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A test framework integrated fetch mocking solution written as a native esmodule.

Build and publish npm version License: MIT

fetch-mocked provides a test framework integrated solution for mocking fetch that is also agnostic of any one test framework. The library uses an enriched version of the mock function provided by test frameworks such as jest and vitest to mock fetch so all their assertions and mock utils can be used with fetch-mocked.

The library is tested against both jest and vitest, but will work with any test framework that supports the same/similar API to jest and vitest. In particular, fetch-mocked makes use of the getMockImplementation and mockImplementation methods and mock.calls, mock.results, and mock.lastCall properties.

The library is written as a native esmodule so is compatible with native esmodule projects. While other fetch mocking libraries do provide esm outputs, some of their depencencies still output commonjs, making them incompatible with native esmodule projects.


Install package

npm add fetch-mocked -D

Add setup file

The library provides a setup file to polyfill fetch and the Request, Response and Headers classes using node-fetch.

// jest.config.js
module.exports = {
  setupFilesAfterEnv: ['./node_modules/fetch-mocked/testSetup.mjs'],
// vitest.config.js
export default defineConfig({
  test: {
    setupFiles: ['./node_modules/fetch-mocked/testSetup.mjs'],

Polyfill in test file

If you don't want to or can't use the setup file, you can import the polyfillFetch function and execute that at the top of your test file. It will have the same effect as using the setup file.

import { polyfillFetch } from 'fetch-mocked';


Mock fetch in test

To mock out fetch, just import the mockFetch function and pass in the mock function of your test framework of choice as the first argument. The return value is an enriched version of the mock function.


// <filename>.test.ts
import { jest } from '@jest/globals';
import { mockFetch } from 'fetch-mocked';

let mockedFetch = mockFetch(jest.fn);

describe('fetch-mocked', () => {
  // ...


// <filename>.test.ts
import { mockFetch } from 'fetch-mocked';
import { describe, vi } from 'vitest';

let mockedFetch = mockFetch(vi.fn);

describe('fetch-mocked', () => {
  // ...

mockFetch supports a second options argument used to change the way the module behaves.

  fallbackHandler?: (options: FallbackHanderOptions) => void;
  fallbackToNetwork?: boolean;
  responseType?: 'arraybuffer' | 'blob' | 'formdata' | 'json' | 'text';
  warnOnFallback?: boolean;


Callback to invoke if no matching mock is found, which can be useful for debugging.


Whether to allow requests through to the network if no matching mock is found. The default is false.


The type of the response body. The value you provide for the body needs to be JSON serialisable or tostringable, but based on the responseType the body gets transformed into either an 'arraybuffer', 'blob', 'formdata', 'json', or 'text'. The default is 'json'. This can be overridden on a per mock basis.


Whether to print a warning to the console when a request is allowed through to the network. The default is fakse.

Mock fetch requests

Requests can be mocked using the generic mockRequest and mockRequestOnce utils added to the mock object. These functions take a matcher as the first argument, response options as the second, and mock options as the third. These are all detailed here.

While you can mock any http request method using mockRequest and mockRequestOnce, fetch-mocked provides specific methods to mock DELETE, GET, POST, and PUT requests, which are detailed here.

As you can see from the example below, you can use the built-in mock utils and expect assertions as with any mock object you create with your test framework.

describe('fetch-mocked', () => {
  afterEach(() => {

  describe('mock all requests for a given url', () => {
    let responses: Response[];

    beforeEach(async () => {
      mockedFetch.mockRequest('/alpha', 'Hello world!');
      responses = await Promise.all([fetch('/alpha'), fetch('/alpha'), fetch('/alpha')]);

    it('should have called the mock the correct number of times', () => {

    it('should mock all requests correctly', async () => {
        expect.arrayContaining([expect.any(Response), expect.any(Response), expect.any(Response)])

  describe('mock one request for a given url', () => {
    let responses: (Response | Error)[];

    beforeEach(async () => {
      mockedFetch.mockRequestOnce('/alpha', 'Hello world!');

      try {
        const settled = await Promise.allSettled([

        responses = settled.map(entry => (entry.status === 'fulfilled' ? entry.value : (entry.reason as Error)));
      } catch {
        // no catch

    it('should have called the mock the correct number of times', () => {

    it('should mock all requests correctly', async () => {
      expect(responses).toEqual(expect.arrayContaining([expect.any(Response), expect.any(Error), expect.any(Error)]));



String | RegExp | Function | Object

The matcher is used to compare against an outgoing request to decide whether to mock it.


When the matcher is a string, it can either be:

  • '*' - matches any url
  • '*/rest/of/url' - matches any url that ends with the characters to the right of the wildcard
  • 'http://www.example.com/*' - matches any url that starts with the characters to the left of the wildcard
  • 'http://www.example.com/graphql/api' - matches the exact url
  • '/rest\/of\/url$/' - transformed into a regex and matches any url that satisfies the expression
mockedFetch.mockRequest('*', 'Hello world!');


Matches any url that satisfies the regular expression.

mockedFetch.mockRequest(/rest\/of\/url$/, 'Hello world!');


The function receives RequestInfo | URL as the first argument and RequestInit as the second argument and must return a boolean. If the function returns true then the request is mocked, if it returns false it is not.

mockedFetch.mockRequest((_url, { headers }) => !!headers.authorization, 'Hello world!');


  body?: Jsonifiable | RegExp | (value: unknown) => boolean;
  headers?: Record<string, RegExp | string | (value: unknown) => boolean>;
  method?: string;
  url?: RegExp | string | (value: unknown) => boolean;

It matches any request that's corresponding properties satisfy the values declared for the matcher body, headers, method and/or url. For the body and headers, fetch-mocked uses partial matching, meaning the request body and/or headers must have the properties in the matcher and satisfy their values, but can include other properties that will be ignored by the matcher.

For any custom matching, you can pass in a function as the value for any matcher property and it will receive the corresponding value in the request and must return a boolean. If the function returns true then the value is a match, if it returns false it is not.

const matcher = {
  body: {
    query: /^query OperationName.+/
  headers: {
    authorization: '*',
  method: 'post',
  url: '*/graphql/api',

mockedFetch.mockRequest(matcher, 'Hello world!');

Response options

String | Number | Object

The response options are used to determine what to include in a mocked response.


When the value is a string, this is returned in the body of the response. In this case, the status will be 200 and the statusText will be 'OK'.

mockedFetch.mockRequest('*', 'Hello world!');


When the value is a number, this is returned as the status of the response. In this case, the response will not have a body and the statusText will be 'OK' if the status is 200 else it will be ''.

mockedFetch.mockRequest('*', 404);


  body?: Jsonifiable;
  headers?: HeadersInit;
  status?: number;
  statusText?: string;

Whatever values are provided for the body, headers, status, and/or statusText will be returned in the response. The way the body is serialised is based on the responseType mock option. If no values are provided, the status and statusText will default to 200 and 'OK' respectively.

const responseOptions = {
  status: 401,
  statusText: 'Unauthorized',

mockedFetch.mockRequest('*', responseOptions);

Mock options

  delay?: number;
  responseType?: 'arraybuffer' | 'blob' | 'formdata' | 'json' | 'text';
  times?: number;

The mock options are used to change the way a mock behaves.


How long to delay the response in milliseconds.

mockedFetch.mockRequest('*', 'Hello world!', { delay: 500 });


The type of the response body. The value you provide for the body needs to be JSON serialisable or tostringable, but based on the responseType the body gets transformed into either an 'arraybuffer', 'blob', 'formdata', 'json', or 'text'. The default is 'json'.

mockedFetch.mockRequest('*', 'Hello world!', { responseType: 'text' });


The number of times to apply the mock to a matching request. The default is infinity.

mockedFetch.mockRequest('*', 'Hello world!', { times: 3 });

Mock utils

(matcher: Matcher, resOptions?: ResponseOptions, mockOptions?: MockOptions) => MockFetch;

fetch-mocked has single and multi mock utils for DELETE, GET, POST, and PUT requests. All mock utils have pretty much same signature. The only difference between the mockRequest utils and the fetch method specific utils is the method does not need to be passed in as an option.

  mockDelete: ImplicitMethodMockSignature;
  mockDeleteOnce: ImplicitMethodMockSignature;
  mockGet: ImplicitMethodMockSignature;
  mockGetOnce: ImplicitMethodMockSignature;
  mockPost: ImplicitMethodMockSignature;
  mockPostOnce: ImplicitMethodMockSignature;
  mockPut: ImplicitMethodMockSignature;
  mockPutOnce: ImplicitMethodMockSignature;
  mockRequest: MockSignature;
  mockRequestOnce: MockSignature;
  .mockPutOnce('/api/resource', 200)
  .mockGetOnce('/api/resource', { body: { /* ... */ } })
  .mockDeleteOnce('/api/resource', 200)
  .mockGetOnce('/api/resource', 404);


Check out the features, fixes and more that go into each major, minor and patch version.


fetch-mocked is MIT Licensed.

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