DefinitelyTyped icon, indicating that this package has TypeScript declarations provided by the separate @types/furigana-markdown-it package

1.0.3 • Public • Published


A markdown-it plugin which adds furigana support.

If you're reading this on npm, try github instead: npm doesn't render <ruby> tags.



Install via npm:

npm install furigana-markdown-it

Use with markdown-it:

const furigana = require("furigana-markdown-it")();
const md = require("markdown-it")().use(furigana);
const html = md.render("[猫]{ねこ}");
// html == <p><ruby>猫<rp>【</rp><rt>ねこ</rt><rp>】</rp></ruby></p>

Provide some options if you need (described below):

const furigana = require("furigana-markdown-it")({
  fallbackParens: "()",
  extraSeparators: "-",
  extraCombinators: "'"

Quick usage


Input Result As image
[漢字]{かんじ} 漢字【かんじ】
Or, if <ruby> is unsupported:
(allowed separator characters: "..。・||//", as well as any kind of space)
Or, if <ruby> is unsupported:
[取り返す]{とりかえす} 取【と】り返【かえ】す
[可愛い犬]{かわいいいぬ} 可愛【かわいい】い犬【ぬ】 (wrong match!)
[可愛い犬]{か・わい・いいぬ} 可【か】愛【わい】い犬【いぬ】
[可愛い犬]{か+わい・いいぬ} 可愛【かわい】い犬【いぬ】
[食べる]{たべる} 食【た】べる
[食べる]{=たべる} 食べる【たべる】
[アクセラレータ]{accelerator} アクセラレータ【accelerator】
[accelerator]{アクセラレータ} accelerator【アクセラレータ】
[あいうえお]{*} (or {*}) あ●い●う●え●お●
[あいうえお]{*❤} (or {*❤}) あ❤い❤う❤え❤お❤

Doesn't work 😞:

  • Formatting: [**漢字**]{かんじ} doesn't make 漢字 bold.
  • Matching katakana with hiragana: [バカな奴]{ばかなやつ} won't recognize that バカ and ばか are the same thing.
  • Matching punctuation (or any other symbols): [「はい」と言った]{「はい」といった} will break on the 「」 brackets.

Not so quick usage

The basic syntax is [kanji]{furigana}, which results in a <ruby> tag, with the kanji part being the main content of the ruby, and the furigana part being the annotation.

In other words, [漢字]{かんじ} turns into 漢字【かんじ】.

The plugin also generates fallback parentheses for contexts where <ruby> tags happen to be unsupported. So a browser that doesn't know about <ruby> tags would display [漢字]{かんじ} as 漢字【かんじ】. The parentheses used can be changed with the fallbackParens option when initializing the plugin.

Annotating each kanji separately would be annoying, so the plugin is also able to handle mixed kanji and kana. For example, [取り返す]{とりかえす} correctly becomes 取【と】り返【かえ】す. In a browser without <ruby> support it would look like 取【と】り返【かえ】す.

When relying on the above functionality, please keep in mind that hiragana and katakana are treated separately. So something like [バカな奴]{ばかなやつ} wouldn't work, and neither would [ばかな奴]{バカなやつ}, because the plugin doesn't consider ばか and バカ to be the same.

In some cases there's no unambiguous way to match furigana to its kanji. Consider [可愛い犬]{かわいいいぬ}. Here the plugin naively assigns かわいい to 可愛, and ぬ to 犬. The desired result, however, is to have かわい assigned to 可愛, and いぬ to 犬.

To resolve such ambiguities it's possible to indicate where the kanji boundaries should be, like this: [可愛い犬]{か・わい・いいぬ}. This is enough to leave us with only one possible configuration: 可【か】愛【わい】い犬【いぬ】.

To indicate kanji boundaries you can use any space character, as well as the following: "..。・||//". To use other characters for this purpose, specify them in the extraSeparators option when initializing the plugin.

Nonetheless, [可愛い犬]{か・わい・いいぬ} leaves us with another problem. We were forced to separately annotate 可 with か, and 愛 with わい. Instead it would be preferable to have 可愛 as a single entity with the furigana かわい. However, the ・ dot between か and わい is required to resolve the ambiguity.

The solution to this problem is to use a + plus instead of a ・ dot, like this: [可愛い犬]{か+わい・いいぬ}. This still indicated that there is a kanji boundary between か and わい, but tells the plugin not to separate 可愛 in the final result: 可愛【かわい】い犬【いぬ】.

Instead of the ASCII plus (+) you can also use a full-width plus (+). If you need any other characters to act as these pluses, specify them in the extraCombinators option when initializing the plugin.

If you feel so inclined, you can also let the plugin match entire sentences: [お前は、もう死んでいる]{おまえはもうしんでいる} produces お前【まえ】は、もう死【し】んでいる. However, don't put any punctuation into the furigana part.

Other than pure Japanese, you should also get reliable results out of:

  • English annotations to kana:
    • [ネコ]{cat} becomes ネコ【cat】.
    • [ねこ]{cat} becomes ねこ【cat】.
  • English annotations to kanji (without kana):
    • [漢字]{kanji} becomes 漢字【kanji】
    • And even [漢字]{kan・ji} becomes 漢【kan】字【ji】
  • Japanese annotations to English:
    • All of [cat]{ねこ}, [cat]{ネコ}, [cat]{猫} work as you'd expect.
  • English annotations to English:
    • [sorry]{not sorry} becomes sorry【not sorry】.

If you want to bypass furigana matching and just stick the annotation on top of the text as-is, add an equals sign after the opening curly brace. For example, [食べる]{=たべる} produces 食べる【たべる】.

The above notation accepts both the ASCII equals sign (=) and the full-width equals sign (=).

Bonus time!

Ever wanted to spice up your Japanese sentences with em●pha●sis● dots●? Worry no more: [あいうえお]{*} will do just that: あ●い●う●え●お●!

And if you don't like the default look, provide a custom character (or several) after the asterisk, like this: [あいうえお]{*+} (result: あ+い+う+え+お+).

Of couse, the full-width asterisk (*) also works.


Options can be provided during initialization of the plugin:

const furigana = require("furigana-markdown-it")({
  fallbackParens: "()",
  extraSeparators: "-",
  extraCombinators: "'"

Supported options:

  • fallbackParens: fallback parentheses to use in contexts where <ruby> tags are unavailable. By default the plugin uses 【】 for fallback, so [漢字]{かんじ} becomes 漢字【かんじ】 on a rare browser without <ruby> support.

    This option takes a string with the opening bracket followed by the closing bracket.

  • extraSeparators: separators are characters that allow you to split furigana between individual kanji (read the usage section). Any kind of space is a separator, as well as these characters: "..。・||//".

    If you want additional characters to act as separators, provide them with this option.

  • extraCombinators: combinators are characters that allow you to indicate a kanji boundary without actually splitting the furigana between these kanji (read the usage section).

    Default combinators are + and +. If you need additional combinator characters, provide them with this option.

Package Sidebar


npm i furigana-markdown-it

Weekly Downloads






Unpacked Size

65.3 kB

Total Files


Last publish


  • iltrof