Nullifying Precipitation Machine

    ember-command
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    0.3.1 • Public • Published

    Commands for Ember

    Implementation of the Command design pattern from C-Q-S for ember.

    • Commands are a primitives to be passed around
    • Commands are just functions
    • Commands are composable of many functions (but stays a function)
    • Commands can have/be a link (but stays a function)
    • Use commands with (fn) and enjoy partial applications (because it stayed a function)

    What you'll get:

    • A Command class to extend from for your implementation
    • A LinkCommand as syntactic sugar for creating a link (through ember-link)
    • A @command decorator to connect your component with your command
    • A <CommandElement> component as your building block to attach your command to the UI
    • The <CommandElement> will accept a Command, an @action or a (link)
    • The <CommandElement> will render the correct HTML element to take care of accessibility

    Installation

    ember install ember-command

    Documentation

    This section will teach on preparing your UI components, writing commands, attaching them your UI and testing them.

    This documentation is guided by product development and engineering for Super Rentals Inc with CPO Tomster and Frontend Engineer Zoey.

    These passages are optional, you are free to skip - but may feel very much related to your daily work.

    Tomster realized a cohort of customers that are interested in seeing personalized recommendations for rentals and put together a specification for the feature. Super Rentals shall be extended with a recommendation section offering personalized exposé to customers. Customers can request offers and learn more about the object.

    Tomster and Zoey underlined the relevant nouns and verbs in the feature specification to draw the domain terminology from it. The recommendation is the new aggregate and request offer and learn more are the actions upon that.

    Meanwhile the backend developers were busy delievering an endpoint that implements the business logic for these actions. Now Zoey's job is to connect the UI to these endpoints. To dispatch the request, the data service is used.

    Preparing UI Components

    All elements/components that you want to invoke commands must be prepared. Gladly you don't have to deal with the implementation details, this is what the <CommandElement> is for. Your job is to integrate this component into your existing set of components. WAI-ARIA 1.1 for Accessible Rich Internet Applications explicitely mentions button, menuitem and link as the implementationable roles for the abstract super role command (but there also may be more UI elements, that are receivers of commands).

    Let's make an example button component with the help of <CommandElement>:

    {{! components/button/index.hbs }}
    <CommandElement @command={{@push}} ..attributes>
      {{yield}}
    </CommandElement>

    and give it an interface to describe the arguments:

    // components/button/index.d.ts
    import Component from '@glimmer/component';
    import { Command } from 'ember-command/components/command-element';
    
    export interface ButtonArgs {
      /** A command which will be invoked when the button is pushed */
      push: Command;
    }

    which we can use as:

    <Button @push={{this.ourCommand}}>Request an Offer</Button>

    Yes a button is pushed not onClicked (Think about it: Do you push or click a button/switch to turn on the lights in your room?).

    As Zoey is caring about accessibility, she wants commands to be represented as its appropriate element.

    Thanks to the <CommandElement> the rendered element will adjust to either <a> or <button> and will cover all accessbility needs out of the box for you. By handing off that logical part to <CommandElement> you can focus on giving your button component the best styling it deserves ;)

    Writing Commands

    This section focusses on writing commands in various formats.

    Ember Actions as Commands

    Ember recommends to use @action decorator for writing functions that can be invoked from UI elements. ember-command is built to work with these existing mechanismns. Any regular @action function/method also qualifies as command and your existing code continues to work as is:

    import { inject as service } from '@ember/service';
    import Component from '@glimmer/component';
    import DataService from 'super-rentals/services/data';
    
    class RecommendationComponent extends Component {
      @service declare data: DataService;
    
      @action
      requestOffer() {
        // very whimsical things here
      }
    }

    Yet, in this case business logic is coupled to the component. To write clean code, we want to have this separated and let the component be the glue part connecting business logic with UI.

    As of that the simplest example is to extract your business logic into a function:

    import { inject as service } from '@ember/service';
    import Component from '@glimmer/component';
    import DataService from 'super-rentals/services/data';
    import { requestOffer } from 'super-rentals/recommendations';
    
    class RecommendationComponent extends Component {
      @service declare data: DataService;
    
      @action
      requestOffer() {
        requestOffer(this.data);
      }
    }

    Extracting into functions is a good step to write maintainable code by applying separation of concerns. Functions are nice in a way they are isolated and work only with the parameters passed into them (unless the outer scope is accessed or a function is run within a specific object - yes EmberRouter I mean your parameter to map()). As the purpose of a command is to mutate the system, passing in all dependencies can be quite cumbersome.

    As a matter of that functions are great to query the system and request a particular state about something. Commands are there to cause side-effects to the system. Carefully using either one of them leads to proper command and query separation.

    Self-Contained Commands

    Commands interact with the system, they are better contained in classes and their dependencies can be fulfilled through dependency injection. That's what the Command base class is for. Here is how we write our command from above with access to the data layer (an ember service) to fire off a command to the backend:

    import { inject as service } from '@ember/service';
    import { Command } from 'ember-command';
    import DataService from 'super-rentals/services/data';
    
    export default class RequestOfferCommand extends Command {
      @service declare data: DataService;
    
      execute(): void {
        this.data.sendCommand('super-rentals.recommendations.request-offer', {...});
      }
    }

    and we use the component to connect our command with the UI:

    // components/recommendation
    import Component from '@glimmer/component';
    import { command } from 'ember-command';
    import RequestOfferCommand from 'our-module-above';
    
    class RecommendationComponent extends Component {
      @command requestOffer = new RequestOfferCommand();
    }

    We connect the command to our component by using the @command decorator, which attaches the owner to the command and enables dependency injection onto it and wraps the command in a function that, when invoked, will call the execute() method of the command.

    You may realize, this is an implementation of the command design pattern.

    Seeding Commands

    To seed commands, the constructor can be used. We extend our component with an argument and pass it down to the command:

    // components/recommendation
    
    interface RecommendationArgs {
      recommendation: Expose;
    }
    
    class RecommendationComponent extends Component<RecommendationArgs> {
      @command requestOffer = new RequestOfferCommand(this.args.recommendation);
    }

    and expect it from our command:

    import { inject as service } from '@ember/service';
    import { Command } from 'ember-command';
    import DataService from 'super-rentals/services/data';
    
    export default class RequestOfferCommand extends Command {
      @service declare data: DataService;
    
      #recommendation: Expose;
    
      constructor(recommendation: Expose) {
        this.#recommendation = recommendation;
      }
    
      execute(): void {
        this.data.sendCommand('super-rentals.recommendations.request-offer', {
          recommendation: this.#recommendation,
        });
      }
    }

    Now the command can operate on the recommendation aggregate.

    Compound Commands

    Hello Zoey? It's Tomster, our data and analytics team entered a late change to the original feature, they want to add tracking onto the link to measure the impact of that feature. Can you add tracking, too?

    "sure" answers Zoey as she is confident to add this change with surgery precision into the already existing code, keeping the level of achieved separation. For tracking purposes, she knows, there is a tracking service to use.

    We can have compound commands executed when a UI element is invoked, each in its own class. Let's add the tracking command:

    import { inject as service } from '@ember/service';
    import { Command } from 'ember-command';
    import TrackingService from 'super-rentals/services/tracking';
    
    export default class TrackRequestOfferCommand extends Command {
      @service declare tracking: TrackingService;
    
      #recommendation: Expose;
    
      constructor(recommendation: Expose) {
        this.#recommendation = recommendation;
      }
    
      execute(): void {
        this.tracking.track('recommendations.request-offer', {
          recommendation: this.#recommendation,
        });
      }
    }

    And the only change need to make to our existing code to integrate the tracking command:

    // components/recommendation
    import Component from '@glimmer/component';
    import { command } from 'ember-command';
    import RequestOfferCommand from 'our-module-above';
    + import TrackingRequestOfferCommand from 'our-other-module';
    
    interface RecommendationArgs {
      recommendation: Expose;
    }
    
    class RecommendationComponent extends Component<RecommendationArgs> {
    -  @command requestOffer = new RequestOfferCommand(this.args.recommendation);
    +  @command requestOffer = [
    +    new RequestOfferCommand(this.args.recommendation),
    +    new TrackingRequestOfferCommand(this.args.recommendation)
    +  ];
    }

    Link Commands

    Zoey got notice from her coworker, who implemented a details route to which the learn more action should link to.

    Commands can also be links, which the <CommandElement> will render as <a> element. The best solution for creating links is the ember-link addon. Programmatically creating links with ember-link is a bit of a mouthful, like so:

    class RecommendationComponent extends Component {
      @service declare linkManager: LinkManagerService;
    
      get learnMoreLink() {
        return this.linkManager.createUILink({ route: 'recommendation.details' });
      }
    }

    Passing learnMoreLink to @push at our button would work straight ahead. ember-command comes with a more friendly syntax to create links programmatically for commands, which is the LinkCommand and be used as:

    import { command, LinkCommand } from 'ember-command';
    
    class RecommendationComponent extends Component {
      @command leanMoreLink = new LinkCommand({ route: 'recommendation.details' });
    }

    so much more lean :)

    Hey Zoey, it's Tomster again - can you also add tracking to the learn more link?

    Compound commands work with links, too. Constructed as an array, as already used above with multiple commands:

    class RecommendationComponent extends Component {
      @command leanMoreLink = [
        new LinkCommand({ route: 'recommendation.details' }),
        new TrackLearnMoreCommand(this.args.recommendation),
      ];
    }

    Whenever there is a link command present, the <CommandElement> will render as <a>. When there are multiple links present, the first one will be rendered, all successive ones will be dropped.

    Attaching Commands to your UI

    This is straight forward. Let's take our recommendation component, which has a requestOffer and a learnMore action to attach to the UI:

    <Button @push={{this.requestOffer}}>Request offer</Button>
    
    .. and somewhere else ..
    
    <Button @push={{this.learnMore}}>Learn more</Button>

    Of course, requestOffer can be any format mentioned under writing commands section. Also for links, you have a chance to do this in a template-only style:

    <Button @push={{link "recommendation.details"}}>Learn more</Button>

    Just use the flavor you like the most.

    Testing Commands

    As commands are isolated and self-containing a business logic, we can write tests to specifically test for this. Let's test the tracking command using ember-qunit-sinon to stub our service:

    import { setupTest } from 'ember-qunit';
    import { module, test } from 'qunit';
    
    import { prepareCommand } from 'ember-command/test-support';
    import { TestContext } from 'ember-test-helpers';
    
    import sinon from 'sinon';
    
    import TrackingRequestOfferCommand from 'our-module';
    
    module('Integration | Command | TrackingRequestOfferCommand', function (hooks) {
      setupTest(hooks);
    
      test('it tracks', async function (this: TestContext, assert) {
        this.owner.register('service:tracking', TrackingService);
        const trackingService = this.owner.lookup('service:tracking');
    
        const stub = sinon.stub(trackingService, 'track');
        const cmd = prepareCommand(this, new TrackingRequestOfferCommand());
    
        cmd.execute();
    
        assert.ok(stub.calledOnce);
      });
    });

    The prepareCommand is the testing equivalent to the @command decorator to attach the owner and wires up dependency injection.

    Contributing

    See the Contributing guide for details.

    License

    This project is licensed under the MIT License.

    Install

    npm i ember-command

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    Version

    0.3.1

    License

    MIT

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    • gossi