a Promise. This is equivalent to calling, [options]).


Type: string | Buffer | stream.Readable or form-data instance

Note: The body option cannot be used with the json or form option.

Note: If you provide this option, will be read-only.

If present in options and options.method is not set, it will throw a TypeError.

The content-length header will be automatically set if body is a string / Buffer / fs.createReadStream instance / form-data instance, and content-length and transfer-encoding are not manually set in options.headers.


Type: object | Array | number | string | boolean | null (JSON-serializable values)

Note: If you provide this option, will be read-only.

JSON body. If the Content-Type header is not set, it will be set to application/json.


Type: string
Default: text

Note: When using streams, this option is ignored.

Parsing method used to retrieve the body from the response. Can be text, json or buffer. The promise has .json() and .buffer() and .text() functions which set this option automatically.


const {body} = await got(url).json();

Type: string
Default: false

When set to true the promise will return the Response body instead of the Response object.


Type: tough.CookieJar instance

Note: If you provide this option, options.headers.cookie will be overridden.

Cookie support. You don't have to care about parsing or how to store them. Example.


Type: string | null
Default: 'utf8'

Encoding to be used on setEncoding of the response data. If null, the body is returned as a Buffer (binary data).


Type: object | true

Note: If you provide this option, will be read-only.

The form body is converted to query string using (new URLSearchParams(object)).toString().

If set to true and the Content-Type header is not set, it will be set to application/x-www-form-urlencoded.


Type: string | object<string, string | number> | URLSearchParams

Note: The query option was renamed to searchParams in Got v10. The query option name is still functional, but is being deprecated and will be completely removed in Got v11.

Query string that will be added to the request URL. This will override the query string in url.

If you need to pass in an array, you can do it using a URLSearchParams instance:

const got = require('got');
const searchParams = new URLSearchParams([['key', 'a'], ['key', 'b']]);
got('', {searchParams});
//=> 'key=a&key=b'

And if you need a different array format, you could use the query-string package:

const got = require('got');
const queryString = require('query-string');
const searchParams = queryString.stringify({key: ['a', 'b']}, {arrayFormat: 'bracket'});
got('', {searchParams});
//=> 'key[]=a&key[]=b'

Type: number | object

Milliseconds to wait for the server to end the response before aborting the request with got.TimeoutError error (a.k.a. request property). By default, there's no timeout.

This also accepts an object with the following fields to constrain the duration of each phase of the request lifecycle:

  • lookup starts when a socket is assigned and ends when the hostname has been resolved. Does not apply when using a Unix domain socket.
  • connect starts when lookup completes (or when the socket is assigned if lookup does not apply to the request) and ends when the socket is connected.
  • secureConnect starts when connect completes and ends when the handshaking process completes (HTTPS only).
  • socket starts when the socket is connected. See request.setTimeout.
  • response starts when the request has been written to the socket and ends when the response headers are received.
  • send starts when the socket is connected and ends with the request has been written to the socket.
  • request starts when the request is initiated and ends when the response's end event fires.

Type: number | object

  • retries: 2
  • statusCodes: 408 413 429 500 502 503 504
  • maxRetryAfter: undefined

An object representing retries, methods, statusCodes, maxRetryAfter and errorCodes fields for the time until retry, allowed methods, allowed status codes, maximum Retry-After time and allowed error codes.

If maxRetryAfter is set to undefined, it will use options.timeout.
If Retry-After header is greater than maxRetryAfter, it will cancel the request.

Delays between retries counts with function 1000 * Math.pow(2, retry) + Math.random() * 100, where retry is attempt number (starts from 1).

The retries property can be a number or a function with retry and error arguments. The function must return a delay in milliseconds (0 return value cancels retry).

By default, it retries only on the specified methods, status codes, and on these network errors:

  • ETIMEDOUT: One of the timeout limits were reached.
  • ECONNRESET: Connection was forcibly closed by a peer.
  • EADDRINUSE: Could not bind to any free port.
  • ECONNREFUSED: Connection was refused by the server.
  • EPIPE: The remote side of the stream being written has been closed.
  • ENOTFOUND: Couldn't resolve the hostname to an IP address.
  • ENETUNREACH: No internet connection.
  • EAI_AGAIN: DNS lookup timed out.

Type: boolean
Default: true

Defines if redirect responses should be followed automatically.

Note that if a 303 is sent by the server in response to any request type (POST, DELETE, etc.), Got will automatically request the resource pointed to in the location header via GET. This is in accordance with the spec.


Type: boolean
Default: true

Decompress the response automatically. This will set the accept-encoding header to gzip, deflate, br on Node.js 11.7.0+ or gzip, deflate for older Node.js versions, unless you set it yourself.

Brotli (br) support requires Node.js 11.7.0 or later.

If this is disabled, a compressed response is returned as a Buffer. This may be useful if you want to handle decompression yourself or stream the raw compressed data.


Type: object
Default: false

Cache adapter instance for storing cached response data.


Type: object
Default: false

Cache adapter instance for storing cached DNS data.


Type: Function
Default: http.request https.request (Depending on the protocol)

Custom request function. The main purpose of this is to support HTTP2 using a wrapper.


Type: boolean
Default: false

When used in Electron, Got will use instead of the Node.js http module. According to the Electron docs, it should be fully compatible, but it's not entirely. See #443 and #461.


Type: boolean
Default: true

Determines if a got.HTTPError is thrown for error responses (non-2xx status codes).

If this is disabled, requests that encounter an error status code will be resolved with the response instead of throwing. This may be useful if you are checking for resource availability and are expecting error responses.


Same as the agent option for http.request, but with an extra feature:

If you require different agents for different protocols, you can pass a map of agents to the agent option. This is necessary because a request to one protocol might redirect to another. In such a scenario, Got will switch over to the right protocol agent for you.

const got = require('got');
const HttpAgent = require('agentkeepalive');
const {HttpsAgent} = HttpAgent;
got('', {
    agent: {
        http: new HttpAgent(),
        https: new HttpsAgent()

Type: object<string, Function[]>

Hooks allow modifications during the request lifecycle. Hook functions may be async and are run serially.


Type: Function[]
Default: []

Called with plain request options, right before their normalization. This is especially useful in conjunction with got.extend() and got.create() when the input needs custom handling.

See the Request migration guide for an example.

Note: This hook must be synchronous!


Type: Function[]
Default: []

Called with normalized request options. Got will make no further changes to the request before it is sent (except the body serialization). This is especially useful in conjunction with got.extend() and got.create() when you want to create an API client that, for example, uses HMAC-signing.

See the AWS section for an example.


Type: Function[]
Default: []

Called with normalized request options. Got will make no further changes to the request. This is especially useful when you want to avoid dead sites. Example:

const got = require('got');
got('', {
    hooks: {
        beforeRedirect: [
            options => {
                if (options.hostname === 'deadSite') {
                    options.hostname = 'fallbackSite';

Type: Function[]
Default: []

Called with normalized request options, the error and the retry count. Got will make no further changes to the request. This is especially useful when some extra work is required before the next try. Example:

const got = require('got');'', {
    hooks: {
        beforeRetry: [
            (options, error, retryCount) => {
                if (error.statusCode === 413) { // Payload too large
                    options.body = getNewBody();

Type: Function[]
Default: []

Called with response object and a retry function.

Each function should return the response. This is especially useful when you want to refresh an access token. Example:

const got = require('got');
const instance = got.extend({
    hooks: {
        afterResponse: [
            (response, retryWithMergedOptions) => {
                if (response.statusCode === 401) { // Unauthorized
                    const updatedOptions = {
                        headers: {
                            token: getNewToken() // Refresh the access token
                    // Save for further requests
                    instance.defaults.options = got.mergeOptions(instance.defaults.options, updatedOptions);
                    // Make a new retry
                    return retryWithMergedOptions(updatedOptions);
                // No changes otherwise
                return response;
    mutableDefaults: true

Type: Function[]
Default: []

Called with an Error instance. The error is passed to the hook right before it's thrown. This is especially useful when you want to have more detailed errors.

Note: Errors thrown while normalizing input options are thrown directly and not part of this hook.

const got = require('got');
got('', {
    hooks: {
        beforeError: [
            error => {
                const {response} = error;
  if (response && response.body) {
           = 'GitHubError';
                    error.message = `${response.body.message} (${error.statusCode})`;
  return error;


The response object will typically be a Node.js HTTP response stream, however, if returned from the cache it will be a response-like object which behaves in the same way.


Type: object

Note: This is not a http.ClientRequest.

  • options - The Got options that were set on this request.

Type: string | object | Buffer (Depending on options.responseType)

The result of the request.


Type: string

The request URL or the final URL after redirects.


Type: string

The original request URL.


Type: object

The object contains the following properties:

  • start - Time when the request started.
  • socket - Time when a socket was assigned to the request.
  • lookup - Time when the DNS lookup finished.
  • connect - Time when the socket successfully connected.
  • upload - Time when the request finished uploading.
  • response - Time when the request fired the response event.
  • end - Time when the response fired the end event.
  • error - Time when the request fired the error event.
  • phases
    • wait - timings.socket - timings.start
    • dns - timings.lookup - timings.socket
    • tcp - timings.connect - timings.lookup
    • request - timings.upload - timings.connect
    • firstByte - timings.response - timings.upload
    • download - timings.end - timings.response
    • total - timings.end - timings.start or timings.error - timings.start

Note: The time is a number representing the milliseconds elapsed since the UNIX epoch.


Type: boolean

Whether the response was retrieved from the cache.


Type: string[]

The redirect URLs.


Type: number

The number of times the request was retried.


Note: Progress events, redirect events and request/response events can also be used with promises.

Note: To access response.isFromCache you need to use, options).isFromCache. The value will be undefined until the response event., [options])

Sets to true.

Returns a duplex stream with additional events:

.on('request', request)

request event to get the request object of the request.

Tip: You can use request event to abort request:'')
    .on('request', request => setTimeout(() => request.abort(), 50));
.on('response', response)

The response event to get the response object of the final request.

.on('redirect', response, nextOptions)

The redirect event to get the response object of a redirect. The second argument is options for the next request to the redirect location.

.on('uploadProgress', progress)
.on('downloadProgress', progress)

Progress events for uploading (sending a request) and downloading (receiving a response). The progress argument is an object like:

    percent: 0.1,
    transferred: 1024,
    total: 10240

If it's not possible to retrieve the body size (can happen when streaming), total will be null.

(async () => {
    const response = await got('')
        .on('downloadProgress', progress => {
            // Report download progress
        .on('uploadProgress', progress => {
            // Report upload progress
.on('error', error, body, response)

The error event emitted in case of a protocol error (like ENOTFOUND etc.) or status error (4xx or 5xx). The second argument is the body of the server response in case of status error. The third argument is a response object.

got.get(url, [options]), [options])

got.put(url, [options])

got.patch(url, [options])

got.head(url, [options])

got.delete(url, [options])

Sets options.method to the method name and makes a request.



Configure a new got instance with default options. The options are merged with the parent instance's defaults.options using got.mergeOptions. You can access the resolved options with the .defaults property on the instance.

const client = got.extend({
    baseUrl: '',
    headers: {
        'x-unicorn': 'rainbow'
/* HTTP Request =>
 * GET /demo HTTP/1.1
 * Host:
 * x-unicorn: rainbow
(async () => {
    const client = got.extend({
        baseUrl: '',
        headers: {
            'x-foo': 'bar'
    const {headers} = await client.get('/headers').json();
    //=> headers['x-foo'] === 'bar'
    const jsonClient = client.extend({
        responseType: 'json',
        resolveBodyOnly: true,
        headers: {
            'x-baz': 'qux'
    const {headers: headers2} = await jsonClient.get('/headers');
    //=> headers2['x-foo'] === 'bar'
    //=> headers2['x-baz'] === 'qux'

Tip: Need more control over the behavior of Got? Check out the got.create().

got.mergeOptions(parentOptions, newOptions)

Extends parent options. Avoid using object spread as it doesn't work recursively:

const a = {headers: {cat: 'meow', wolf: ['bark', 'wrrr']}};
const b = {headers: {cow: 'moo', wolf: ['auuu']}};
{...a, ...b}            // => {headers: {cow: 'moo', wolf: ['auuu']}}
got.mergeOptions(a, b)  // => {headers: {cat: 'meow', cow: 'moo', wolf: ['auuu']}}

Options are deeply merged to a new object. The value of each key is determined as follows:

  • If the new property is set to undefined, it keeps the old one.
  • If both properties are an instances of URLSearchParams, a new URLSearchParams instance is created. The values are merged using urlSearchParams.append(key, value).
  • If the parent property is an instance of URL and the new value is a string or URL, a new URL instance is created: new URL(new, parent).
  • If the new property is a plain object:
    • If the parent property is a plain object too, both values are merged recursively into a new object.
    • Otherwise, only the new value is deeply cloned.
  • If the new property is an Array, it overwrites the old one with a deep clone of the new property.
  • Otherwise, the new value is assigned to the key.


Type: object

The default Got options.


Each error contains an options property which are the options Got used to create a request - just to make debugging easier.


When a cache method fails, for example, if the database goes down or there's a filesystem error.


When a request fails. Contains a code property with error class code, like ECONNREFUSED.


When reading from response stream fails.


When server response code is 2xx, and parsing body fails. Includes a response property.


When the server response code is not 2xx. Includes a response property.


When the server redirects you more than ten times. Includes a response property.


When given an unsupported protocol.


When the request is aborted with .cancel().


When the request is aborted due to a timeout. Includes an event and timings property.

Aborting the request

The promise returned by Got has a .cancel() method which when called, aborts the request.

(async () => {
    const request = got(url, options);
    // …
    // In another part of the code
    if (something) {
    // …
    try {
        await request;
    } catch (error) {
        if (request.isCanceled) { // Or `error instanceof got.CancelError`
            // Handle cancelation
        // Handle other errors


Got implements RFC 7234 compliant HTTP caching which works out of the box in-memory and is easily pluggable with a wide range of storage adapters. Fresh cache entries are served directly from the cache, and stale cache entries are revalidated with If-None-Match/If-Modified-Since headers. You can read more about the underlying cache behavior in the cacheable-request documentation. For DNS cache, Got uses cacheable-lookup.

You can use the JavaScript Map type as an in-memory cache:

const got = require('got');
const map = new Map();
(async () => {
        let response = await got('', {cache: map});
        //=> false
        response = await got('', {cache: map});
        //=> true

Got uses Keyv internally to support a wide range of storage adapters. For something more scalable you could use an official Keyv storage adapter:

$ npm install @keyv/redis
const got = require('got');
const KeyvRedis = require('@keyv/redis');
const redis = new KeyvRedis('redis://user:pass@localhost:6379');
got('', {cache: redis});

Got supports anything that follows the Map API, so it's easy to write your own storage adapter or use a third-party solution.

For example, the following are all valid storage adapters:

const storageAdapter = new Map();
// Or
const storageAdapter = require('./my-storage-adapter');
// Or
const QuickLRU = require('quick-lru');
const storageAdapter = new QuickLRU({maxSize: 1000});
got('', {cache: storageAdapter});

View the Keyv docs for more information on how to use storage adapters.


You can use the tunnel package with the agent option to work with proxies:

const got = require('got');
const tunnel = require('tunnel');
got('', {
    agent: tunnel.httpOverHttp({
        proxy: {
            host: 'localhost'

Check out global-tunnel if you want to configure proxy support for all HTTP/HTTPS traffic in your app.


You can use the tough-cookie package:

const got = require('got');
const {CookieJar} = require('tough-cookie');
const cookieJar = new CookieJar();
cookieJar.setCookie('foo=bar', '');
got('', {cookieJar});

Form data

You can use the form-data package to create POST request with form data:

const fs = require('fs');
const got = require('got');
const FormData = require('form-data');
const form = new FormData();
form.append('my_file', fs.createReadStream('/foo/bar.jpg'));'', {
    body: form


You can use the oauth-1.0a package to create a signed OAuth request:

const got = require('got');
const crypto  = require('crypto');
const OAuth = require('oauth-1.0a');
const oauth = OAuth({
    consumer: {
        key: process.env.CONSUMER_KEY,
        secret: process.env.CONSUMER_SECRET
    signature_method: 'HMAC-SHA1',
    hash_function: (baseString, key) => crypto.createHmac('sha1', key).update(baseString).digest('base64')
const token = {
    key: process.env.ACCESS_TOKEN,
    secret: process.env.ACCESS_TOKEN_SECRET
const url = '';
got(url, {
    headers: oauth.toHeader(oauth.authorize({url, method: 'GET'}, token)),
    responseType: 'json'

Unix Domain Sockets

Requests can also be sent via unix domain sockets. Use the following URL scheme: PROTOCOL://unix:SOCKET:PATH.

  • PROTOCOL - http or https (optional)
  • SOCKET - Absolute path to a unix domain socket, for example: /var/run/docker.sock
  • PATH - Request path, for example: /v2/keys
// Or without protocol (HTTP by default)


Requests to AWS services need to have their headers signed. This can be accomplished by using the aws4 package. This is an example for querying an "API Gateway" with a signed request.

const got = require('got');
const AWS = require('aws-sdk');
const aws4 = require('aws4');
const chain = new AWS.CredentialProviderChain();
// Create a Got instance to use relative paths and signed requests
const awsClient = got.extend({
    baseUrl: 'https://<api-id>.execute-api.<api-region><stage>/',
    hooks: {
        beforeRequest: [
            async options => {
                const credentials = await chain.resolvePromise();
                aws4.sign(options, credentials);
const response = await awsClient('endpoint/path', {
    // Request-specific options


You can test your requests by using the nock package to mock an endpoint:

const got = require('got');
const nock = require('nock');
    .reply(200, 'Hello world!');
(async () => {
    const response = await got('');
    //=> 'Hello world!'

For real integration testing we recommend using ava with create-test-server. We're using a macro so we don't have to server.listen() and server.close() every test. Take a look at one of our tests:

test('retry function gets iteration count', withServer, async (t, server, got) => {
    let knocks = 0;
    server.get('/', (request, response) => {
        if (knocks++ === 1) {
            response.end('who`s there?');
    await got({
        retry: {
            retries: iteration => {
                return iteration < 2;

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JSON mode

By default, if you pass an object to the body option it will be stringified using JSON.stringify. Example:

const got = require('got');
(async () => {
    const {body} = await'', {
        body: {
            hello: 'world'
        responseType: 'json'
    //=> '{"hello":"world"}'

To receive a JSON body you can either set responseType option to json or use promise.json(). Example:

const got = require('got');
(async () => {
    const {body} = await'', {
        body: {
            hello: 'world'
    //=> {...}

User Agent

It's a good idea to set the 'user-agent' header so the provider can more easily see how their resource is used. By default, it's the URL to this repo. You can omit this header by setting it to null.

const got = require('got');
const pkg = require('./package.json');
got('', {
    headers: {
        'user-agent': `my-package/${pkg.version} (`
got('', {
    headers: {
        'user-agent': null

304 Responses

Bear in mind; if you send an if-modified-since header and receive a 304 Not Modified response, the body will be empty. It's your responsibility to cache and retrieve the body contents.

Custom endpoints

Use got.extend() to make it nicer to work with REST APIs. Especially if you use the baseUrl option.

Note: Not to be confused with got.create(), which has no defaults.

const got = require('got');
const pkg = require('./package.json');
const custom = got.extend({
    baseUrl: '',
    responseType: 'json',
    headers: {
        'user-agent': `my-package/${pkg.version} (`
// Use `custom` exactly how you use `got`
(async () => {
    const list = await custom('/v1/users/list');

Tip: Need to merge some instances into a single one? Check out got.mergeInstances().

Experimental HTTP2 support

Got provides an experimental support for HTTP2 using the http2-wrapper package:

const got = require('got');
const {request} = require('http2-wrapper');
const h2got = got.extend({request});
(async () => {
    const {body} = await h2got('');


got request node-fetch axios superagent
HTTP/2 support ✔️**
Browser support ✔️* ✔️ ✔️
Electron support ✔️
Promise API ✔️ ✔️ ✔️ ✔️ ✔️
Stream API ✔️ ✔️ Node.js only ✔️
Request cancelation ✔️ ✔️ ✔️ ✔️
RFC compliant caching ✔️
Cookies (out-of-box) ✔️ ✔️
Follows redirects ✔️ ✔️ ✔️ ✔️ ✔️
Retries on failure ✔️ ✔️
Progress events ✔️ Browser only ✔️
Handles gzip/deflate ✔️ ✔️ ✔️ ✔️ ✔️
Advanced timeouts ✔️
Timings ✔️ ✔️
Errors with metadata ✔️ ✔️
JSON mode ✔️ ✔️ ✔️ ✔️ ✔️
Custom defaults ✔️ ✔️ ✔️
Composable ✔️ ✔️
Hooks ✔️ ✔️
Issues open
Issues closed
Coverage unknown
Install size

* It's almost API compatible with the browser fetch API.
** Need to switch the protocol manually.
❔ Experimental support.

Install size of the dependencies

Dependency Install size


  • gh-got - Got convenience wrapper to interact with the GitHub API
  • gl-got - Got convenience wrapper to interact with the GitLab API
  • travis-got - Got convenience wrapper to interact with the Travis API
  • graphql-got - Got convenience wrapper to interact with GraphQL
  • GotQL - Got convenience wrapper to interact with GraphQL using JSON-parsed queries instead of strings


Sindre Sorhus Szymon Marczak Alexander Tesfamichael Brandon Smith Luke Childs
Sindre Sorhus Szymon Marczak Alexander Tesfamichael Brandon Smith Luke Childs


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