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Simple dependency injection for ES6

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$ npm install cv3-inject


Define default dependencies with Inject:

import { Inject } from 'cv3-inject/Inject';

import { Star   } from './Star';
import { Lights } from './Lights';

export class XmasTree extends Inject(class{}, {
	lights: Lights, star:Star
}) {

Static Dependencies

Keys starting with a capital letter will not be instantiated, and instead, a reference to the class will be passed in.

(Please note this example uses object literal shorthand syntax)

import { Inject } from './Inject';

import { Drink  } from './Drink';
import { Snack  } from './Snack';

export class VendingMachine extends Inject(class{}, {Drink, Snack}) {
		return new this.Drink;

		return new this.Snack;

Overriding Dependencies

You can inject dependencies in-place, before instantiation. This essentially creates a new subclass on the fly. Please be mindful of the parentheses placement.

const redTree = new (Inject(XmasTree, {star: RedStar} ));

The dynamically created class will still register as an instance of the base class:

console.assert(redTree instanceof XmasTree);

Hierarchical Dependencies

const sameTree = new (Inject(XmasTree, {
	star:     RedStar
	, lights: Inject(Lights, {star: undefined})

Explcitily setting an injection to undefined will cause the injector to check the parent injector for the same key, and if not, its parent, and so on.

Top level injections will throw an error if an injection is undefined.

In this example, every new instance of the injected XmasTree will hold a reference to rhe same RedStar at and

Note Child injections can only access parent injections that preceed it in the precedence order in the base definition. In the above example, .star could not be modified to hold a reference to .lights, even if a subclass injection contained a different ordering. Please keep this in mind while designing dependence hierarchies.

Cascading Dependencies

import { Inject as I } from 'cv3-inject/Inject';
// ... more imports

export class VendingMachineTest extends I(Test
	, {vendingMachine:  VendingMachine}

	, ({vendingMachine: VendingMachine}) => ({
		sodaMachine:      I(VendingMachine, {Drink:Soda})
		, waterMachine:   I(VendingMachine, {Drink:BottleOfWater})
		, chipMachine:    I(VendingMachine, {Snack:BagOfChips})
		, pretzelMachine: I(VendingMachine, {Snack:BagOfPretzels})

	, ({pretzelMachine: PretzelMachine}) => ({
		pretzelAndSodaMachine: I(PretzelMachine, {Drink:Soda})


Note that the Inject() function has been aliased to I().

In this example, the normal dependency list specifies a dependency that will resolve to an instance of VendingMachine, available on the .vendingMachine property of the instance. .sodaMachine, .waterMachine and so on will then use VendingMachine as their base class.

This allows us to later inject different VendingMachine subclasses (which may have different behaviors) into the VendingMachineTest.

Multiple dependency cascades can be can be defined to accommodate any level of complextiy. Each one will contribute to, and read from the same pool of dependencies.

Please note the double bubble notation on the arrow function: ({ })=>({ }). This allows us to 1: Destructure our static dependency list into variables, and 2: directly return an object via shorthand, i.e. without an explict return.


cv3-inject © Sean Morris 2019

All code in this package is relased under the Apache 2.0 licence.




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